Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Quercus emoryi

Introductory

SPECIES: Quercus emoryi
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Pavek, Diane S. 1994. Quercus emoryi. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].
ABBREVIATION : QUEEMO SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : QUEM COMMON NAMES : Emory oak blackjack oak bellota TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of Emory oak is Quercus emoryi Torr. It is a member of the oak family (Fagaceae) [23,57]. No infrataxa are recognized. Where distributions overlap in Texas, Emory oak hybridizes with graceful oak (Q. graciliformis) to form Tharp oak (Q. x tharpii C. H. Mull.) and Graves oak (Q. gravesii) to form robust oak (Q. x robusta C. H. Mull.) [23,96,105,121]. LIFE FORM : Tree, Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Quercus emoryi
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : The range of Emory oak extends from central Arizona eastward through southern New Mexico into western Texas [23,57,64,96,104].  Its range continues southward through northern Mexico from Chihuahua west to Sonora and south to Durango [35,48,96,103]. ECOSYSTEMS :    FRES20  Douglas-fir    FRES21  Ponderosa pine    FRES28  Western hardwoods    FRES35  Pinyon - juniper STATES :      AZ  NM  TX  MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :     7  Lower Basin and Range    12  Colorado Plateau    13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :    K018  Pine - Douglas-fir forest    K019  Arizona pine forest    K023  Juniper - pinyon woodland    K031  Oak - juniper woodlands SAF COVER TYPES :    210  Interior Douglas-fir    235  Cottonwood - willow    237  Interior ponderosa pine    239  Pinyon - juniper    240  Arizona cypress    241  Western live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Emory oak occurs in many communities along diverse elevational and moisture gradients from pine-oak (Pinus spp.-Quercus spp.), Madrean evergreen, and open oak woodlands to interior chaparral, semidesert grasslands, and savannas [15,32,67,78,123]. Emory oak is a codominant or subdominant species in all community types of the pine-oak woodlands of higher elevations [8,27,85].  It is an indicator species in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), Apache pine (P. engelmannii), and Chihuahua pine (P. leiophylla var. chihuahuana) habitat types and border pinyon (P. discolor) community types [1,76,82,116]. In pinyon-juniper (Pinus spp.-Juniperus spp.) woodlands, Emory oak is a codominant or an indicator species [17,47,51,74,80].  It is an important understory species in pinyon-juniper stands [94]. Emory oak is dominant or codominant with Arizona white oak (Q. arizonica), Mexican blue oak (Q. oblongifolia), and juniper in Madrean evergreen and open oak woodland series [6,16,42,79,85,98].  Emory oak is the most characteristic tree of encinal or oak woodlands in the border region of Mexico and the United States [57,64,66].  In the Chihuahuan Desert, Emory oak is codominant with gray oak (Q. grisea), Graves oak, and Mexican pinyon (Pinus cembroides) [24,46,116]. Emory oak is occasionally present in the interior chaparral as a subdominant shrub or as one of the taller evergreen oaks.  These interior chaparral communities occur discontinuously and extend into the wetter Madrean evergreen woodland [40,58,59,91,124]. Emory oak, gray oak, and Chisos oak (Q. chisoensis) form savannas at the periphery of grama (Bouteloua spp.)-bluestem (Andropogon spp.) associations [30,32].  Emory oak is a minor species in open savannas of velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina)-turpentine bush (Ericameria laricifolia)-burroweed (Isocoma tenuisecta) associations [122]. Emory oak is known as an upland species but also occurs in riparian associations.  It is a codominant to infrequent tree in Arizona sycamore (Platanus wrightii) and Arizona walnut (Juglans major) community types [61,65,112,115].  Emory oak occurs in mixed broadleaf community and vegetation types with Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica) [98]. Some of the publications in which Emory oak is listed as a dominant or indicator species are: (1)  Classification of the forest vegetation on the National Forests of        Arizona and New Mexico [1] (2)  Forest and woodland habitat types (plant associations) of Arizona        south of the Mogollon Rim and southwestern New Mexico [6] (3)  Forest habitat types south of the Mogollon Rim, Arizona and New        Mexico [31] (4)  Classification of mixed broadleaf riparian forest in Tonto        National Forest [61] (5)  A forest habitat type classification of southern Arizona and its        relationship to forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico [82] (6)  Plant communities of Texas (Series level): February 1992 [116]. Succulent species associated with Emory oak but not previously mentioned in Distribution and Occurrence include Echinocereus ledingii, Mammillaria viridiflora, and Opuntia spinosior [56].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Quercus emoryi
