Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Quercus michauxii


Introductory

SPECIES: Quercus michauxii
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Snyder, S. A. 1992. Quercus michauxii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : QUEMIC SYNONYMS : Qercus prinus L. SCS PLANT CODE : QUMI COMMON NAMES : swamp chestnut oak basket oak cow oak TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for swamp chestnut oak is Quercus michauxii Nutt. (Fagaceae) [9]. There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms. There seems to be some confusion about the use of Q. prinus for chestnut oak, as it is also a synonym for swamp chestnut oak [12]. Swamp chestnut oak hybridizes with white oak (Q. alba) to form Beadle oak (Q. x beadlei Trelease ex Palmer) [12]. For more information on swamp chestnut oak hybrids see Little [35]. LIFE FORM : Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Quercus michauxii
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Swamp chestnut oak occurs from Maryland south along the coast to northern Florida, west through the Gulf Coast States to eastern Texas, and north through eastern Arkansas, western Tennessee, southeastern Missouri, southern Illinois and Indiana, and parts of Kentucky [16]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood FRES18 Maple - beech - birch STATES : AL AR FL GA IL IN KY LA MS MO NC SC TN TX VA BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K089 Blackbelt K100 Oak - hickory forest K101 Elm - ash forest K102 Beech - maple forest K112 Southern mixed forest K113 Southern floodplain forest K114 Pocosin SAF COVER TYPES : 39 Black ash - American elm - red maple 44 Chestnut oak 53 White oak 57 Yellow-poplar 59 Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak 63 Cottonwood 64 Sassafras - persimmon 65 Pin oak - sweet gum 70 Longleaf pine 81 Loblolly pine 82 Loblolly pine - hardwood 88 Willow oak - water oak - diamondleaf oak 89 Live oak 91 Swamp chestnut oak - cherrybark oak 92 Sweetgum - willow oak 93 Sugarberry - American elm - green ash 94 Sycamore - sweetgum - American elm 95 Black willow 96 Overcup oak - water hickory 101 Baldcypress 102 Baldcypress - tupelo 103 Water tupelo - swamp tupelo 104 Sweetbay - swamp tupelo - redbay 108 Red maple SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Swamp chestnut oak is representative of upland climax communities in the Southeastern Coastal Plain. It is also listed in vegetation type classifications of the southern mixed hardwood forests of central Florida [19].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Quercus michauxii
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : Oak species account for one-third of the hardwood sawtimber volume in the United States [33]. Swamp chestnut oak is a heavy, hard wood that machines well but is subject to checking and warping if not dried properly. It is used for flooring, furniture, boxes, crates, barrels, kegs, ships and boats [25]. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Swamp chestnut oak acorns are an important food for a variety of birds and mammals, including white-tailed deer, black bear, red fox, wild turkey, northern bobwhite, waterfowl, and squirrels [1,24]. Acorns are also used as fodder for livestock, including chickens [2]. Tannins in the acorns can poison livestock at high concentrations. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Acorns are low in protein but high in fat and nitrogen-free extract. Percent nutrient values are given below. Source [4]: Source [24]: crude fat 3.3 crude fat 1.8 total protein 4.1 total protein 3.1 carbohydrates 56.1 N-free extract 58.9 phosphorus 0.12 crude fiber 12.9 calcium 0.08 water content 21.3 magnesium 0.06 COVER VALUE : The southeastern forested wetlands ecosystem, of which swamp chestnut oak is a part, borders streams and swamps. Overhanging vegetation provides cover and shade for fish [14]. Swamp chestnut oak also provides cover for birds, mammals, and reptiles, some of which are endangered species in the southern wetland ecosystems [14]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Swamp chestnut oak has been used in restoring degraded bottomland hardwood forests of the Southeast [21]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Although swamp chestnut oak is not endangered, much of its southern forested wetlands habitat is being converted to agricultural land and subdivisions [6]. Some remaining areas are in need of rejuvenation. Clearcutting is considered the most effective way to regenerate and rejuvenate bottomland hardwood sites [11,29]. But because of the wide variety of site conditions in these types, proper clearcutting techniques differ from site to site. Following clearcutting, natural regeneration is recommended [29]. All residual stems should be removed