Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii

Introductory

SPECIES: Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Uchytil, Ronald J. 1991. Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].
ABBREVIATION : PSEMENM SYNONYMS : Pseudotsuga menziesii var. viridis (Schwerin) Franco Pseudotsuga taxifolia Lamb. SCS PLANT CODE : PSME COMMON NAMES : coast Douglas-fir Oregon Douglas-fir Douglas-fir TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of Douglas-fir is Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco [43]. Two varieties are recognized, based on foliage color, cone form, growth rate, and environmental requirements [29]: var. menziesii - coast Douglas-fir, the "green" variety, is indigenous west of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco - Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir, the "blue" variety, is native to the Rocky Mountains and interior mountains of the Pacific Northwest Information reported here is for coast Douglas-fir only. Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir is described in a separate FEIS review. LIFE FORM : Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Coast Douglas-fir grows from west-central British Columbia southward to central California.  In Oregon and Washington its range is continuous from the Cascades west to the Pacific Ocean.  In California, it is found in the Klamath and Coast ranges as far south as the Santa Cruz Mountains, and in the Sierra Nevada as far south as the Yosemite Region [31,43].  Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir occurs east of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountain Ranges. ECOSYSTEMS :    FRES20  Douglas-fir    FRES21  Ponderosa pine    FRES23  Fir - spruce    FRES24  Hemlock - Sitka spruce    FRES26  Lodgepole pine    FRES27  Redwood    FRES28  Western hardwoods STATES :      CA  HI  OR  WA  BC BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :    1  Northern Pacific Border    2  Cascade Mountains    3  Southern Pacific Border    4  Sierra Mountains KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :    K001  Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest    K002  Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest    K003  Silver fir - Douglas-fir forest    K004  Fir - hemlock forest    K005  Mixed conifer forest    K006  Redwood forest    K010  Ponderosa shrub forest    K025  Alder - ash forest    K026  Oregon oakwoods    K028  Mosaic of K002 and K026    K029  California mixed evergreen forest SAF COVER TYPES :    211  White fir    213  Grand fir    218  Lodgepole pine    221  Red alder    222  Black cottonwood - willow    223  Sitka spruce    224  Western hemlock    225  Western hemlock - Sitka spruce    226  Coastal true fir - hemlock    227  Western redcedar - western hemlock    228  Western redcedar    229  Pacific Douglas-fir    230  Douglas-fir - western hemlock    231  Port-Orford-cedar    232  Redwood    233  Oregon white oak    234  Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone    243  Sierra Nevada mixed conifer    244  Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir    245  Pacific ponderosa pine    246  California black oak    247  Jeffrey pine    248  Knobcone pine    249  Canyon live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Seral coast Douglas-fir communities dominate much of the western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis) zones of western Washington and Oregon [21].  Climax Douglas-fir forests are rare in the northern and central Cascades, and are restricted to hot, dry sites which commonly occur on south- or southwest-facing slopes at low elevations [50].  Climax Douglas-fir forests increase southward from central Oregon.  In southwestern Oregon and northern California, Douglas-fir is a widespread climax dominant or codominant.  It is probably the most abundant tree in the mixed-conifer zone, but its abundance tends to decrease and that of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) increase north to south within this zone [21].  Associates in the mixed-conifer zone include ponderosa pine, sugar pine (P. lambertiana), incense-cedar (Calocedrus decurrens), and white fir (Abies concolor) [21].  In the mixed-evergreen zone, Douglas-fir dominates at climax with tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus), Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii), canyon live oak (Quercus chrysolepis), giant chinquapin (Chrysolepsis chrysophylla), sugar pine, ponderosa pine, and incense-cedar [21,64]. Published classifications listing coast Douglas-fir as a dominant in cover types, community types (cts), or plant associations (pas) are listed below:    Area                  Classification             Authority WA: North Cascades NP  forest cover types   Agee & Kertis 1987 WA: Olympic Mtns       forest cts           Fonda & Bliss 1969 WA: Mount Rainier NP   forest cts           Franklin & others 1988 WA: Gifford Pinchot NF western hemlock pas  Topik & others 1986 WA: Gifford Pinchot NF grand fir pas        Topik 1989 OR, WA                 general veg. cts     Franklin & Dyrness 1973 OR: Willamette NF      general veg. pas     Hemstrom & others 1987 OR: Winema NF          general veg. pas     Hopkins 1979 s OR: Cascade Mtns     general veg. pas     Atzet & McCrimmon 1990 OR, CA: Siskiyou Mtns  general veg. pas     Atzet & Wheeler 1984 CA                     mixed evergreen      Sawyer & others 1977                        forest cts CA                     Redwood & north      Zinke 1977                        Coast forest cts

