Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Quercus falcata, Q. pagoda


Introductory

SPECIES: Quercus falcata, Q. pagoda
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus falcata, Q. pagoda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : QUEFAL QUEPAG SYNONYMS : Quercus falcata Michx. var. falcata Quercus falcata var. pagodifolia Ell. [27] Quercus falcata var. triloba (Michx.) Nutt. Quercus falcata var. leucophylla (Ashe) Palmer & Steyermark Quercus pagodifolia (Ell.) Ashe Quercus rubra var. pagodifolia (Ell.) Ashe SCS PLANT CODE : QUFA QUPA COMMON NAMES : southern red oak cherrybark oak bottomland red oak swamp red oak swamp Spanish oak Elliott oak TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for southern red oak is Quercus falcata Michx. [4,27]. Cherrybark oak was once classified as a variety of southern red oak [4,27]. It is now classified as a distinct species, Quercus pagoda Raf. [60,61]. The leaves of southern red oak are polymorphic [49]. Cherrybark oak is distinguished from southern red oak by leaf shape and vast differences in site preference [11]. Southern red oak and cherry bark oak hybridize with the following species [27]: x Q. ilicifolia (bear oak): Q. X. caesariensis Moldenke x Q. imbricaria (shingle oak): Q. X. anceps Palmer x Q. incana (bluejack oak): Q. X. subintegra Trel. x Q. laevis (turkey oak): Q. X. blufftonensis Trel. x Q. laurifolia (laurel oak): Q. X. beaumontiana Sarg. x Q. nigra (water oak): Q. X. garlandensis Palmer x Q. phellos (willow oak): Q. X. ludoviciana Sarg. x Q. velutina (black oak): Q. X. wildenowiana (Dipple) Zabel, Q. X. pinetorum Moldenke x Q. marilandica LIFE FORM : Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Quercus falcata, Q. pagoda
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Southern red oak is widespread in the southeastern United States from Long Island, New York, south to Florida, west to the Brazos River in eastern Texas and north into eastern Oklahoma, Arkansas, southern Illinois, southern Ohio, and western West Virginia. It occurs only on the coast in the North Atlantic States and primarily on the Piedmont in the South Atlantic States [4]. It is found occasionally on uplands of the Blue Ridge Province from Virginia south to Georgia [59]. Cherrybark oak occurs on the coastal plains from southeastern Virginia to northwestern Florida and west to the 45 inch (114 cm) rainfall line in east Texas [25,49]. Although rare in the lower delta, it grows north in the Mississippi River valley. Unlike the typical variety, cherrybark oak is absent from eastern Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, and West Virginia [25]. In Florida, this variety occurs only on the floodplain of the Apalachicola River in Jackson and Gadsen counties [8]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress STATES : AL AR DE FL GA IL IN KY LA MD MS MO NC NJ NY OH OK PA SC TN TX VA WV BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K084 Cross Timbers K089 Black Belt K100 Oak - hickory forest K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest K113 Southern floodplain forest SAF COVER TYPES : 40 Post oak - blackjack oak 44 Chestnut oak 52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak 70 Longleaf pine 75 Shortleaf pine 76 Shortleaf pine - oak 78 Virginia pine - oak 79 Virginia pine 80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine 81 Loblolly pine 82 Loblolly pine - hardwood 83 Longleaf pine - slash pine 88 Willow oak - water oak - diamondleaf oak 91 Swamp chestnut oak - cherrybark oak 110 Black oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Southern red oak frequently occurs in transitional communities between midslope hardwood forests and upland pine (Pinus spp.) forests [43]. In Florida, southern red oak occurs on the more mesic, fertile upland longleaf pine (P. palustris) savannas in place of bluejack and turkey oaks [33,36]. In Texas, southern red oak may be dominant in the pineywoods and the post oak (Quercus stellata) savanna communities [49]. Cherrybark oak may codominate with pin oak (Q. palustris) in Illinois [50]. The swamp chestnut oak (Q. michauxii)-cherrybark oak forest cover type is located topographically higher and on better drained sites than the willow oak-water oak-laurel oak type [12]. The following published classifications list southern red oak as a dominant or codominant species: Eastern deciduous forest [56] The natural communities of South Carolina [37] Forest vegetation of the Big Thicket, southeast Texas [30] Successional and environmental relationships of the forest vegetation of north-central Florida [33]

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Quercus falcata, Q. pagoda