after commercial harvests, either by girdling, shearing, chopping, or applying herbicides. Management techniques for enhancing bottomland hardwood forests near waterfowl wintering habitat include filling reservoir pools during early fall, with drawdown beginning in mid-February [20]. Small clearcuts can be used to release other trees, promoting growth for cover and mast for food. Seven years after a clearcut in a bottomland forest of Alabama, the number of swamp chestnut oaks stems per acre doubled compared to the preharvest stand [11]. Weevils (Curculio spp.) can infect oak acorns during light crop years [22]. Oak species are also susceptible to a variety of insect pests, fungi, cankers, and wilts. Refer to Solomon and others [33] for details on how to recognize and control these diseases and pests. Oaks also experience what is called "oak decline;" this is when a tree dies or suffers from dieback of limbs due to environmental stresses [34].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Quercus michauxii
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Swamp chestnut oak is a native deciduous tree that reaches heights of 60 to 80 feet (20-25 m) and diameters of 2 to 3 feet (0.6-1 m) [30]. Maximum height is 130 feet (40 m), with a diameter of 7 feet (2.2 m). The crown is round, compacted, and narrow. It is distinguished from other oaks by 9 to 14 parallel lateral veins on each side of its leaves. The underside of its leaves are hairy and about 11 inches (28 cm) wide and 6.3 inches (16 cm) long [5]. Its bark is scaly, furrowed, and grey. The swamp chestnut oak fruit is a one-seeded acorn (rarely two seeds) that occurs singly or in clusters [22]. Acorns are about 1 to 1.4 inches (2.5-3.5 cm) long; the top is enclosed by a scaly cap, which can cover as much as one-third of the acorn [5]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte: Mesophanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Sexual: Swamp chestnut oak reproduces by seed, which mature in 1 year [30]. Good seed crops are produced about every 4 to 7 years, but many acorns are infected by insects. Seedlings grow slowly at less than 6 inches (15 cm) per year [32]. Acorns must be collected soon after falling to avoid early germination [22]. Viability can be tested by dumping acorns in water. Those that float are not viable. Storing seeds for more than a few months is not recommended because seeds do not keep well. Cleaned seeds average 85 per pound (76.5/kg). One hundred pounds (90 kg) of fruit can yield 40 to 50 pounds (36-45 kg) of seed [22]. Detailed techniques for planting swamp white oak acorns and seedlings are available [1]. Vegetative: Swamp chestnut oak sprouts from its base [32]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Swamp chestnut oak grows along streamsides, swamp borders, river bottomlands, and ravines up to 1,000 feet (300 m) in elevation [5]. It grows best in moderately well-drained silty clays and loams; it can tolerate saturated or flooded soils for a few days to a few weeks during the growing season [1]. It grows in limestone and phosphatic soils in the Southeastern Coastal Plain of Florida [19]. It is an occasional species in hydric hammocks of central and coastal Florida, which are characterized by somewhat poorly drained sandy and loamy marine soils over limestone [28]. Some overstory associates of swamp chestnut oak include willow oak (Quercus phellos), white oak (Q. alba), cherrybark oak (Q. falcat var. pagodaefolia), yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), beech (Fagus grandifolia), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), river birch (Betula nigra), southern bayberry (Myrica cerifera), loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), and longleaf pine (P. palustris). Understory associates include greenbriar (Smilax spp.), holly (Ilex spp.), wild grape (Vitis spp.), and poison ivy (Toxicodendron spp.) [3,28]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Swamp chestnut oak is shade tolerant [5]. It is a dominant overstory species in frequently flooded, low-elevation flatlands of Big Thicket, Texas [18]. It is an early hardwood invader of southern pine (Pinus spp.) stands where fire has been excluded [13]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Swamp chestnut oak flowers from April through May [5]. Acorns ripen in late summer through the fall; seed crops are produced at about 3- to 5-year intervals [22]. Acorns are disseminated in September and October [1].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Quercus michauxii
