Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Populus balsamifera subsp. balsamifera


SPECIES: Populus balsamifera subsp. balsamifera
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Harris, Holly T. 1990. Populus balsamifera subsp. balsamifera. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].
ABBREVIATION : POPBALB POPBAL SYNONYMS : Populus candicans Populus michauxii Populus tacamahaca SCS PLANT CODE : POBAB2 COMMON NAMES : balsam poplar TAXONOMY : The scientific name of balsam poplar is Populus balsamifera L. subsp. balsamifera. Black cottonwood (Populus balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa) is the other subspecies of Populus balsamifera [101]. For information on black cottonwood, see that FEIS review. Balsam poplar hybridizes with black cottonwood in Alaska, where ranges of the two trees overlap [101]. It also hybridizes with narrowleaf cottonwood (P. angustifolia) [35,61], eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides) [35,61], and rarely with aspen (P. tremuloides) [61,101]. LIFE FORM : Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : The South Dakota Natural Heritage Program lists balsam poplar as uncommon in the state [114].


SPECIES: Populus balsamifera subsp. balsamifera
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Balsam poplar occurs mainly in riparian areas of boreal and montane conifer forests [35].  Its distribution extends from Alaska across most of Canada to Labrador and Newfoundland [93,101].  In British Columbia it is restricted to areas east of the Rocky Mountains [8,36].  Balsam poplar is rare in the northwestern United States, with sketchy records of its existence in Idaho and Oregon [32].  It occurs sparingly in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado [25,26,27,35,36,37,105,106] and extends east through the northern Great Plains to the Atlantic Coast.  It is found along creekbanks, moist hillsides, sandhill potholes, and knolls in North and South Dakota [93]. North and east of the Great Plains, balsam poplar forms extensive floodplain forests [35].  New York [32] and West Virginia [61,101] are alternately reported as the southern extreme for this tree in the eastern United States. ECOSYSTEMS :    FRES10  White - red - jack pine    FRES11  Spruce - fir    FRES17  Elm - ash - cottonwood    FRES19  Aspen - birch    FRES20  Douglas-fir    FRES21  Ponderosa pine    FRES23  Fir - spruce    FRES28  Western hardwoods    FRES38  Plains grasslands    FRES39  Prairie STATES :      AK  CO  CT  DE  ID  IL  IN  IA  ME  MD      MA  MI  MN  MT  NE  NH  NJ  NY  ND  OH      OR  PA  RI  SD  TN  UT  VT  VA  WV  WI      WY  AB  BC  LB  MB  NB  NF  NT  NS  ON      PE  PQ  SK  YT BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :     8  Northern Rocky Mountains     9  Middle Rocky Mountains    10  Wyoming Basin    11  Southern Rocky Mountains    14  Great Plains    15  Black Hills Uplift    16  Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :    K012  Douglas-fir forest    K015  Western spruce - fir forest    K016  Eastern ponderosa forest    K017  Black Hills pine forest    K018  Pine - Douglas-fir forest    K063  Foothills prairie    K064  Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass    K066  Wheatgrass - needlegrass    K067  Wheatgrass - bluestem - needlegrass    K074  Bluestem prairie    K081  Oak savanna    K093  Great Lakes spruce - fir forest    K094  Conifer bog    K096  Northeastern spruce - fir forest    K098  Northern floodplain forest SAF COVER TYPES :    Eastern Forest Cover Types:      1  Jack pine      5  Balsam fir     38  Tamarack     16  Aspen     33  Red spruce - balsam fir     37  Northern white cedar     39  Black ash - American elm - red maple       Western Forest Cover Types:    201  White spruce    202  White spruce - paper birch    203  Balsam poplar    251  White spruce - aspen    252  Paper birch    253  Black spruce - white spruce    206  Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir    217  Aspen    222  Black cottonwood - willow    235  Cottonwood - willow SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Balsam poplar is a seral species that occurs primarily in ecotones between boreal forest and tundra or prairie, and along streams and rivers.  It is most common in white spruce (Picea glauca) forests of Canada but can extend beyond the conifer treeline in western Canada and Alaska [63].  Classifications including balsam poplar as a dominant component in community types (cts), plant associations (pas), or ecosystem associations (eas) are listed below. Area                  Classification            Authority Alaska                general veg. pas          Viereck 1989                       general veg. cts          Viereck and Dyrness 1980                       postfire forest cts       Foote 1983 British Columbia      general veg. eas          Pojar & others 1984 Alberta               general veg. cts          Dirschl & others 1974 wc Alberta            forest cts                Corns 1983    Ontario               forest eas                Jones & others 1983 Canada                general veg. pas          Roi 1967                          boreal forests


SPECIES: Populus balsamifera subsp. balsamifera