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : Cherrybark oak produces wood of exceptional quality. The strong and heavy wood is used for furniture, interior finish, veneers, factory lumber, and railroad ties [25,44]. Wood of the southern red oak is also strong and heavy, but tends to be rough, coarse-grained, and have insect and stain damage. It is used mainly for factory lumber and railroad ties and timbers [4,44]. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Southern red oak and cherrybark oak provide cover and nesting sites for birds and mammals. The acorns are an important food source for wildlife including waterfowl, wild turkey, blue jay, red-headed and red-bellied woodpeckers, white-breasted nuthatch, common grackle, raccoon, white-tailed deer, and squirrels [4,25]. Cherrybark oak acorns provide a substantial part (10 percent or more) of the overall wildlife diet in the southeastern United States. The heaviest eaters are the gray squirrel, wild turkey, and blue jay [25]. Acorns of the red oak group are an especially important food source in the winter because those of the white oak group germinate soon after falling and, therefore, are unavailable [48]. PALATABILITY : Among 12 southeastern oak species, southern red oak ranked second in preference to the fox squirrel [40]. Southern red oak is not a preferred browse for cattle [2]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Acorns of both species are high in fat but low in protein. Percent nutrient values are given below: southern red oak [5] cherrybark oak [5] crude fat 17.0 15.8 carbohydrates 23.0 29.5 total protein 5.1 4.0 phosphorus 0.08 0.06 calcium 0.32 0.27 magnesium 0.14 0.06 COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Cherrybark oak is used in the restoration of bottomland hardwood forests on abandoned agricultural fields and harvested pine plantations. Bottomland forests provide excellent wildlife habitat and watershed protection [38]. Acorn collection, storage, and treatment methods are detailed [5]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Southern red oak and cherrybark oak are used for shade trees [4,25]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Both southern red oak and cherrybark are important timber species. The shelterwood silvicultural system is generally recommended for oak regeneration [4,17,31], although clearcutting followed by seeding or planting may be adequate [39]. The shelterwood system provides advance regeneration which is necessary because of the slow initial growth of oak seedlings. If a shelterwood system is used, the overstory should be removed as soon as there is adequate advance regeneration because the release of southern red oak causes profuse epicormic branching [4,17,31]. If clearcutting is used, control of understory competition may be necessary. Cherrybark oak becomes a vigorous competitor after 4 to 5 years. In one study, planting 2-year-old seedlings after disking and clearcutting gave the best regeneration. In addition to setting back woody species competition, disking eliminates the physical support for vines which can shade out seedlings. In the same study, seedlings released by herbicides during the second growing season showed no better growth than unreleased seedlings [39]. New, naturally regenerated bottomland forests tend to contain a smaller cherrybark oak component than did previous stands. One study investigated 50 even-aged stands containing at least 70 percent red oak (primarily cherrybark oak) to determine why these stands had a high component of red oak. The researchers found that at least 78 percent of the stands had been disturbed during stand establishment, either by grazing, agricultural plowing or mowing, or fire. A seedling that is top-killed by disturbance will sprout and may be top-killed and sprout several times. The root system continues to develop and enables the sprout to compete more vigorously than true seedlings. Consequently, stand disturbance prior to or during establishment tends to favor red oak species [2]. Another study [28] showed that mid-story and understory competition control combined with clipping cherrybark seedlings 1 inch (2.5 cm) above the groundline increases the growth and vigor of cherrybark oak advance regeneration. Epicormic branching must be minimized to produce high quality southern red oak timber. The lower bole will remain free of limbs if shaded. Dense even-aged pure stands or mixed stands produce high quality cherrybark oak timber. Researchers have experimented growing cherrybark oak in mixed stands with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), boxelder (Acer negundo), American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). Sweetgum keeps the oak's bole shaded and free of branches, and cherrybark oak will assert dominance over sweetgum in 1 to 2 decades. American sycamore, on the other hand, outcompetes and