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : Coast Douglas-fir is one of the worlds best timber producers and yields more timber than any other tree in North America [5,19].  The wood is used for dimensional lumber, timbers, pilings, and plywood [71]. Creosote-soaked pilings and decking are used in marine structures [33]. The wood is also made into railroad ties, mine timbers, house logs, posts and poles, flooring, veneer, pulp, and furniture [71]. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Coast Douglas-fir seedlings are not a preferred browse of black-tailed deer or elk, but can be an important food source for these animals during the winter when other preferred forages are lacking [12,14]. Douglas-fir seeds are an extremely important food for small mammals. Mice, voles, shrews, and chipmunks consumed an estimated 65 percent of a Douglas-fir seed crop following dispersal in western Oregon [26].  The seeds are also important in the diets of the winter wren, pine siskin, song sparrow, golden-crowned sparrow, white-crowned sparrow, red crossbill, dark-eyed junco, and purple finch [5,10]. The Douglas squirrel harvests and caches great quantities of Douglas-fir cones for later use [5].  They also eat mature pollen cones, developing inner bark, terminal shoots, and tender young needles [49]. Mature or "old-growth" coast Douglas-fir is the primary habitat of the red tree vole and the spotted owl.  Home range requirements for breeding pairs of spotted owls are at least 1,000 acres (405 ha) of old-growth [13].  Red tree voles may also be found in immature forests if Douglas-fir is a significant component.  This animal nests almost exclusively in the foliage of Douglas-fir trees.  Nests are located 6 to 157 feet (2-48 m) above the ground.  The red vole's diet consists chiefly of coast Douglas-fir needles [49]. In many areas coast Douglas-fir needles are a    staple in the spring diet of blue grouse [38].  In the winter, porcupines primarily eat the inner bark of young conifers, especially Douglas-fir [49]. PALATABILITY : Coast Douglas-fir is a poor livestock browse and is generally avoided. In the Oregon Coast Range it was most palatable to herded domestic sheep in the spring soon after bud break but never comprised more than 3 percent of their diet [42]. New growth of seedlings and saplings is highly palatable to black-tailed deer in the spring and early summer.  Douglas-fir palatability to deer is low during the rest of the year [9]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Winter protein content of Douglas-fir browse averaged 7.25 percent in western Washington [9]. COVER VALUE : Douglas-fir snags are abundant in forests older than 110 years and provide cavity-nesting habitat for numerous forest birds [48,65]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : Coast Douglas-fir is used extensively in landscaping.  It is planted as a specimen tree or in mass screenings.  It is also a popular Christmas tree [40]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Silviculture:  Coast Douglas-fir is regenerated using even-aged silviculture. The seed tree method is the only even-aged method not applicable because the residuals are susceptible to windthrow. Clearcutting followed by planting is the most widely used method. Forest laws require prompt regeneration following timber harvest.  To ensure compliance, clearcuts are typically planted with Douglas-fir nursery stock because natural or artificial regeneration from seed is unreliable [31,76]. Animal damage:  Browsing by deer, elk, and rodents can be a major problem in plantations.  Browsing stunts Douglas-fir seedling growth and increases mortality rates.  Most damage occurs within 4 years after planting; thus measures to reduce browsing damage should occur at this time.  Control measures include (1) planting palatable forbs to reduce browsing pressure, (2) using physical barriers such as seedling protectors, and (3) applying repellents [11,12,46]. Site quality:  Site quality for Douglas-fir growth in the western hemlock zone is related to understory species.  The fastest (1) to slowest (5) growth occurs with the following understories [21]:          1.  western sword fern (Polystichum munitum)         2.  western sword fern-salal (Gaultheria shallon)         3.  salal         4.  salal-pale green lichen (Parmelia spp.)         5.  bearded lichen (Usnea spp.) Diseases and insects:  Shoestring root rot (Armillaria mellea) and laminated root rot (Phillinus weirii) can cause significant damage in plantations.  