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : Balsam poplar is considered a commercial tree in the northern Lake States, with biomass yields ranging from 1 pound per acre (1.12 kg/ha) in paper birch (Betula papyrifera) communities to 116 pounds per acre (129 kg/ha) in white spruce communities of Michigan [92].  Biomass yields in Alaska average 2.2 pounds per acre (2.5 kg/ha) [95].  Poplars (Populus spp.) represent a substantial yet relatively unused forest resource in Canada [46,50].  Annual harvest of balsam poplar in Canada is less than 1 percent of the allowable cut [46]. Balsam poplar is used for pulpwood, lumber and veneer, and to make high-grade paper and particle board [32].  It is also used to make boxes and crates [101]. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Balsam poplar parklands characterized by fescue (Festuca spp.) or other grass understories have a high grazing capacity [16]. Boreal forests containing balsam poplar support a wide variety of wildlife including moose, elk, Stone's sheep, mountain goat, mountain caribou, mule deer, wolf, coyote, black bear, grizzly bear, lynx, snowshoe hare, wolverine, pine marten, and beaver [78]. Moose [20,63,64,67,71,79,109], deer [63,71], and snowshoe hare [13,47,108] eat balsam poplar to a small extent.  Voles may damage cottonwoods by eating the roots [63]. Beavers use balsam poplar for food and building materials.  Beaver activity creates additional habitat for birds and other aquatic furbearers [63]. PALATABILITY : Balsam poplar is commonly browsed by moose in small amounts [20,71,79]. It was rated as the least preferred moose browse species in Alaska and Canada, usually comprising less than 1 percent of moose diets [20,64,79,109].  Bark stripping occurs on balsam poplars by moose in times of winter food shortage [67].  Balsam poplars with more than 50 percent of the trunk circumference debarked have a high probability of dying; new bark may grow back on less damaged trees [67]. Snowshoe hares utilize balsam poplar in times of food shortage. Snowshoe hares ignore first year growth of juvenile balsam poplars but ring the bark of mature trees and eat the twigs when within reach [47]. Apparently 2,4,6-trihydroxydihydrochalcon 1, a chemical antifeedant for hares, is present in juvenile balsam poplars [47].  Balsam poplar growing in the shade of thinleaf alder (Alnus incana spp. tenuifolia) is more palatable to snowshoe hares than balsam poplars growing in well-insulated willow thickets, due to differences in states of carbon stress and amounts of phenolic concentrations in the poplars [13]. The degree of use shown by livestock and wildlife species for balsam poplar in several western states is rated as follows [24].                             WY         ND        MT Cattle                     ----       fair      ---- Sheep                      ----       fair      ---- Horses                     ----       fair      ---- Pronghorn                  poor       ----      ----                         Elk                        fair       ----      ---- Mule deer                  fair       ----      poor White-tailed deer          fair       poor      poor Small mammals              good       ----      ---- Small nongame birds        fair       ----      ---- Upland game birds          poor       poor      ---- Waterfowl                  poor       ----      ----  NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : The degree to which balsam poplar provides environmental protection during one or more seasons for wildlife species is as follows [24]:                             WY         MT        ND Pronghorn                  poor       ----      ---- Elk                        good       ----      ---- Mule deer                  good       poor      ---- White-tailed deer          good       fair      good Small mammals              ----       good      poor Small nongame birds        good       fair      fair Upland game birds          good       fair      fair Waterfowl                  poor       ----      ---- VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Balsam poplar is an important riparian species which stabilizes river banks and maintains river islands [36].  It is able to recolonize sites disturbed by fire or logging [36,57]. Balsam poplar is successful at naturally colonizing borrow pits in continental tundra regions of northwestern Canada [54].  This tree was found growing on six separate abandoned coal mine sites in the Rocky Mountain foothills of Alberta [87].  It has also been documented as invading and expanding on mining spoils in northern Minnesota [57]. Balsam poplars artificially planted in a heavily burned black spruce area had the highest survival rate of all seeded species [112].  Balsam poplar does not naturally colonize black spruce sites after fire [17,97]. Information on greenhouse propagation and plantation establishment of balsam poplars is available [22,39,43,63,88]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Balsam poplar is an important stabilizer of riverbanks and river islands [36]; it also provides habitat for a wide variety of wildlife species. For these reasons balsam poplar growing in stream corridors should not be logged extensively [69]. See black cottonwood for further information on the effects of watercourse damming and stream diversion on balsam and other cottonwoods. Mechanical logging places balsam poplar at a competitive advantage over spruce by creating microsites for seedling establishment [11].  Exposure of mineral soil favors balsam poplar seed germination [36].  Cutting mature balsam poplars results in sprouting from callus tissue and dormant buds [36].  Stump sprouting is most pronounced on winter logged areas.  Improper harvesting can cause poplars to be suppressed, with shrubs dominating the clearings [46].  Trees cut in the summer have few surviving sprouts after four years [36].  Decay is a limiting factor in balsam poplar utilization [94], but with proper management practices, it could become a very important crop tree in Canada [94]. Balsam poplar has an allelopathic effect on green alder (Alnus viridis spp. crispa) [36].   Balsam poplar can be controlled by 2,4-D + picloram [103], glyphosate, and hexazinone [36], and has an intermediate reaction to 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T [73].  This tree is very sensitive to sulfur dioxide fumigation caused by landfill fires [44].  In an area less than 10 acres (4 ha) away from one such fire, many balsam poplars were killed. Diseases and insect pests of balsam poplar have been discussed by several authors [21,32].