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : Emory oak is managed and used for fuel and infrequently for furniture [35,52,87,117].  The wood is close-grained, heavy, strong, and brittle [64,121].  It has a specific gravity of 0.56 to 0.96 [52,68,121].  Emory oak is refractory with a tendency to degrade due to surface check, end split, and honeycomb. [52]. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Emory oak acorns are valuable food for cattle, mule and white-tailed deer, wild turkey, band-tailed pigeon, other birds, and small mammals [35,53,54,96,101].  Collared peccary infrequently consume Emory oak acorns from July through September [34].  Emory oak is used extensively by neomigratory birds for foraging during the breeding season [11]. Diverse amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals have been recorded in the woodland communities where Emory oak occurs [113]. Pronghorn, white-tailed deer, and mule deer browse Emory oak [17,35,96,106]. Reports of Emory oak usage vary.  Humphrey [53] stated that Emory oak has forage value only when young, and then it is only slightly browsed. Emory oak was ranked as the most important food item in rumen analyses of 20 white-tailed deer in Arizona in 1983.  It ranked third in abundance in white-tailed deer fecal analyses from 1987 to 1989 [106]. However, during late winter in south-central Arizona, Emory oak made up an average of only 1 percent of the food volume in white-tailed deer stomachs [73].  In another study, pellet analyses from both white-tailed and mule deer showed that Emory oak leaves were a minor food item [106,119]. Emory oak is one of the major tree species in oak and oak-pine habitats used by the acorn woodpecker.  The acorn woodpecker uses telephone poles erected in these habitats for nesting sites; few cavity sites are available to the birds due to the limited availability of snags and the hardness of the wood in trees present [88]. PALATABILITY : Emory oak is highly palatable yearlong to white-tailed and mule deer [120].  In spring, Emory oak has fair palatability for pronghorn and poor palatability for cattle and sheep [17]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : From July to September, seasonal estimates of white-tailed deer nutrient intake from Emory oak acorns consisted of 54 percent protein and 52.2 percent acid detergent fiber, having 27 percent in vitro digestibility [119].  In a study 15 years prior to this, Emory oak acorns had "intermediate" protein content and low phosphorus [108]. COVER VALUE : Emory oak is a member of oak-chaparral and pinyon-oak-juniper associations.  These associations provide cover for black bear, white-tailed deer, antelope squirrel, mice, gray fox, and raccoon [30,81]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : Raw Emory oak acorns are sweet, edible, and gathered for commercial markets [4,54,105].  Emory oak acorns were used for flour and meal by native Americans [84,96]. Emory oak is one of the most important sources of firewood in Arizona [64]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Emory oak stands have been managed under pinyon-juniper silvicultural systems [51].  On a fuelwood management area in the Huachuca Mountains of Arizona, three areas in oak woodland were cut at different times and intensities to assess harvest effects.  Emory oak was codominant with Arizona white oak.  Harvests of 50 and 80 percent occurred 7, 15, and 20 years prior to assessment.  Structural changes to the overstory, such as shrublike trees that originated from prolific stump sprouting, persisted after 20 years [102]. Emory oak is harvested for fuel with alligator juniper (Juniperus deppeana) from the oak woodlands on the Coronado National Forest in Arizona.  Restrictions to ensure sustained yield are discussed in the literature [7].  Coppice thinning for Emory oak in Emory oak/sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) habitat types is recommended 5 years after harvest.  Growth and yield of sprouts depend on number and age of sprouts after thinning.  Time to harvest depends on diameter of root collar.  Approximately 20 to 30 years after thinning, root collar diameters of 6 to 8 inches (15.2-20.3 cm) are possible [117]. Equations for volume, biomass, net primary productivity, and mortality of the oak woodlands to which Emory oak belongs are discussed in the literature [21,22,38,43,44].  Emory oak stands with different management histories, harvests, and merchantable volumes are also discussed [38]. Equations are available to predict Emory oak regeneration following cutting [77]. In a ponderosa pine forest on Big Bug Mesa, Arizona, two burned and two unburned plots were treated at three levels (clearcut, partial cut, and uncut) and seeded with grass.  