Infected trees are killed or weakened and blown over by wind.  Red ring rot (Phillinus pini), a heart rot, causes more damage than any other decay.  The Douglas-fir beetle is the most damaging insect and often attacks fire-killed or fire-weakened trees [31].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Coast Douglas-fir is a large, coniferous, evergreen tree.  Adapted to a moist, mild climate, it grows bigger and more rapidly than the inland variety.  Trees 5 to 6 feet (150-180 cm) in diameter (150-180 cm) and 250 feet (76 m) or more in height are common in old-growth stands [31]. These trees commonly live more than 500 years and occasionally more than 1,000 years [31].  Old individuals typically have a narrow, cylindric crown beginning 65 to 130 feet (20-40 m) above a branch-free bole [20]. Self-pruning is generally slow and trees retain their lower limbs for a long period.  Young, open-grown trees typically have branches near the ground.  It often takes 77 years for the bole to be clear to a height of 17 feet (5 m) and 107 years to be clear to a height of 33 feet (10 m) [31].  In wet coastal forests, nearly every surface of old-growth coast Douglas-fir is covered by epiphytic mosses and lichens [20]. This tree's rooting habit is not particularly deep.  The roots of young coast Douglas-fir tend to be shallower than roots of the same aged ponderosa pine, sugar pine, or incense-cedar [54].  Some roots are commonly found in organic soil layers or near the mineral soil surface [60].  The bark on young individuals is thin, smooth, gray, and contains numerous resin blisters.  On mature trees the bark is thick (4 to 12 inches [10-30 cm]) and corky [33].  Foliage consists of yellowish-green, 1-inch-long (2.5 cm) needles spirally arranged around the branchlets. Pendent, 2- to 4-inch-long (5-10 cm) cones are located primarily in the upper crown. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Cone and seed production:  Appreciable seed production begins at 20- to 30-years of age in open-grown coast Douglas-fir.  Seed production is irregular.  Over a 5- to 7-year period, stands usually produce one heavy crop, a few light or medium crops, and one crop failure [31].  Even during heavy seed crop years, only about 25 percent of trees in closed stands produce an appreciable number of cones [31].  Each cone contains 26 to 50 seeds [59].  Seed size varies greatly; average number of cleaned seeds per pound varies from 32,000 to 40,000 (70,400-88,000/kg) [59].  Seeds from the northern portion of coast Douglas-fir's range tend to be larger than seed from the south [31]. Dispersal:  Douglas-fir seeds have a relatively large, single wing and are primarily dispersed by wind and gravity.  Most fall within 110 yards (100 m) of the parent tree, but some may travel much greater distances.  On rare occasions, sites more than 0.5 mile (0.8 km) from a seed source have reseeded after cutting [19].  Mice, chipmunks, and squirrels disperse small amounts of seed [28].  Clark's nutcrackers also disperse Douglas-fir seeds.  Unretrieved seeds in Clark's nutcracker caches may have a better change of establishment than wind-dispersed seed [80,81]. Seed predation:  Caching of Douglas-fir cones by the Douglas's squirrel, and foraging for seeds on the ground by chipmunks, mice, voles, and birds reduces seed quantity considerably [35].  Insect damage varies greatly but can be profound.  Insects may destroy less than 5 percent of a large seed crop, but a high percentage of seeds produced in small crops are often destroyed [67]. Viability:  Commonly, less than 40 percent of coast Douglas-fir seeds are sound [31].  Seed soundness decreases during poor seed crop years. During poor cone production years in northwestern California, old-growth Douglas-fir seed soundness averaged 18 percent, while seed soundness was 53 percent in a 49-year-old western Washington stand [67].  Seeds remain viable for only 1 or occasionally 2 years [35]. Germination and seedling establishment:  Germination and seedling establishment are best on mineral soil seedbeds.  Organic seedbeds generally become too hot and dry during the summer for Douglas-fir seedlings to survive, but seedlings may tolerate a light litter layer if the seedbed remains moist [53,76].  Natural stocking of Douglas-fir following timber harvest is usually highest where site preparation measures, such as broadcast burning or mechanical scarification, are used to expose mineral soils [76].  First year seedlings survive and grow best in partial shade [31,35].  Shading is especially important on southerly aspects, where it lessens seedbed heating and drying. Seedling survival and growth on severe sites is generally best in 50 percent shade [76].  Douglas-fir cannot survive, however, under the dense shade cast by heavy logging slash or competing understory vegetation [53].  Once established, seedlings require full sunlight. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Coast Douglas-fir is the most dominant tree species in the Pacific Northwest, occurring in nearly all forest series, from near sea level along the coast to above 5,000 feet (1,524 m) in the Cascades.  It competes well on most parent materials, aspects, and slopes [6].  Pure stands are common north of the Umpqua River in Oregon [31]. Elevation:  In Washington and Oregon, Douglas-fir grows from near sea level to over 5,000 feet (1,524 m).  In the southern Oregon Cascades and in the northern Sierra Nevada, it is generally occurs between 2,000 and 6,000 feet (609-1,829 m).  In the southern Sierra Nevada it is occurs up to 7,500 feet (2,286 m) [31]. Soils:  Douglas-fir grows on a wide variety of parent materials and soil textures but grows best on well-aerated, deep soils with a pH between 5 and 6 [31].  It grows poorly on oligotrophic soils where calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are in low supply [39]. Frost:  Coastal Douglas-fir will not tolerate frost below 14 degrees Fahrenheit (-10 deg C) for more than a week, even if the ground is well protected against freezing by snow [39]. Tree Associates:  See SAF Cover Types and Habitat Types And Plant Communities for overstory associates.  Understory Associates:  Shrub associates in the central and northern part of coast Douglas-fir's range include vine maple (Acer circinatum), salal, Pacific rhododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum), Oregon grape (Berberis nervosa), red huckleberry (Vaccinium parvifolium), and salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis).  In the drier, southern portion of its range shrub associates include California hazel (Corylus cornuta var. californica), oceanspray (Holodiscus discolor), creeping snowberry (Symphoricarpos mollis), western poison-oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum), ceanothus (Ceanothus spp.), and manzanita (Arctostaphylos spp.) [31]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Coast Douglas-fir is a major, long-lived seral dominant of low and middle elevation moist forests from southwestern British Columbia to northwestern California [21].  In these forests it is shade intolerant and requires stand-destroying disturbance (wildfire, logging, extensive windthrow) to initiate a new cohort of seedlings.  Today, extensive areas of western Washington and Oregon are covered by seral, nearly pure stands of Douglas-fir that seeded in rapidly following logging and wildfire [21].  This species is extremely long-lived.  Stands 350 to 750 years old are subclimax and may contain a significant component of Douglas-fir for several more centuries [20].  Without disturbance, these stands will eventually give way to shade-tolerant associates such as western hemlock, western redcedar (Thuja plicata), and Pacific silver fir, but it may take 1,000 or more years for Douglas-fir to be fully replaced [20,21].  This longevity allows Douglas-fir to persist until the next disturbance, ensuring a seed supply for postdisturbance establishment. On drier sites, Douglas-fir is more shade-tolerant and may assume climax dominance.  It is more shade tolerant than ponderosa pine, sugar pine, western white pine (Pinus monticola), lodgepole pine (P. contorta), incense cedar, and noble fir (Abies procera) but less shade tolerant than white fir [36,54].  In the white fir zone of northern California, Douglas-fir is seral, but as sites become drier it may assume climax dominance [63].  Similarly, it is a seral component in moist redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests, but as sites become drier farther inland, redwood gives way to mixed evergreen forests codominated by Douglas-fir, Pacific madrone, and tanoak [64]. In the Cascades, Douglas-fir is seral throughout most of the western hemlock zone.  However, it achieves climax on lower elevation hot and dry sites, which are typically southeast- to west-facing slopes [2,15]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : The phenology of coast Douglas-fir is influenced greatly by latitude and elevation.  Flowering occurs during March and April in the warmer parts of its range and as late as May or June in colder areas [31].  The cones mature in one growing season and are normally ripe by late August or early September.  Cones open as they dry, so wet fall weather can delay seedfall.  Approximately 70 to 90 percent of the seeds are dispersed by November 1, with the remainder falling during winter [59].  Cones remain on the tree 1 or more years after seed dispersal [59].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Plant adaptations to fire:  Coast Douglas-fir is more fire resistant than many of its associates and can survive moderately intense fires. Thick, corky bark on the lower bole and roots protects the cambium from heat damage.  In addition, the tall trees have their foliage concentrated on the upper bole, which makes it difficult for fire to reach the crown [58]; however, it should be noted that trees are typically not free of lower branches up to a height of 33 feet (10 m) until they are more than 100 years old [31].  