SPECIES: Populus balsamifera subsp. balsamifera
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Balsam poplar is a medium to large native deciduous tree.  Heights of mature trees range from 30 to 100 feet (9-30 m) and trunk diameters from 4 inches to 2 feet (10-60 cm) [101].  The trunk of balsam poplar is straight and cylindrical with an open crown of a few stout ascending branches [63].  The bark is smooth and light gray to grayish brown but furrows with age [22]. Winter buds are 1 inch long (2.5 cm) with sticky resin and a pungent balsam odor in the spring [101].  Drooping pistillate and staminate catkins occur on separate trees.  Leaves are ovate or broadly lanceolate, 2.25 to 4.5 inches long (6-11 cm) and 1.5 to 3 inches wide (4-7.5 cm) [101].  Leaves are shiny green above and pale green below with finely toothed margins [22]. Roots are shallow, especially on wet soil types or shallow permafrost [36].  RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Balsam poplar reproduces both sexually and vegetatively. Seed production and dispersal:  Balsam poplar flower production begins at about 8 years of age, with a good seed crop produced every year [36]. Most seeds are wind dispersed and fall within 650 feet (200 m) of the parent tree [36].  Seeds remain viable for 2 to 4 weeks [57,63] but will germinate immediately following arrival on a suitable seedbed of exposed, moist mineral soil [57].  A 98 to 100 percent germination rate was obtained in 2 to 3 days at temperatures ranging from 41 to 77 degrees F (5-25 degrees C) in a greenhouse study [110].  Seedlings require 1 month of abundant moisture to survive [36]. Vegetative reproduction:  Balsam poplar is capable of regenerating from root suckers, stump sprouts, stem sprouts, and buried branches [36,57]. Root suckering is thought to be primarily a means of expansion rather than a means of recovery following clearcutting or fire [57].  Once established on more mesic sites, balsam poplar will expand onto drier, sandier sites adjacent to river floodplains through vegetative expansion [57].  Most root suckers grow from roots about 0.4 inches (1 cm) in diameter within the top 0.8 inches (2 cm) of soil [36].  Suckering is most common when the organic layer has been removed, exposing mineral soil [36].  Root suckering activity may increase when soil is disturbed or when the overstory is removed, thus allowing warmer soil temperatures [36].  Balsam poplar suckers are larger than those of eastern and narrowleaf cottonwood and are more vigorous than aspen suckers [88]. Cut stumps produce sprouts from callus tissue and from dormant buds [36].  Branches must be well buried to produce aerial shoots [36].  Stem sprouting effectively aids recovery after destructive flooding in which the main stem is broken or bent over [57].  Plant fragments washed downstream may be a means of colonization for balsam poplar [57].  In such cases sprouts can form on either root or shoot segments, leading to the formation of new roots and establishment of a new plant. Stands of balsam poplar are often polyclonal, with several genotypes and their sprouts making up a stand [41]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Balsam poplar generally occurs on moist sites, such as river floodplains, stream and lake shores, moist depressions, and swamps, but will also grow on drier sites [9,22,63,111].  It commonly grows in moist forests, such as white and black spruce (Picea mariana) forests of the boreal zone, and is found in the forest-tundra transition zone in Canada [63,68].  Balsam poplar can be found growing beyond the coniferous tree line along rivers and on southern slopes having less permafrost than the surroundings [63,97]. Common associated species of balsam poplar include the following: Canada and Alaska: white spruce, black spruce, blue spruce (Picea pungens), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), jack pine (P. banksiana), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), tamarack (Larix laricina), black cottonwood, paper birch, aspen, alders (Alnus spp.), willows (Salix spp.), currant, (Ribes spp.), red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), and prickly rose (Rosa acicularis) [16,19,36,55,56,63,74,77,80,99]. Minnesota:  balsam fir (Abies balsamea), black ash (Fraxinus nigra), American elm (Ulmus americana), red maple (Acer rubrum), aspen, and bitter cherry (Prunus emarginata) [14]. Glacial moraines in the northern boreal forest commonly support stands of balsam poplars.  Permafrost may occur discontinuously in these areas [66].  Typical soils where balsam poplar is found are those of alluvial floodplains, including gravel, deep sand, clay loam, silt, and silty loam [24,36].  Abundant soil moisture is needed, but stagnant brackish water is intolerable to this tree [36].  Balsam poplar has high nutrient requirements; it needs a good supply of calcium and magnesium.  It does not tolerate acidic deep peats and humic soils in which nutrients are released slowly [36]. Climates in which balsam poplars grow range from arctic to temperate but most commonly are boreal.  Average temperatures in British Columbia boreal forests are below 26 degrees F (-3 degrees C) in the coolest month and around 50 degrees F (10 degrees C) in the warmest month [36]. Mean annual precipitation is 177 inches (452 cm); about one-third is in the form of snow [65]. Elevational ranges for balsam poplar are reported as follows:                         feet          meters      reference Alaska               0 -  3500        0 - 1067     [101] British Columbia     0 -  5400        0 - 1650     [36] Colorado          6000 - 12000     1800 - 3700     [24] Wyoming           3500 -  9000     1067 - 2740     [24] Montana                   5500            1675     [24] Utah                      4300            1310     [24] SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Balsam poplar is a pioneer species which invades disturbed wet sites by seeding or suckering [22].  It is among the fastest growing trees in temperate latitudes [22,101].  Rapid early growth allows it to establish and dominate for up to 100 years; it has lived up to 200 years in Alaska [36,75] but is considered more short-lived in southern areas. Balsam poplar is highly flood tolerant [36] and is able to form adventitious roots within a few days of a flood [58].  