Emory oak occurred on unburned partially-cut and uncut sites at 6.5 trees per acre (16 trees/ha) and 9.7 trees per acre (24 trees/ha), respectively [10]. Emory oak and the other codominant oaks usually do not comprise more than 10 to 20 percent canopy cover in open oak woodlands.  However, where it is the dominant species, Emory oak can comprise 50 percent of the canopy cover [14].  In pygmy conifer (Pinus spp.)-oak scrub, shrubby Emory oak, other oaks, and manzanita (Arctostaphylos spp.) make up 60 to 70 percent of the canopy cover [85]. In the Dos Cabezas Mountains of southeastern Arizona, the mixed oak woodland-interior chaparral community is heavily browsed by white-tailed and mule deer.  Emory oak is dominant but has a skewed age distribution. Emory oak is not recruiting; seedlings have not survived.  Of the standing Emory oak, 83 percent were greater than 7.9 feet (2.4 m) tall; 17 percent were dead.  Anthony and Smith [2] attributed this lack of recruitment to poor reproduction by over-mature trees or gradual climate change to hotter and drier conditions. Cattle graze on most encinal woodlands where Emory oak is an important component [71].  Emory oak grows in pinyon-juniper woodlands and interior chaparral stands that have been converted to grassland through fire, mechanical, and chemical methods to increase forage production [3,18,26,29,47,49,89].  Currently, such single-use management of these habitats is declining [51].  Several projects converted interior chaparral into grassland and riparian habitat on the Three Bar Game Management Area on the Tonto National Forest in central Arizona since grazing stopped in 1947.  In June 1959, a wildfire killed all shrubs, and herbicide applications prevented them from reestablishing.  One hundred Emory oak trees had established in the riparian study area 21 years later [111]. Young Emory oak leaves have higher concentrations of tannin and phenolic compounds than older leaves [70].  A flash flood flushed double the normal load (0.15 pounds per square foot [750g/sq m]) of Emory oak litter into Pena Blanca Lake, Arizona.  The elevated levels of soluble tannins and phenolic compounds did not harm invertebrates, monitored as environmental indicators, after 20 to 30 days of exposure [72]. Emory oak resists damage from pests and many diseases [90].  However, it is susceptible to the wood decay fungus Inonotus andersonii [37]. Sampling methods for classification of riparian communities to which Emory oak belongs are available [114].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Quercus emoryi
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Emory oak is a native, monoecious shrub or medium-size tree that can reach 65.6 feet (20 m) tall and 2.5 feet (0.7 m) in diameter [18,23,50,57,64].  It has a spreading, rounded crown with bark that is 1 to 2 inches (2.5-5.5 cm) thick [35].  The drought-deciduous leaves are thick and 1.2 to 3 inches (3-8 cm) long [23,102,104].  Pistillate catkins are one to two flowered [23,121].  Acorns are solitary or paired, 0.4 to 0.8 inch (1-2 cm) long [35]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :       Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : After top removal by fire or cutting, Emory oak vigorously sprouts from root crowns or stumps [18].  Following harvest in Arizona, Emory oak regenerated by stump sprouts; there was low seedling survival [102].  A higher percentage of Emory oak stumps than Arizona white oak stumps sprouted following harvest of oak woodlands in southern Arizona.  Emory oak sprouts also grew faster than Arizona white oak sprouts [77]. Emory oak acorns mature in one season [35,105].  Germination occurs during the summer shortly after maturation [87,93].  There is no seed dormancy.  Most germination occurs within 30 days after acorns drop from the tree; acorns are viable for about 60 days [75].  In field trials, Emory oak acorns had lower viability and germination at the soil surface (5%) than 3 inches (7.5 cm) beneath the soil (29%) [87].  Emory oak germination is strongly positively correlated with moisture during the summer rainy season.  Favorable environmental conditions for Emory oak germination and establishment occur infrequently, about once in a decade [87,90]. Acorn production is highly variable.  Large acorn crops, up to 15,500 acorns per tree, alternate with several years of low acorn production [75].  One study demonstrated that Emory oak recruitment in mature oak woodlands was not limited by germination [87]. Vertebrates consume from 1 to 65 percent of acorns Emory oak produces, and invertebrates consume from 1 to 50 percent.  While postdispersal losses can be high, they are also variable.  Seventy-eight percent of Emory oak acorns escaped predation in a 1978 oak woodland study in Arizona.  Two years later, only 25 percent of the acorns escaped predation [75].  Scrub jays and rodents rarely carry Emory oak acorns very far from seed trees.  