Moderately severe understory burns in 50- to 60-year-old mixed and pure stands near Mount Rainier caused little cambial injury to Douglas-fir but killed most of the thin-barked western redcedar [68].  Following the Hoh Fire in Olympic National Park, Douglas-fir's survival rate was considerably higher than Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), western redcedar, western hemlock, and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) [3]. When trees are killed, Douglas-fir relies on wind-dispersed seed off-site trees to colonize the burned area.  If catastrophic fires are extensive, a seed source may be limited due to the lack of seed trees. Under these circumstances, seeds come from mature trees which survive fire, survivors in small unburned pockets, or from trees adjacent to the burned area.  Where seed trees are scarce, it may take 100 years or more for Douglas-fir to restock the burned area [65].  On the other extreme, when fires do not kill all the trees in a stand, seedling establishment may begin within a year or two after burning [34].  Mineral soils exposed by fire are generally considered favorable seedbeds [17]. Fire regime:  Widely distributed as a canopy dominant in lower and middle elevation forests throughout the Pacific Northwest, Douglas-fir occupies forests with varied fire regimes.  In general, the size and severity of natural fires tend to decrease, while fire frequency increases southward from western Washington to northern California [58]. In western Washington, Douglas-fir is a primary component of moist forests experiencing infrequent, widespread, stand-replacing fires that occur at perhaps 400- to 500-year intervals [27,45].  Dry areas of the western hemlock zone in the central Oregon Cascades experience both frequent, low- to moderate-severity fires and stand-replacing fires [58].  The mean fire interval in these forests is between 50 and 150 years [45,51].  Frequent, low- to moderate-severity fires occasionally crown and create patches of even-aged stands.  Underburning is more common and allows Douglas-fir to survive repeated fires.  Thus uneven-aged old-growth Douglas-fir stands are more common in the central Oregon Cascades [58,66].  In mixed evergreen forests of southern Oregon and northern California, fires occurred at frequencies of 5 to 25 years [45].  Where Douglas-fir is seral, its great longevity allows it to maintain itself as a canopy dominant until the next catastrophic fire [34]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :    off-site colonizer; seed carried by wind; postfire years 1 and 2    secondary colonizer; off-site seed carried to site after year 2

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Trees:  Crown fires commonly kill all trees over extensive areas.  Hot ground fires that scorch tree crowns and char tree boles kill variable proportions of coast Douglas-fir [3].  Rapidly spreading ground fires tend to inflict more damage to Douglas-fir crowns, while slow spreading ground fires are damaging to the bole and can kill trees through cambial heating [60].  Crown scorching from summer fires is more damaging than late summer or fall fires because more buds are killed.  During late summer the buds are set and subsequent-year needles are well protected [75].  Seedlings and saplings are susceptible to and may be killed by even low-intensity ground fires [74]. Seed:  Temperatures in excess of 140 degrees F (60 C) are lethal to Douglas-fir seeds.  Thus most seeds on the forest floor will be destroyed by fire [35].  Crown fires will kill seeds in green cones; however, green cones are relatively good insulators and are not highly flammable, and fires that not excessively hot often only scorch the cones.  Seeds can mature in scorched cones on fire-killed trees, and later disperse onto the burned area [35]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : The Hoh Fire in June 1978 burned 1,230 acres (500 ha) of montane and subalpine coniferous forests.  The montane forest was composed primarily of 400- to 500-year-old western hemlock and Douglas-fir.  About 10 percent of this forest type was consumed by a crown fire, while most of the remaining forest experienced a hot ground fire with considerable crown scorching.  All trees less than 10 feet (3 m) tall were killed. Mortality of overstory trees was high, but Douglas-fir suffered the least.  The fire reduced the basal area of all species as follows:         bigleaf maple 100 %         western hemlock 80%         western redcedar 50 %         Sitka spruce 50 %         coast Douglas-fir 33% Ninety-one percent of western hemlock overstory trees were killed, compared with 62 percent of Douglas-fir [3]. PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Seedling establishment following fire is dependent on the spacing and number of surviving seed trees.  Seedling establishment following large stand-destroying fires is slow because seed trees are killed over extensive areas.  After the Tillamook Fire in northwestern Oregon, seedlings were restricted to areas around scattered survivors and near the burn edge [77].  