suppresses cherrybark oak. It may be possible to grow mixed stands if American sycamore is eliminated for 16.4 feet (5 m) around each oak before age 12. American sycamore greater than 32.8 feet (10 m) from an oak may be left in the stand. Boxelders are good trainers for cherrybark oak, but yellow-poplar outcompetes and dominates it [41]. Cherrybark oak quality is also seriously compromised when grown with loblolly pine [6]. Damaging agents: Southern red and cherrybark oaks are very susceptible to insects and disease when wounded, old, or growing on poor sites [4,25,44]. Numerous fungi cause cankers and heart rot. Southern red oak is susceptible to leaf spots caused by Actinopelte dryina and Elsinoe quercus-falcata, and both species suffer from leaf blister caused by Taphrina caerulescens.  Both species are highly susceptible to oak wilt (Ceratocystis fagacearum) which occurs mainly north of the 35th parallel.  Several species of Hypoxylon colonize the trunk sapwood of wilted trees [4,25]. Wood-boring insects, including twolined chestnut borer (Agrilus bilineatus), Columbian timber beetle (Corthylus columbianus), and pecan carpenterworm (Cossula magnifica), attack both species.  Carpenterworm (Prionoxystus robiniae), red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus), oak clearwing borer (Paranthrene simulans), and living beech borer (Goes pulverulentus) have attacked cherrybark oak.  Anisota oakworms (Anisolta senatoria and A. stigma) defoliate both species [4,25]. Acorns are damaged by weevils, such as Curculio spp. and Conotrachelus posticatus, and by filbertworm (Melissopus latiferreanus).  Seedlings are damaged and killed by hickory spiral borer (Agrilus arcuatus var. torguatus) and oak stem borer (Aneflormorpha subpubescens) [4,25]. The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), which has defoliated and killed northeastern oak species, showed 20 percent survival in feeding trials using southern red oak.  This introduced moth has been spreading southward from New England and, if not contained, could become a problem for southern red oak [34]. Hardwood competition in pine plantations is often controlled by herbicide.  Southern red oak is relatively easy to kill with herbicide injection [24].  Garlan 4, Garlon 3A, Roundup, and Arsenal foliar sprays reduce the crown volume, but only Arsenal is adequate at reducing the rootstock [32]. In order to provide habitat and food for wintering waterfowl, bottomland forests composed of cherrybark oak and other semi-flood-tolerant, mast-producing species are often impounded during the winter.  The shallow water is drawn down in the early spring to prevent tree damage. If spring drawdown is delayed or incomplete, cherrybark oak, which is only weakly flood tolerant, may be unable to recover once the site dries out [35].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Quercus falcata, Q. pagoda
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Southern red oak is a medium- to large-sized native deciduous tree with a long, straight trunk and upward-reaching branches that form a high rounded crown. It lives to about 150 years [4]. Cherrybark oak is distinguished from southern red oak by its broadly wedge-shaped instead of rounded leaf bases and by lobes which are rarely falcate and more nearly at right angles to the midrib than southern red oak. Cherrybark oak also tends to have a longer branch-free trunk [11]. It is one of the hardiest and fastest growing red oaks [25]. Cherrybark is the larger of the two species, reaching 100 to 130 feet (30-40 m) in height and 36 to 60 inches (91-152 cm) in d.b.h. Southern red oak is usually 70 to 80 feet (20-25 m) tall and 24 to 36 inches (60-90 cm) in d.b.h., but it can be larger on good sites [4,25]. The taproot of southern red oak dies back and sinker roots from laterals take over the vertical root function [25]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :    Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Sexual:  Southern red and cherrybark oaks are monoecious.  Seed production begins when trees are about 25 years old with maximum production occurring between age 50 and 75.  Good crops occur at 1- to 2-year intervals [4,25]. Dissemination is primarily by squirrels and blue jays which transport and cache acorns.  Abandoned agricultural fields in Mississippi had a high stocking rate of cherrybark oak seedlings because of caching by blue jays.  The blue jays appear to search out cherrybark acorns because of the ease with which the shell is broken and because the acorns are within a desirable size range for transporting [9].  Floodwaters will also transport cherrybark oak acorns.  Gravity is an important dissemination process for southern red oak since it often grows on steep slopes [4,25]. Germination is hypogeal.  