Caching of acorns by jays and rodents at 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) or deeper can provide germination opportunities, depending upon moisture availability [90]. Emory oak topgrowth is slow, especially in seedlings [35,75].  They may succumb to drought.  Emory oak mortality resulted from drought in a pygmy conifer-oak woodland in Arizona [85].  A study evaluating seedling establishment after fire found that drought rather than predation caused most of the seedling mortality [90].  Acorns dropping directly below the canopy may experience moisture deficits, since up to 70 percent of precipitation may be intercepted by the canopy [45].  However, a field study showed that significantly (P<0.05) higher germination and viability of Emory oak acorns occurred under trees than in the open grassland between trees [86]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Emory oak occurs in arid to semiarid climates with low amounts of biseasonal rainfall.  The climate has mild, wet winters and hot, wet summers [34,66,85,109]. Emory oak is found in canyons at the upper edge of deserts or desert grasslands [35,64].  Emory oak occurs in open oak woodlands from 4,500 to 5,000 feet (1,400-1,700 m) on hills and mountain slopes up through Arizona cypress canyon forests and pygmy conifer-oak woodlands at 7,000 feet (2,130 m) [66,85].  It occurs as isolated trees in mesic or riparian habitats and in xeric pine communities [5,66].  Emory oak is found on alluvial fans, foothills, bajadas, barrancas, high plains, and mesas [30,39,47,126]. Emory oak occurs on slopes that vary from flat to steep.  Often these slopes have northern or western aspects [17,31,76,102,117].  Emory oak may occur on drier sites than codominants Arizona white oak or Graves oak [31,83,99,123].  Emory oak is a shrub in the Arizona interior chaparral, where topography is often rough and highly dissected, with very rocky loam soils [58].  Emory oak is more abundant and grows to tree size in deeper soils, often in bottomlands where it forms dense stands.  Reduced amounts of water prevent typical riparian communities from forming in these areas [18,64,108]. Emory oak occurs in various soil textures derived from a variety of parent materials.  Soils may be deep with moderately fine to very fine textures.  The soils can be acidic and may be old alluvium from mixed sedimentary and igneous rocks [76,83,105,117,122].  More often Emory oak is reported on shallow soil with weak profiles, along drainages, or on rocky slopes with textures of very gravelly sandy loams [25,39,47,85,99]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Emory oak is a climax species in evergreen oak and encinal woodlands [62].  It is both a seral and climax species in pine-oak woodlands [8,27,85].  Emory oak is a minor climax species in Chihuahua pine forests [62].  Four years after cabling in pinyon-juniper woodlands where Emory oak is one of several important oak understory species, the oaks reestablished during the perennial grass and forb stage [95]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Emory oak gradually drops leaves in the spring as new leaves form [64,103].  Emory oak acorns mature annually from June through September, with a peak in midsummer [35,75,87,121].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Quercus emoryi
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Emory oak is adapted to recurrent fires [92].  It sprouts from the root crown or stump and grows vigorously following fire [18,20,26,59,75,108]. Madrean evergreen forests and woodlands are usually bordered by desert grassland below and coniferous forest above [8].  Historically, fires probably occurred every 10 to 20 years in oak woodlands adjacent to semidesert grasslands [5,125].  Mean fire return interval for pine communities above oak woodlands has been estimated at every 7 years [75].  Historical fires in oak-pine woodlands in the Chiricahua National Monument in Arizona occurred every 1 to 38 years [110].  Burned ponderosa pine snags in evergreen oak woodlands in Arizona suggest localized severe fires [85]. Fire regimes have been estimated for different oak cover types.  Mexican (Madrean) oak-pine woodland is probably a fire-tolerant, fire-maintained community [109]. Emory oak is common at low elevations in open oak woodlands; fire frequency is important in determining the structure of these communities [8]. Interior chaparral is scattered throughout the oak-pine woodlands [110]. Emory oak replaces Pringle manzanita (Arctostaphylos pringlei) in interior chaparral stands that have not recently burned [91].  Emory oak and Arizona white oak dominate many communities in Arizona that have not burned since about 1910 [8]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :    Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/soboliferous species root sucker    Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown    Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)    Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Quercus emoryi