Conversely, Douglas-fir can quickly establish a new cohort of seedlings if there are numerous, well-spaced surviving seed trees within the burned area.  Conifer seedlings were abundant after the Hoh Fire in Olympic National Park, where 38 percent of mature Douglas-fir survived.  Three years after this fire, there were about 3,400 conifer seedlings per acre (8,400/ha), about half of which were Douglas-fir [34].  In the northern Cascades, Douglas-fir seedling frequency was between 80 and 100 percent on three different 4-year-old burns ranging in size from 55 to 410 acres (22-166 ha) [52]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : The Research Project Summary Plant response to prescribed burning with varying season, weather, and fuel moisture in mixed-conifer forests of California provides information on prescribed fire and postfire response of many plant community species including coast Douglas-fir. Near the Plumas National Forest, prescribed fire in a mixed-conifer-California black oak forest with a coast Douglas-fir component successfully reduced fuel load. When a wildfire burned through the site previously burned under prescription, fire severity and fire suppression costs were less compared to adjacent land where fire had been excluded [79]. For further information on this study, see this Research Paper: A fuel treatment reduces potential fire severity and increases suppression efficiency in a Sierran mixed conifer forest. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Natural regeneration following slash burning:  The effects of slash burning on coast Douglas-fir seedling establishment are contradictory. Some researchers report greater stocking on burned areas, while others report greater stocking on unburned areas [57].  It appears that Douglas-fir is favored by slash burning on mesic and wetter sites in the western hemlock zone.  On dry sites, natural regeneration following broadcast burning is unpredictable, and often poor, due to high soil temperatures and moisture stress [17]. Following broadcast slash burning in clearcuts in the Coast and Cascade Ranges in Oregon and Washington, 90 percent of the area is typically moderately or lightly burned, which provides good seedbeds [53,57]. Severe burning, which retards Douglas-fir regeneration because of altered physical and chemical soil properties, occurs on less than 10 percent of the area.  This is typically where burning stumps produce intense heat [17].  Minore [55] found that 5-year-old coast Douglas-fir seedling height was lower on sites where slash was piled and burned than on broadcast burned sites. On erodible granitic soils of the Klamath National Forest, hand planted Douglas-fir seedlings were 7 times more numerous on unburned than on burned plots, 6 years after planting [67]. Models:  Peterson and Arbaugh [60] present a model for predicting postfire survival of coast Douglas-fir in the Cascades.  The model uses crown and bole damage variables to predict survival. Salvage logging:  Typically less than 3 percent of all merchantable timber in coast Douglas-fir stands is consumed by forest fires. Deterioration rates vary with tree size and wood type.  Very little sapwood can be salvaged 3 years after fire, but heartwood deteriorates more slowly.  Salvage has been carried out for 1 to 2 years in young-growth stands, 4 to 7 years in intermediate stands, and for 5 to 10 years in old-growth stands [37]. Duff reduction:  Duff consumption by prescribed burning can be predicted using weather and fuel variables on cut-over Douglas-fir sites. Generally, most duff is burned when the moisture content of the upper duff is below 30 percent.  When the upper duff layer exceeds 120 percent moisture content no combustion takes place.  Between these values, the percentage of duff consumed depends on the amount and moisture content of fine woody fuels [44,62].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii
REFERENCES :  1.  Agee, James K. 1991. Fire history along an elevational gradient in the        Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon. Northwest Science. 65(4): 188-199.  [16293]  2.  Agee, James K.; Finney, Mark; DeGouvenain, Roland. 1990. Forest fire        history of Desolation Peak, Washington. Canadian Journal of Forest        Research. 20: 350-356.  [11035]  3.  Agee, James K.; Huff, Mark H. 1980. First year ecological effects of the        Hoh Fire, Olympic Mountains, Washington. In: Martin, Robert E.; Edmonds,        Donald A.; Harrington, James B.; [and others], eds. Proceedings, 6th        conference on fire and forest meteorology; 1980 April 22-24; Seattle,        WA. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters: 175-181.  [10201]  4.  Agee, James K.; Kertis, Jane. 1987. Forest types of the North Cascades        National Park Service Complex. Canadian Journal of Botany. 65:        1520-1530.  [6327]  5.  Arno, Stephen F.; Hammerly, Ramona P. 1977. Northwest trees. 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