It showed no noticeable injury from 2 months of flooding in several different areas of Minnesota [1].  Balsam poplar is a seral species, eventually shaded out by other hardwoods or by conifers [14,22].  In Minnesota it is commonly found in transition zones between prairie and conifer forest [14], and it is found in the transition zone between boreal forest and tundra in far northern latitudes [63]. Balsam poplar occurs on both dry and wet sites, with different factors controlling succession on these different sites.  Dry sites such as south slopes or coarse alluvium supporting balsam poplar are affected to a great degree by fire [75,96,97].  Fire is a major factor controlling succession in northern montane boreal forests [78].  Repeated wildfires have led to the development of balsam poplar- and aspen-dominated stands within white spruce forests [78] and retards white spruce replacement [63].  Fire will stimulate balsam poplar to root sucker and increase in density where it is present in any successional stage [36].  This tree has an explosive recovery rate after even severe fires [53]. Fire is uncommon [40,77] and plays no apparent role in succession of alluvial floodplain sites in boreal forests [75].  Flood or other soil disturbances allow colonization by willows, alders, and balsam poplars, with balsam poplar eventually overtopping the other species and dominating for up to 100 years [10,76,99].  Eventually white spruce overtops the poplar and matures as an even-aged white spruce forest. Conversion from balsam poplar to white spruce usually occurs within 120 to 150 years unless an inadequate white spruce seed source exists or severe flooding recurs [97].  These white spruce stands eventually become uneven-aged and permafrost may develop due to a lack of sunlight penetrating through to the soil.  Permafrost development will lead to replacement by black spruce and tamarack.  Balsam poplar is occasionally reported to occur in black spruce forests [17,48,49] but does not persist. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Balsam poplar flowers bloom and seeds disperse before leaves completely emerge [36,101].  Bloom and seed dispersal dates in several geographic areas are as follows:                          flowers bloom    seeds disperse Alaska [57,101]           May-June          June         British Columbia [36]     April-June        May-June     CO, MT, ND [24]           April-May Lake States, Maine &      April-May         May-July   Nebraska [32]


SPECIES: Populus balsamifera subsp. balsamifera
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Balsam poplar is considered one of the tree species most well adapted to fire in the northern boreal forest [36].  Its ability to produce sprouts from roots, stumps, and buried branches enables it to quickly recover after fire [74].  The bark of older balsam poplars can be up to 4 inches (10 cm) thick at the base, affording fire protection [32]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :    survivor species; on-site surviving root crown or caudex    off-site colonizer; seed carried by wind; postfire years 1 and 2


SPECIES: Populus balsamifera subsp. balsamifera
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Severe fires kill balsam poplars [53]; however, underground parts survive in moist soils [111].  Moderate fires may top-kill some trees; light fires usually do not harm mature balsam poplars [53].  Young trees may be top-killed because of their thin bark [16].  Repeated burning may permanently exclude balsam poplars [16]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Balsam poplar is stimulated to produce root suckers within several weeks following fire [36,38].  Active recovery is likely to begin 1 year after fire; balsam poplar increased in cover and frequency after 1 year on a severely burned site in Alberta [53]:                  cover   frequency      prefire      .4 %       5 %      postfire    3.2 %      33 % Most balsam poplar suckering occurred in the second season after a spring burn in a 15-year-old stand in Alberta, and after 5 years poplar density was greater on burned areas than before the fire [4]. Two years after logging and broadcast slash burning in a floodplain white spruce area, white spruce seedlings were outnumbered and overtopped by hardwood seedlings, including balsam poplar [28].  Soil temperatures on these sites were doubled, which encourages vegetative expansion by balsam poplar [36,86]. See black cottonwood for further information on sprouting response of balsam and other cottonwoods. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : For information on prescribed fire and postfire responses of many plant species, including balsam poplar, see Hamilton's Research Papers (Hamilton 2006a, Hamilton 2006b) and this Research Project Summary: FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Prescribed burning for wildlife:  Fire-induced poplar and willow sprouting can increase forage for moose [67].  Beaver also benefit from an increased supply of poplar sprouts following fire [83].  Repeatedly burning white spruce forests and balsam poplar stands can convert large areas into grasslands used by elk and Stone's sheep [90].  Cyclic burns (every 10 years) are needed to maintain sedge (Carex spp.) grasslands that would otherwise be taken over by shrubs and deciduous trees, including balsam poplar; sedges are the main food item for bison in northern latitudes [15].  Wood Buffalo National Park, a large bison preserve in Canada, is characterized by extensive areas of white spruce and mixed hardwoods, and extensive sedge meadows.  Natural fire cycles here have been estimated to be 50 years [40]. Fire control has had little or no impact in most of the far northern boreal forest and natural lightning-caused fire regimes prevail [40]. Estimated fire intervals of white spruce stands vary from 80 years on morainic uplands to 300 years in floodplain stands [40].  Closed white spruce forests of interior Alaska tend to have either high intensity crown fires or severe surface fires which kill and regenerate entire stands [40].  Balsam poplar present in white spruce stands will recover rapidly after fire [78].  White spruce replacement may be retarded with cyclic fires [63]. Balsam poplar easily colonizes large burn areas due to seed dispersal distances and its ability to regenerate vegetatively.  White spruce may be more successful at reestablishing small burns [96].