Cool, moist stratification is necessary for best germination [4,25].  Cherrybark oak begins germination at the stratification temperature if stratification continues for more than 30 to 45 days.  However, epicotyl emergence does not occur at the stratification temperature.  Both species have a high germinative capacity [42]. Seedlings grow well in full light [4,25,44].  Cherrybark oak seedlings seem unaffected by root competition from overstory trees [22].  Complete inundation of first-year cherrybark seedlings for 3 to 4 days in June resulted in substantial mortality (only 12.8 percent survived compared to 89.7 percent of unflooded seedlings).  In the same study, seedlings survived 3 months of continuous soil saturation during the growing season without statistically significant growth reductions [22]. However, in a study conducted by Hosner and Boyce [18], 15-, 30-, and 60-day periods of complete soil saturation resulted in 11.1, 46.7, and 86.7 percent mortality respectively for cherrybark oak seedlings that averaged 11 inches (27.9 cm) in height.  Mortality occurred because roots died, and no new roots were formed. Cherrybark seedlings do not grow well beneath a cherrybark canopy in part because salicylic acid, a phytotoxin, leaches from its leaves [15,25,49]. Vegetative:  Both species sprout from the root crown if top-killed. Sprouting is most prevalent in young trees 10 inches (25.4 cm) or less in diameter [4].  A sprout from a top-killed seedling grows faster than a true seedling [2,28]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Southern red oak occurs on dry, upland sites to about 2,000 feet (610 m) in elevation.  It is often found on south- and west-facing slopes or on dry ridgetops.  It grows on sandy, loamy, or clay soils, most commonly on Ultisols and Alfisols [4].  Southern red oak does well on calcareous soils, and in Florida it often grows in shallow sandy soils overlying limestone deposits [33]. Cherrybark oak occurs along large and small streams of the coastal plains and the Mississippi Valley [25].  It occurs on better drained portions of floodplains, on bottomlands, and on their margins to about 820 feet (250 m) in elevation [11].  Cherrybark oak also grows on well-drained hammocks within wet flats.  It is sometimes found on mesic sites on the rolling hills of the lower Piedmont and on coastal plain uplands.  It grows primarily on Alfisols and Inceptisols [25]. Cherrybark oak is weakly tolerant of flooding [1].  It grows best under a regime of winter and spring flooding; soil saturation in the winter only; and a water table depth of 2 to 6 feet (0.6-1.8 m) during the growing season.  A water table depth of less than 1 foot (<0.3 m) or more than 10 feet (>3 m) is unsuitable during the growing season, as is continous flooding [3].  Sites that meet these conditions are often the highest and best drained locations in active floodplains including loamy sites of first bottoms, well-drained terraces and colluvial sites, and second bottoms. In addition to those species mentioned in Distribution and Occurrence, common overstory associates of southern red oak include scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea), sweetgum, blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), hickory (Carya spp.), and pitch pine (Pinus rigida) [4]. Common overstory associates of cherrybark oak include shagbark hickory (Carya ovata), shellbark hickory (C. laciniosa), mockernut hickory (C. tomentosa), bitternut hickory (C. cordiformis), and white ash (Fraxinus americana).  Less frequent associates include sweetgum, blackgum, shingle oak, willow oak, water oak, Delta post oak (Q. stellata var. paludosa), Shumard oak (Q. shumardii), water hickory (Carya aquatica), nutmeg hickory (C. myristiciformis), spruce pine (Pinus glabra), American elm (Ulmus americana), winged elm (U. alata), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), and yellow-poplar [25]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Southern red oak is mid-tolerant to intolerant of shade [4].  It is common in transitional pine-hardwood and early hardwood communities.  In the absence of fire, southern red oak replaces pine on drier upland sites [45].  It is occasionally encountered as a codominant in climax or near climax southern mixed hardwood communities [45] and oak-hickory climax forests [20]. While often classified as intolerant of shade [25], cherrybark oak is more tolerant than some associates as a seedling, and it grows only moderately faster in high light than in low light [21].  However, it cannot live under complete shade and is usually present only as a dominant or codominant [25].  Cherrybark oak usually occurs as a single tree rather than in groves.  Presumably, this is because of its allelopathic effect on understory seedlings [49]. The swamp chestnut oak-cherrybark oak forest cover type succeeds the American sycamore-sweetgum-American elm type on first bottom ridges of terraces and may be climax on older alluvium [12]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Southern red oak flowers in April and May throughout most of its range.  Cherrybark oak flowers from February to May depending on latitude.  Acorns ripen in September and October of the second season after flowering, drop in the fall, and germinate in the spring [4,25].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Quercus falcata, Q. pagoda