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Small-sized Emory oak may be top-killed by fire.  Large trees survive fires of low severity [12].  Well-developed root systems of mature Emory oak buffer the effects of drought and allow rapid regeneration by sprouting vigorously from root crown and stump after top-damage [19,28]. It recovers quickly from the effects of burning [92].  Unless covered by an insulating layer of soil, acorns are probably killed by fire. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Most fires move quickly through oak woodlands that have a continuous grass understory.  Fire effects on Emory oak depend on tree size, fire severity, and drought stress, especially after the fire.  A wildfire during June 1983 burned a Madrean evergreen oak woodland in the Santa Catalina Mountains of Arizona.  Two years later, 89 percent of the sampled Emory oak survived, 38 percent with some portion of the original crown alive.  Significantly (P=0.011) more Emory and Mexican blue oak sprouted on burned plots (94%) than trees in unburned control plots (8-16%).  Emory oak produced 15 to 53 sprouts per tree on burned plots [19]. In a Madrean evergreen woodland in Arizona with an understory of grasses and herbs, a prescribed fire in May 1984 was of low intensity and short duration.  The fire did not affect scattered mature Emory oak.  Emory oak and other oak seedling densities did not differ between burned and control sites during the first 2 postfire seasons [12,13]. During June 1959, an accidental fire burned an oak-juniper woodland in the Santa Rita Mountains of Arizona.  The fire moved rapidly over dry grasses.  Drought stress may have increased tree mortality.  On unburned controls, 19.7 percent of Emory oak trees died, and 22.3 percent died on the burned sites.  Only 21 percent of Emory oaks sprouted on the control, while 47 percent sprouted on the burn [55]. Emory oak seedling establishment and survival were assessed 1 year following a fall prescribed fire of interior chaparral in the Mazatzal Mountains of Arizona.  Sites where fire severity was low had more than twice the number of seedlings (147 seedlings/ha) than the unburned control (48 seedlings/ha) or sites where fire severity was high (58 seedlings/ha) [18,89]. One or two years following fall prescribed strip fires in interior chaparral, 47 Emory oak seedlings were tagged.  Three years later, only 13 seedlings had survived.  Nearly half (48%) of tagged seedlings had died due to drought.  The surviving seedlings stood 3.3 inches (8.4 cm) high, and roots had penetrated 20 inches (50.8 cm).  Uniform acorn depth and seedling spacing across the burned areas indicated that scrub jays probably cached the acorns.  Clustered seedlings, possibly from rodent caches, were not included in the study [90]. An oak-mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus spp.) chaparral stand in the Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest, Arizona, was prescribed burned after desiccation with herbicides.  Emory oak seedling emergence steadily dropped from 33 seedlings per acre (13 seedlings/ha) during the first postfire year to 0 seedlings the fifth postfire year [63,93]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Prescribed fire is used to manage the interior chaparral where Emory oak occurs.  It reduces fuel loads and improves wildlife habitat [28].  In interior chaparral, prescribed fires must be combined with other management methods to control Emory oak and other shrubs [18,29]. However, on arid rangelands where Emory oak occurs, prescribed burning for brush control is not usually effective due to insufficient fuel for widespread fire [47,92]. The open oak woodland can carry fire [85].  Oaks usually survive quick, low-intensity fires in the open oak woodlands.  However, fires in closed-canopy oak woodlands are probably high-intensity, stand replacement fires [75]. Emory oak should be included in fuel moisture sampling programs.  In the Chiricahua National Monument of Arizona, where Emory oak can make up a significant portion of the understory fuels, Emory oak foliage had a mean live fuel moisture content of 106 percent when sampled during November 1987.  Live fuel moisture measurement methods are discussed in the literature [100]. A downed woody material summary is useful for assessing fire potential and danger.  Downed woody material ranged from 2.8 to 9.2 cubic feet per acre in pine-oak woodlands and from 40.1 to 81.7 cubic feet per acre in moist woodlands [33]. Pine-oak woodlands where Emory oak occurs are more open in the Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico than in southern Arizona.  Higher amounts of litter and dead fuel exist in the Arizona pine-oak woodlands due to fire suppression and increased grazing [69].