SPECIES: Populus balsamifera subsp. balsamifera
REFERENCES : 1. Ahlgren, Clifford E.; Hansen, Henry L. 1957. Some effects of temporary flooding on coniferous trees. Forestry. 55(9): 647-650. [2924] 2. Alexander, Robert R.; Shearer, Raymond C.; Shepperd, Wayne D. 1984. Silvical characteristics of subalpine fir. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-115. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 29 p. [7479] 3. Archibold, O. W. 1979. Buried viable propagules as a factor in postfire regeneration in northern Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Botany. 57: 54-58. [5934] 4. Bailey, Arthur W.; Anderson, Howard G. 1979. Brush control on sandy rangelands in central Alberta. Journal of Range Management. 32(1): 29-32. [3387] 5. Bakuzis, E. V.; Hansen, H. L.; with contrib. by Kaufert, F. H.; Lawrence, D. B.; Duncan, D. P.; [and others]. 1965. Balsam fir, Abies balsamea (Linnaeus) Miller; a monographic review. Minneapolis, MN: The University of Minnesota Press. 445 p. [8432] 6. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 7. Bottorff, Richard L. 1974. Cottonwood habitat for birds in Colorado. American Birds. 28(6): 975-979. [6309] 8. Brayshaw, T. C. 1965. The status of the black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa Torrey and Gray). Canadian Field-Naturalist. 79(2): 91-95. [6285] 9. Brayshaw, T. Christopher. 1976. Catkin bearing plants of British Columbia. Occas. Pap. No. 18. Victoria, BC: The British Columbia Provincial Museum. 176 p. [6170] 10. Brown, K. R.; Zobel, D. B.; Zasada, J. C. 1988. Seed dispersal, seedling emergence, and early survival of Larix laricina (DuRoi) K. Koch in the Tanana Valley, Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 18: 306-314. [7220] 11. Brumelis, G.; Carleton, T. J. 1988. The vegetation of postlogged black spruce lowlands in central Canada. I. Trees and tall shrubs. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 18: 1470-1478. [9267] 12. Brutvan, B.; Klukas, R. (revised by R. Klukas). 1982. Checklist of plants of Wind Cave National Park.. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]. 32 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratoy, Missoula, MT. [374] 13. Bryant, John P.; Chapin, F. S., III; Clausen, T. P.; Reichardt, P. R. 1987. Effect of resource availability on woody plant-mammal interaction. In: Provenza, Frederick D.; Flinders, Jerran T.; McArthur, E. Durant, compilers. Proceedings--Symposium on plant-herbivore interactions; 1985 August 7-9; Snowbird, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-222. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 3-8. [7327] 14. Buell, Murray F.; Cantlon, John E. 1951. A study of two forest stands in Minnesota with an interpretation of the prairie-forest margin. Ecology. 32(2): 294-316. [3251] 15. Campbell, Bruce H.; Hinkes, Mike. 1983. Winter diets and habitat use of Alaska bison after wildfire. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 11(1): 16-21. [8389] 16. Campbell, J. B.; Lodge, R. W.; Johnston, A.; Smoliak, S. 1962. Range management of grasslands and adjacent parklands in the prairie provinces. Publ. 1133. Ottawa, ON: Canada Department of Agriculture, Research Branch. 32 p. [595] 17. Chrosciewicz, Z. 1976. Burning for black spruce regeneration on a lowland cutover site in southeastern Manitoba. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 6(2): 179-186. [7280] 18. Collingwood, G. H. 1937. Knowing your trees. Washington, DC: The American Forestry Association. 213 p. [6316] 19. Corns, I. G. W. 1983. Forest community types of west-central Alberta in relation to selected environmental factors. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 13: 995-1010. [691] 20. Cumming, H. G. 1987. Sixteen years of moose browse surveys in Ontario. Alces. 23: 125-156. [8859] 21. Davidson, A. G.; Prentice, R. M. 1968. Insects and diseases. In: Maini, J. S.; Cayford, J. H., eds. Growth and utilization of poplars in Canada. Departmental Publication No. 1205. Ottawa, ON: Department of Forestry and Rural Development: 116-144. [6505] 22. Dickmann, Donald I.; Stuart, Katherine W. 1983. The culture of poplars in eastern North America. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, Department of Forestry. 168 p. [6317] 23. Dirschl, German J.; Dabbs, Don L.; Gentle, Garry C. 1974. Landscape classification and plant successional trends in the Peace-Athabasca Delta. Canadian Wildlife Service Report Series 30. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Wildlife Service. 33 p. [6177] 24. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 25. Dorn, Robert D. 1977. Flora of the Black Hills. [Place of publication unknown]: Robert D. Dorn and Jane L. Dorn. 377 p. [820] 26. Dorn, Robert D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 276 p. [819] 27. Franklin, Jerry F. 1981. Vegetation and habitats. In: Maser, Chris; Mate, Bruce R.; Franklin, Jerry F.; Dyrness, C. T., compilers. Natural history of Oregon Coast mammals. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-133. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 17-34. [6219] 28. Dyrness, C. T.; Viereck, L. A.; Foote, M. J.; Zasada, J. C. 1988. The effect on vegetation and soil temperature of logging flood-plain white spruce. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-392. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 45 p. [7471] 29. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 30. Fechner, Gilbert H. 1985. Silvical characteristics of blue spruce. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-117. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 19 p. [7478] 31. Foote, M. Joan. 1983. Classification, description, and dynamics of plant communities after fire in the taiga of interior Alaska. Res. Pap. PNW-307. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 108 p. [7080] 32. Fowells, H. A., compiler. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agric. Handb. 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 762 p. [12442] 33. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 34. George, Ernest J. 1953. Tree and shrub species for the Northern Great Plains. Circular No. 912. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 46 p. [4566] 35. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603] 36. Haeussler, S.; Coates, D. 1986. Autecological characteristics of selected species that compete with conifers in British Columbia: a literature review. Land Management Report No. 33. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Forests, Information Services Branch. 180 p. [1055] 37. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851] 38. Hawkes, Brad C. 1982. Fire history and ecology of forest ecosystems in Kluane National Park. In: Wein, Ross W.; Riewe, Roderick R.; Methven, Ian R., eds. Resources and dynamics of the Boreal Zone; [Date of conference unknown]; Thunder Bay, ON. [Place of publication unknown]. Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studies: 266-280. [7444] 39. Heimburger, C. 1968. Poplar breeding in Canada. In: Maini, J. S.; Cayford, J. H., eds. Growth and utilization of poplars in Canada. Departmental Publication No. 1205. Ottawa, ON: Department of Forestry and Rural Development: 88-100. [6502] 40. Heinselman, Miron L. 1981. Fire intensity and frequency as factors in the distribution and structure of northern ecosystems. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; [and others], technical coordinators. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 7-57. [4390] 41. Hermanutz, L. A.; Innes, D. J.; Weis, I. M. 1989. Clonal structure of arctic dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) at its northern limit. American Journal of Botany. 76(5): 755-761. [7346] 42. Cronquist, Arthur. 1955. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest: Part 5: Compositae. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 343 p. [716] 43. Holloway, Patricia; Zasada, John. 1979. Vegetative propagation of 11 common Alaska woody plants. Res. Note PNW-334. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 12 p. [1183] 44. Hocking, Drake. 1975. Effects on the forest of sulphur dioxide from a sulphur fire near Edson, Alberta. Information Report NOR-X-139. Edmonton, AB: Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Northern Forest Research Center. 8 p. [7610] 45. Holloway, Patricia; Zasada, John. 1979. Vegetative propagation of 11 common Alaska woody plants. Res. Note PNW-334. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 12 p. [1183] 46. Jarvis, J. M. 1968. Silviculture and management of natural poplar stands. In: Maini, J. S.; Cayford, J. H., eds. Growth and utilization of poplars in Canada. Departmental Publication No. 1205. Ottawa, ON: Department of Forestry and Rural Development: 70-87. [6501] 47. Jogia, Madhu K.; Sinclair, A. R. E.; Andersen, Raymond J. 1989. An antifeedant in balsam poplar inhibits browsing by snowshoe hares. Oecologia. 79: 189-192. [8728] 48. Johnston, William F. 1971. Management guide for the black spruce type in the lake states. NC-64. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 12 p. [8687] 49. Johnston, William F. 1977. Manager's handbook for black spruce in the North Central States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-34. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 18 p. [8684] 50. Johnstone, W. D.; Peterson, E. B. 1980. Above-ground component weights in Alberta Populus stands. Information Report NOR-X-226. Edmonton, Alberta: Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Northern Forest Research Centre. 18 p. [8145] 51. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. (1999). Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with the Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. [36745] 52. Kautz, Darrell R. 1988. White spruce site index in the Kantishna and Copper River areas of interior Alaska. In: Slaughter, Charles W.; Gasbarro, eds. Proceedings of the Alaska forest soil productivity workshop; 1987 April 28-30; Anchorage, AK. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-219. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station; Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management: 96-100. [5578] 53. Keith, Lloyd B.; Surrendi, Dennis C. 1971. Effects of fire on a snowshoe hare population. Journal of Wildlife Management. 35(1): 16-26. [124] 54. Kershaw, G. Peter; Kershaw, Linda J. 1987. Successful plant colonizers on disturbances in tundra areas of northwestern Canada. Arctic and Alpine Research. 19(4): 451-460. [6115] 55. Kiil, Ain David. 1967. The fuel complex in 70-year old lodgepole pine stands of different densities. Missoula: University of Montana. 62 p. Thesis. [6932] 56. Krajina, V. J.; Klinka, K.; Worrall, J. 1982. Distribution and ecological characteristics of trees and shrubs of British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia, Department of Botany and Faculty of Forestry. 131 p. [6728] 57. Krasny, Marianne E.; Vogt, Kristiina A.; Zasada, John C. 1988. Establishment of four Salicaceae species on river bars in interior Alaska. Holarctic Ecology. 11: 210-219. [10558] 58. Krasny, Marianne E.; Zasada, John C.; Vogt, Kristiina A. 1988. Adventitious rooting of four Salicaceae species in response to a flooding event. Canadian Journal of Botany. 66: 2597-2598. [10561] 59. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 60. La Roi, George H. 1967. Ecological studies in the boreal spruce-fir forests of the North American taiga. I. Analysis of the vascular flora. Ecological Monographs. 