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Southern red oak is susceptible to fire because of its thin bark [4]. This species is more susceptible to fire than turkey oak and bluejack oak, about as susceptible as post oak, and less susceptible than water oak [6]. While the habitat of southern red oak is often visited by fire, the moist habitat of cherrybark oak discourages fire entry. Species such as southern red oak, which sprout after fire, may become dominant in transition zones between pine and hardwood forests. Fires occurring every decade in Alabama clay hills have resulted in pine-oak forests containing longleaf pine, shortleaf pine (P. echinata), white oak, pignut hickory (Carya glabra), and southern red oak [43]. Upland oak stands may depend upon recurring fire for continued existence. Without fire, more shade-tolerant species will eventually outcompete southern red oak [55]. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/root sucker Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Quercus falcata, Q. pagoda
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : In general, southern red and cherrybark oaks up to 3 inches (7.6 cm) in d.b.h. are top-killed by low-severity fire [7]. High-severity fire can top-kill larger trees and may kill rootstocks as well. Fires during the growing season tend to be more detrimental to southern red oak than winter fires. In Texas, a winter headfire top-killed 20 percent of a southern red oak and post oak understory; a late winter fire top-killed just over 40 percent; a spring fire top-killed just under 40 percent; and a late summer fire top-killed 55 percent. Winter fires killed on average less than 2 percent of rootstocks; summer fires killed on average less than 10 percent. The top-kill was substantially greater for oaks between 0.6 and 2.5 inches (1.5-6.4 cm) in diameter than those between 2.6 and 4.5 inches (6.5-11.4 cm) in diameter. Diameter was measured 6 inches (15.2 cm) above the groundline [13]. A spring fire in Alabama resulted in 51 percent crown reduction of southern red oak understory which averaged 1.8 inches (4.6 cm) in diameter 6 inches (15.2 cm) above the groundline [6]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : If top-killed by fire, southern red and cheerybark oaks sprout from the root crown. In Tennessee, southern red oak sprouts averaged 1.3 feet (0.4 m) 1 growing season after a series of 8 annual winter fires [51]. In another study, at the end of 2 postfire growing seasons, dominant sprouts averaged 2.2 feet (0.7 m) in height and 0.26 inch (0.66 cm) in diameter 6 inches (15 cm) above the ground [13]. Because of sprouting, fire tends to increase the number of southern red oak and cheerybark stems. The eight annual winter fires in Tennessee resulted in 3,420 southern red oak stems per acre (8,444/ha) compared to 1,510 stems per acre (3,728/ha) in the unburned control [51]. If high fire frequency continues, however, the stem density will decrease as root systems are killed. Southern red oak stem density increased, then decreased, in abundance after 27 annual late winter fires on an upland site in Tennessee [10]. In a study on the Santee Experimental Forest in South Carolina, 43 years of periodic winter and summer low-severity fires and annual winter and summer low-severity fires reduced the number of hardwood stems (including southern red oak) between 1 and 5 inches (2.6-12.5 cm) in d.b.h. However, the number of stems less than 1 inch (2.5 cm) in d.b.h. increased slightly under all treatments except annual summer fires. Root systems were weakened and eventually killed by annual burning during the growing season [57]. Fire wounds on surviving trees allow entry of fungi which can cause heartrot decay. Within 1 to 2 years postfire, wounded areas are invaded by fungi. The rot takes an average of 4 years to reach the heartwood [52]. Average rate of spread of established rot in cherrybark oak is 1.25 feet (0.4 m) per decade [53]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Hardwoods growing within a pine forest are often controlled with prescribed fire. Southern red oak up to 3 inches (7.6 cm) in d.b.h. is usually top-killed and sprouts kept small and controllable