FIRE CASE STUDIES

SPECIES: Quercus emoryi
FIRE CASE STUDY CITATION : Pavek, Diane S., compiler. 1994. Prescribed fire effects on Emory oak in Lyle Canyon, Arizona. In: Quercus emoryi. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ []. REFERENCE : Bock, Jane H.; Bock, Carl E. 1987. Fire effects following prescribed burning in two desert ecosystems. Final Report on Cooperative Agreement No. 28-03-278. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 20 p. [13]. SEASON/SEVERITY CLASSIFICATION : spring fire/low- to moderate-severity STUDY LOCATION : The study was conducted at the National Audubon Appleton-Whittel Research Sanctuary in foothills on the west side of the Huachuca Mountains of Arizona.  The research focused on two areas:  a grassland and a Madrean evergreen woodland.  This case study presents only the Madrean evergreen woodland results since Emory oak (Quercus emoryi) did not occur in the grassland.  Study plots were located in Lyle Canyon, which is leased by the Sanctuary from the Coronado National Forest. PREFIRE VEGETATIVE COMMUNITY : Lyle Canyon is covered by a Madrean evergreen oak woodland.  The overstory consisted of Emory oak and Arizona white oak.  The burn treatment study plots had a total of 20 Emory oak and 15 Arizona white oak; control plots had a total of 20 Emory oak and 10 Arizona white oak. Common understory shrubs were wait-a-minute bush (Mimosa biuncifera), velvet-pod mimosa (M. dysocarpa), and yerba de pasmo (Baccharis pteronioides).  Grasses and forbs most commonly present were sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), plains lovegrass (Eragrostis intermedia), annual goldeneye (Viguiera annua), and Arizona poppy (Kallstroemia parviflora). TARGET SPECIES PHENOLOGICAL STATE : The phenological stages of the plants were not specifically mentioned. At the time of burning in May, Emory oak would be past flowering, and fruits would be developing. SITE DESCRIPTION : The study site was located in a steep-sided canyon at 4,922 feet (1,500 m) elevation.  Spring months are dry and warm in this semiarid climate. The average annual precipitation is 16.9 inches (430 mm) and occurs bimodally.  No information was given on specific topography, slope, or soils. FIRE DESCRIPTION : Ten plots, 65.6 by 98.4 feet (20x30 m), were assigned either to burn or control treatments.  Plots were paired for physiognomy and vegetation. Twenty quadrats, 7.9 by 19.7 inches (20x50 cm), were located in each plot for a total of 200 quadrats.  The fire burned between 10 a.m. and 12 m. on 25 May 1984.  Air temperature was from 90 to 92 degrees Fahrenheit (32-33 deg C).  The relative humidity ranged from 16 to 18 percent.  Winds were variable and gusted from 5 to 10 mph (8.1-16.1 km/h).  Dead fine fuel moistures were between 5 and 6 percent. Fires moved slowly (1.6 to 4.9 feet per minute [0.5-1.5 m/min]) with flame lengths of 0.7 to 1.6 feet (0.2-0.5 m) in four of the five burn plots.  This was a heat release of 2.3 to 16.8 Btu per second per foot (8-58 kw/s/m).  The fire moved rapidly (98.4 feet per minute [30 m/min]) with a heat release of 75.2 Btu per second per foot (260 kw/s/m) over the remaining burn plot. FIRE EFFECTS ON TARGET SPECIES : Mature Emory oak were not affected by the fire [12].  Postfire vegetation was sampled during two growing seasons in 1984 and 1985. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in numbers of Emory oak seedlings on the burn plots compared to the controls. FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS : Fire is a part of the historic Madrean evergreen woodland [125].  This prescribed fire did not have any lasting effects on woody vegetation in the study area.  Burning had little detectable effect on the seedlings of Emory oak.  This is probably due to the short duration and low heat released by the fires. This study was part of an extensive of body of research on fire effects in semidesert grassland, oak savanna, and Madrean oak woodlands of southeastern Arizona. See the Research Project Summary of this work for more information on burning conditions, fires, and fire effects on more than 100 species of plants, birds, small mammals, and grasshoppers.

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Quercus emoryi
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