37(3): 229-253. [8864] 61. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1976. Atlas of United States trees. Volume 3. Minor western hardwoods. Misc. Publ. 1314. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 13 p. 290 maps. [10430] 62. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 63. Maini, J. S. 1968. Silvics and ecology of Populus in Canada. In: Maini, J. S.; Cayford, J. H., eds. Growth and utilization of poplars in Canada. Departmental Publication No. 1205. Ottawa, ON: Department of Forestry and Rural Development: 20-69. [6500] 64. McNicol, J. G.; Gilbert, F. F. 1980. Late winter use of upland cutovers by moose. Journal of Wildlife Management. 44(2): 363-371. [4348] 65. Meidinger, D.; Lewis, T. 1983. Biogeoclimatic zones and subzones of the Fort Nelson Timber Supply Area, British Columbia. Northern Fire Ecology Project: Fort Nelson Timber Supply Area. Victoria, BC: Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests. 53 p. [1638] 66. Meidinger, D.; Lewis, T.; Kowall, R. 1986. Biogeoclimatic zones and subzones of the northern portion of the Mackenzie Timber Supply Area, British Columbia. In: Northern Fire Ecology Project: Northern Mackenzie Timber Supply Area. Victoria, BC: Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests. 44 p. [9204] 67. Miquelle, Dale G.; Van Ballenberghe, Victor. 1989. Impact of bark stripping by moose on aspen-spruce communities. Journal of Wildlife Management. 53(3): 577-586. [8911] 68. Morneau, Claude; Payette, Serge. 1989. Postfire lichen--spruce woodland recovery at the limit of the boreal forest in northern Quebec. Canadian Journal of Botany. 67: 2770-2782. [9270] 69. Morris, L. A.; Mollitor, A. V.; Johnson, K. J.; Leaf, A. L. 1979. Forest management of floodplain sites in the northeastern United States. In: Johnson, R. Roy; McCormick, J. Frank, technical coordinators. Strategies for protection and management of floodplain wetlands and other riparian ecosystems: Proceedings of the symposium; 1978 December 11-13; Callaway Gardens, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-12. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 236-242. [4364] 70. Moss, E. H. 1953. Marsh and bog vegetation in northwestern Alberta. Canadian Journal of Botany. 31(4): 448-470. [5117] 71. Newton, Michael; Cole, Elizabeth C.; Lautenschlager, R. A.; [and others]. 1989. Browse availability after conifer release in Maine's spruce-fir forests. Journal of Wildlife Management. 53(3): 643-649. [8401] 72. Nichols, G. E. 1935. The hemlock-white pine-northern hardwood region of eastern North America. Ecology. 16(3): 403-422. [8867] 73. Parker, Robert, compiler. 1982. Reaction of various plants to 2,4-D, MCPA, 2,4,5-T, silvex and 2,4-DB. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, College of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension. 61 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture. [1817] 74. Parminter, John. 1983. Fire history and fire ecology in the Prince Rupert Forest region. In: Trowbridge, R. L.; Macadam, A., eds. Prescribed fire--forest soils: Symposium proceedings; 1982 March 2-3; Smithers, BC. Land Management Report Number 16. Victoria, BC: Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests: 1-35. [8849] 75. Parminter, John. 1983. Fire-ecological relationships for the biogeoclimatic zones of the Cassiar Timber Supply Area: summary report. In: Northern Fire Ecology Project, Cassiar Timber Supply Area. Victoria, BC: Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests. 64 p. [9201] 76. Parminter, John. 1983. Fire-ecological relationships for the biogeoclimatic zones of the Cassiar Timber Supply Area. In: Northern Fire Ecology Project, Cassiar Timber Supply Area. Victoria, BC: Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests. 172 p. [9202] 77. Pearce, C. M.; McLennan, D.; Cordes, L. D. 1988. The evolution and maintenance of white spruce woodlands on the Mackenzie Delta, N. W. T., Canada. Holarctic Ecology. 11(4): 248-258. [10472] 78. Peck, V. Ross. 1988. Fire and elk in northeastern British Columbia: the historical context. In: Feller, M.C.; Thomson, S.M., eds. Wildlife and range prescribed burning workshop proceedings; 1987 October 27-28; Richmond, BC. Vancouver, BC: The University of British Columbia, Faculty of Forestry: 142-162. [3109] 79. Peek, J. M. 1974. A review of moose food habits studies in North America. Le Naturaliste Canadien. 101: 195-215. [7420] 80. Pojar, J.; Trowbridge, R.; Coates, D. 1984. Ecosystem classification and interpretation of the sub-boreal spruce zone, Prince Rupert Forest Region, British Columbia. Land Management Report No. 17. Victoria, BC: Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests. 319 p. [6929] 81. Pojar, J.; Trowbridge, R.; Lewis, T. 1983. Biogeoclimatic zones of the Cassiar Timber Supply Area, northwestern British Columbia. In: Northern Fire Ecology Project, Cassiar Timber Supply Area. Victoria, BC: Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests. 53 p. [9199] 82. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 83. A. D. Revill Associates. 1978. Ecological eff. of fire and its mgmt. in Canada's national parks: a synthesis of the literature. Vols 1&2. Lit. Rev. & Annot. Bibliography. Ottawa, ON: Parks Canada, National Parks Branch, Natural Resources Division. 345 p. [3416] 84. Rowe, J. S. 1956. Uses of undergrowth plant species in forestry. Ecology. 37(3): 461-473. [8862] 85. Rowe, J. S. 1961. Critique of some vegetational concepts as applied to forests of northwestern Alberta. Canadian Journal of Botany. 39: 1007-1017. [6468] 86. Rowe, J. S.; Scotter, G. W. 1973. Fire in the boreal forest. Quaternary Research. 3: 444-464. [72] 87. Russell, W. B. 1985. Vascular flora of abandoned coal-mined land, Rocky Mountain Foothills, Alberta. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 99(4): 503-516. [10461] 88. Schier, George A.; Campbell, Robert B. 1976. Differences among Populus species in ability to form adventitious shoots and roots. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 6: 253-261. [3919] 89. Seip, Dale. 1988. Range burning for Stone's sheep in northern British Columbia. In: Feller, M.C.; Thomson, S.M., eds. Wildlife and range prescribed burning workshop proceedings; 1987 October 27-28; Richmond, BC. Vancouver, BC: The University of British Columbia, Faculty of Forestry: 139-142. [3108] 90. Seip, Dale R.; Bunnell, Fred L. 1985. Range burning, Stone's Sheep, and the leaky bucket. In: Lotan, James E.;Brown, James K., compilers. Fire's effects on wildlife habitat- symposium proceedings; 1984 March 21; Missoula, MT. General Technical Report INT-186. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 44-47. [8340] 91. Voss, Edward G. 1972. Michigan flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and monocots. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 488 p. [11471] 92. Smith, W. Brad. 1986. Biomass yields for small tree, shrubs, and herbs in northern Lake States forests. Res. Pap. NC-277. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 11 p. [8159] 93. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804] 94. Thomas, G. P. 1968. Decay as a limiting factor on poplar utilization. In: Maini, J. S.; Cayford, J. H., eds. Growth and utilization of poplars in Canada. Departmental Publication No. 1205. Ottawa, ON: Department of Forestry and Rural Development: 145-148. [6506] 95. Van Cleve, K.; Dyrness, C. T.; Viereck, L. A.; [and others]. 1983. Taiga ecosystems in interior Alaska. BioScience. 33(1): 39-44. [7884] 96. Viereck, Leslie A. 1973. Wildfire in the taiga of Alaska. Quaternary Research. 3: 465-495. [7247] 97. Viereck, Leslie A. 1975. Forest ecology of the Alaska taiga. In: Proceedings of the circumpolar conference on northern ecology; 1975 September 15-18; Ottawa, ON. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 1-22. [7315] 98. Viereck, Leslie A. 1979. Characteristics of treeline plant communities in Alaska. Holarctic Ecology. 2: 228-238. [8251] 99. Viereck, Leslie A. 1989. Flood-plain succession and vegetation classification in interior Alaska. In: Ferguson, Dennis E.; Morgan, Penelope; Johnson, Frederic D., compilers. Proceedings--land classifications based on vegetation: applications for resource management; 1987 November 17-19; Moscow, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-257. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 197-203. [6959] 100. Viereck, L. A.; Dyrness, C. T.; Batten, A. R.; Wenzlick, K. J. 1992. The Alaska vegetation classification. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-286. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 278 p. [2431] 101. Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. Agric. Handb. 410. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 265 p. [6884] 102. Viereck, Leslie A.; Schandelmeier, Linda A. 1980. Effects of fire in Alaska and adjacent Canada--a literature review. BLM-Alaska Tech. Rep. 6. Anchorage, AK: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office. 124 p. [7075] 103. Waddington, John; Bittman, Shabtai. 1987. Control of brush regrowth in northeastern Saskatchewan by several concentrations of herbicides applied with a roller. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 67: 467-475. [3833] 104. Weber, M. G. 1987. Decomposition, litter fall, and forest floor nutrient dynamics in relation to fire in eastern Ontario jack pine ecosystems. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 17: 1496-1506. [7240] 105. Weber, William A. 1987. Colorado flora: western slope. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press. 530 p. [7706] 106. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944] 107. Whitney, Gordon G. 1986. Relation of Michigan's presettlement pine forests to substrate and disturbance history. Ecology. 67(6): 1548-1559. [8713] 108. Wolff, Jerry O. 1978. Food habits of snowshoe hare in interior Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management. 42(1): 148-153. [7443] 109. Zach, R.; Crichton, V. F. J.; Stewart, J. M.; Mayoh, K. R. 1982. Early winter food habits of Manitoba moose as determined by three rumen analysis methods. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 60(6): 1300-1304. [6988] 110. Zasada, J. C.; Viereck, L. A. 1975. The effect of temperature and stratification on germination on selected members of Salicaceae in interior Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 5(2): 333-337. [6989] 111. Zoltai, S. C.; Pettapiece, W. W. 1973. Studies of vegetation, landform and permafrost in the Mackenzie Valley: Terrain, vegetation and permafrost relationships in the northern part of the Mackenzie Valley. Report No. 73-4. Task Force on Northern Oil Development, Environmental-Social Committee, Northern Pipelines. 105 p. [7227] 112. Zasada, John C.; Norum, Rodney A.; Van Veldhuizen, Robert M.; Teutsch, Christian E. 1983. Artificial regeneration of trees and tall shrubs in experimentally burned upland black spruce/feather moss stands in Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 13: 903-913. [6991] 113. Jones, R. Keith; Pierpoint, Geoffrey; Wickware, Gregory M.; [and others]. 1983. Field guide to forest ecosystem classification for the Clay Belt, site region 3e. Maple, Ontario: Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario Forest Research Institute. 160 p. [16163] 114. Houtcooper, Wayne C.; Ode, David J.; Pearson, John A.; Vandel, George M., III. 1985. Rare animals and plants of South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 17(3): 143-165. [1198]

FEIS Home Page