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : All oaks sprout from the stem when top-killed by fire. Sprouting vigor decreases as the tree increases in size and age [32]. Seedlings can initially develop an "S"-shaped crook in the shoot at the soil surface. This protects dormant buds from the heat of flames, allowing them to sprout following fire [31]. With repeated fires, stems become calloused and harbor dormant buds within this tissue. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; Postfire yr 1&2 survivor species; on-site surviving root crown

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Quercus michauxii
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Severe fire top-kills swamp chestnut oak [32]. Moderately severe fires may kill seedlings and saplings, but older trees usually survive. Surviving, fire-damaged trees are susceptible disease and insect attack. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : Fire scar wounds left on surviving trees allow the entry of fungi which can cause heartwood decay [26]. Butt swelling and bulging are indications of heartrot. Rot usually starts 4 to 5 years after fire. The scar gets bigger, moving upward along the trunk about 1.5 feet (0.5 m) in 10 years if a quarter of the tree's circumference is damaged [26]. Fire is less damaging during the tree's dormant season because of lowered ambient temperatures and the tree's physiological state [31]. Crooked trees may be killed more easily than straight trees if crooked trees are leaning towards the flames. Also, overstocked stands may suffer more damage from fire due to reduced vigor and size of individuals [31]. Fire does not appear to affect acorn crops; however, dying trees tend to produce a massive crop. Acorns themselves are easily killed because of high moisture content [31]. PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Swamp chestnut oak will eventually seed into areas following fire [8]. Stems can sprout after being top-killed. Sprouts can grow as much as 3 to 6 feet (1-3 m) a year for the first 2 to 3 postfire years [32]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : Swamp chestnut oak increased in a longleaf pine forest of Gulf Coastal Florida 50 years following fire [8]. In a 20-year period, percent frequency of swamp chestnut oak doubled. In a separate study of the same area during the same year, swamp chestnut oak was found to decrease in percent frequency over a 20-year period following an absence of fire for 55 years [13]. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Fire can reduce litter depth so that oak seedlings can become established [31]. Fire can also reduce stocking rates of other species, allowing oak species to increase in basal area. Fire can induce vigorous sprouting from older root stocks, which may be a preferred reproductive technique [31].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Quercus michauxii
REFERENCES : 1. Allen, James A.; Kennedy, Harvey E., Jr. 1989. Bottomland hardwood reforestation in the lower Mississippi Valley. Slidell, LA: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Research Center; Stoneville, MS: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experimental Station. 28 p. [15293] 2. Bainbridge, David A. 1987. The use of acorns for food in California: past, present, future. In: Plumb, Timothy R.; Pillsbury, Norman H., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the symposium on multiple-use management of California's hardwood resources; 1986 November 12-14; San Luis Obispo, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-100. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 453-458. [5395] 3. Beaven, George Francis; Oosting, Henry J. 1939. Pocomoke Swamp: a study of a cypress swamp on the eastern shore of Maryland. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 66: 376-389. [14507] 4. Bonner, F. T.; Vozzo, J. A. 1987. Seed biology and technology of Quercus. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-66. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 21 p. [3248] 5. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764] 6. Ernst, John P.; Brown, Valerie. 1989. Conserving endangered species on southern forested wetlands. In: Hook, Donal D.; Lea, Russ, eds. The forested wetlands of the southern United States: Proceedings of the symposium; 1988 July 12-14; Orlando, FL. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-50. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 135-145. [9232] 7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 8. Feldman, Thomas D. 1987. Fire control and ecological succession in McCarty Woods, Hernando County , Florida. Florida Geographer. 21: 15-19. [8689] 9. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p. (Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny Series; vol. 2). [14935] 10. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 11. Golden, Michael S.; Loewenstein, Edward F. 1991. Regeneration of tree species 7 years after clearcutting in a river bottom in central Alabama. In: Coleman, Sandra S.; Neary, Daniel G., compilers. Proceedings, 6th biennial southern silvicultural research conference: Volume I; 1990 October 30 - November 1; Memphis, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-70. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 76-83. [17464] 12. Hardin, James W. 1975. Hybridization and introgression in Quercus alba. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. 56: 336-363. [10553] 13. Hartnett, David C.; Krofta, Douglas M. 1989. Fifty-five years of post-fire succession in a southern mixed hardwood forest. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 116(2): 107-113. [9153] 14. Ernst, John P.; Brown, Valerie. 1989. Conserving endangered species on southern forested wetlands. In: Hook, Donal D.; Lea, Russ, eds. The forested wetlands of the southern United States: Proceedings of the symposium; 1988 July 12-14; Orlando, FL. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-50. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 135-145. [9232] 15. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 16. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1971. Atlas of the United States trees. Volume 1. Conifers and important hardwoods. Misc. Publ. 1146. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 320 p. [1462] 17. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 18. Marks, P. L.; Harcombe, P. A. 1981. Forest vegetation of the Big Thicket, southeast Texas. Ecological Monographs. 51(3): 287-305. [9672] 19. Monk, Carl D. 1968. Successional and environmental relationships of the forest vegetation of north central Florida. American Midland Naturalist. 79(2): 441-457. [10847] 20. Moorhead, David J.; Hodges, John D.; Reinecke, Kenneth J. 1991. Silvicultural options for waterfowl management in bottomland hardwood stands and greentree reservoirs. In: Coleman, Sandra S.; Neary, Daniel G., compilers. Proceedings, 6th biennial southern silvicultural research conference: Volume 2; 1990 October 30 - November 1; Memphis, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-70. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 710-721. [17507] 21. Newling, Charles J. 1990. Restoration of bottomland hardwood forests in the lower Mississippi Valley. Restoration & Management Notes. 8(1): 23-28. [14611] 22. Olson, David F., Jr. 1974. Quercus L. oak. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 692-703. [7737] 23. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 24. Reid, Vincent H.; Goodrum, Phil D. 1957. The effect of hardwood removal on wildlife. In: Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters meeting; 1957 November 10-13; Syracuse, NY. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters: 141-147. [10477] 25. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1956. Wood...colors and kinds. Agric. Handb. 101. Washington, DC. 36 p. [16294] 26. Toole, E. Richard. 1965. Fire damage to commercial hardwoods in southern bottom lands. In: Proceedings, 4th annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1965 March 18-19; Tallahassee, FL. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 144-151. [8715] 27. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 28. Vince, Susan W.; Humphrey, Stephen R.; Simons, Robert W. 1989. The ecology of hydric hammocks: A community profile. Biological Rep. 85(7.26). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Research and Development. 82 p. [17976] 29. Williams, Thomas M. 1989. Site preparation on forested wetlands of the southeastern Coastal Plain. In: Hook, Donal D.; Lea, Russ, eds. Proceedings of the symposium: The forested wetlands of the Southern United States; 1988 July 12-14; Orlando, FL. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-50. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 67-71. [9230] 30. Preston, Richard J., Jr. 1948. North American trees. Ames, IA: The Iowa State College Press. 371 p. [1913] 31. Rouse, Cary. 1986. Fire effects in northeastern forests: oak. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-105. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 7 p. [3884] 32. Sander, Ivan L.; Rosen, Howard N. 1985. Oak: An American wood. FS-247. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 11 p. [18167] 33. Solomon, J. D.; McCracken, F. I.; Anderson, R. L.; [and others]. 1980. Oak pests: A guide to major insects, diseases, air pollution, and chemican injury. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-11. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 69 p. [18165] 34. Wargo, Philip M.; Houston, David R.; LaMadeleine, Leon A. 1983. Oak decline. Forest Insect and Disease Leaflet 165. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 8 p. [18166] 35. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]


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