with winter fires. Summer fires are also effective but are more detrimental to the wildlife food supply and pine species [7]. If southern red oak is being grown commercially, protection from fire is highly desirable once the stand is established. One fire per decade makes it impossible to manage hardwoods profitably because fire wounded trees are so susceptible to rot [52]. Prescribed fire may promote advance regeneration of southern red and cherrybark oaks. Because oak seedlings are less susceptible to root kill by fire than competitors and because sprouts grow faster than seedlings, low-severity fire can be used to promote advance oak regeneration. In fact, the decrease in natural oak regeneration may be a direct result of fire exclusion. The exact combination of season and frequency of prescribed burning for the purpose of advance regeneration has not been determined. Repeat low-severity fires seem to have more effect on advance regeneration than single fires [55]. In a study in Alabama, upland oaks did not increase in relative dominance after a single spring fire in a 4- to 6-year-old mixed hardwood stand [19]. An equation has been developed to predict the total aboveground fuel dry-weight of southern red oak. A manager would need to know the average stem basal diameter and the number of stems per hectare to predict dry material per hectare [47].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Quercus falcata, Q. pagoda
REFERENCES : 1. Allen, James A.; Kennedy, Harvey E., Jr. 1989. Bottomland hardwood reforestation in the lower Mississippi Valley. Slidell, LA: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Research Center; Stoneville, MS: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experimental Station. 28 p. [15293] 2. Aust, W. Michael; Hodges, John D.; Johnson, Robert L. 1985. The origin, growth and development of natural, pure, even-aged stands of bottomland oak. In: Shoulders, Eugene, ed. Proceedings of the third biennial Southern silvicultural research conference; 1984 November 7-8; Atlanta, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-54. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 163-170. [7388] 3. Baker, James B.; Broadfoot, W. M. 1977. A practical field method of site evaluation for eight important southern hardwoods. Res. Pap. SO-14. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 31 p. [6283] 4. Belanger, Roger P. 1990. Quercus falcata Michx. var. falcata southern red oak (typical). In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., tech. coords. Silvics of North America. Vol. 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 640-644. [18967] 5. Bonner, F. T.; Vozzo, J. A. 1987. Seed biology and technology of Quercus. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-66. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 21 p. [3248] 6. Clatterbuck, Wayne K. 1989. Even-aged mixtures of cherrybark oak and loblolly pine in southwestern Arkansas. In: Waldrop, Thomas A., ed. Proceedings of pine-hardwood mixtures: a symposium on management and ecology of the type; 1989 April 18-19; Atlanta, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-58. Asheville, SC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 123-127. [10268] 7. Harlow, Richard F.; Bielling, Paul. 1961. Controlled burning studies in longleaf pine-turkey oak association on the Ocala National Forest. Proceeding, Annual Conference of Southeastern Association of Game and Fish. 15: 9-24. [9905] 8. Clewell, Andre F. 1985. Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press. 605 p. [13124] 9. Deen, Robert T.; Hodges, John D. 1991. Oak regeneration in abandoned fields: presumed role of the blue jay. In: Coleman, Sandra S.; Neary, Daniel G., compilers. Proceedings, 6th biennial southern silvicultural research conference: Vol. 1; 1990 October 30 - November 1; Memphis, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-70. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 84-93. [17465] 10. DeSelm, Hal R.; Clebsch, Edward E. C.; Rennie, John C. 1991. Effects of 27 years of prescribed fire on an oak forest and its soils in middle Tennessee. In: Coleman, Sandra S.; Neary, Daniel G., compiler. Proceedings, 6th biennial southern silvicultural research conference: Vol. 1; 1990 October 30 - November 1; Memphis, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-70. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 409-417. [17488] 11. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764] 12. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 13. Ferguson, E. R. 1961. Effects of prescribed fires on understory stems in pine-hardwood stand of Texas. Journal of Forestry. 59: 356-359. [10182] 14. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p. 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