SPECIES: Pinus virginiana
SPECIES: Pinus virginiana
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Pinus virginiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ .
ABBREVIATION : PINVIR SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : PIVI2 COMMON NAMES : Virginia pine scrub pine Jersey pine spruce pine possum pine shortstraw pine poverty pine oldfield pine TAXONOMY : The currently accepted name of Virginia pine is Pinus virginiana Mill. There are no accepted subspecies, varieties, or forms [14,23,25]. LIFE FORM : Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY
SPECIES: Pinus virginiana
DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : The native range of Virginia pine extends from southern New Jersey west to Pennsylvania and southern Ohio; south to South Carolina, northern Georgia, northern Alabama, and northern Mississippi [12,25]. It has also been planted in east-central Oklahoma . ECOSYSTEMS : FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES15 Oak - hickory STATES : AL DE GA IN KY MD MS NJ NY NC OH OK PA SC TN VA WV BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K083 Cedar glades K084 Cross Timbers K089 Black Belt K104 Appalachian oak forest K110 Northeastern oak - pine forest K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest SAF COVER TYPES : 40 Post oak - blackjack oak 43 Bear oak 45 Pitch pine 46 Eastern redcedar 50 Black locust 51 White pine - chestnut oak 52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak 53 White oak 55 Northern red oak 57 Yellow-poplar 64 Sassafras - persimmon 69 Sand pine 70 Longleaf pine 71 Longleaf pine - scrub oak 75 Shortleaf pine 78 Virginia pine - oak 79 Virginia pine 80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine 81 Loblolly pine 82 Loblolly pine - hardwood 83 Longleaf pine - slash pine 108 Red maple 110 Black oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Virginia pine can occur in pure stands or as a member of mixed pine-hardwood communities, particularly those with oak (Quercus spp.) . It is associated with pitch pine (P. rigida) and Table Mountain pine (P. pungens) in the Appalachian Mountains. On the eastern shores of Virginia and Maryland it is associated with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua). In the Peidmont region it is associated with shortleaf pine (P. echinata) and oaks . Published classifications that include Virginia pine as a dominant or codominant species include the following: Classification and evaluation of forest sites in the Cumberland Mountains  Classification and evaluation of forest sites on the northern Cumberland Plateau  Classification and evaluation of forest sites on the Natchez Trace State Forest  Southeastern evergreen and oak-pine region  Landscape ecosystem classification for South Carolina 
SPECIES: Pinus virginiana
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : Virginia pine was previously used only for mine props, railroad ties, rough lumber, fuel, tar, and charcoal. It currently has little importance for lumber, but is becoming more important as a pulpwood species, especially through the reforestation of abandoned agricultural lands, cutover, and mined sites [7,14,54]. Several thousand acres of land are planted in Virginia pine annually . IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Virginia pine seeds are an important food source for many small mammals and birds, including northern bobwhites [14,52]. Virginia pine forms good nesting sites for woodpeckers due to a preponderance of softened wood in older trees . When used for revegetation of mine spoils, Virginia pine has high value for wildlife cover and food . It provides browse for white-tailed deer, and probably for other animals as well . Virginia pine forests are the second highest producers of choice browse for white-tailed deer in the Oconee National Forest, Georgia . Young Virginia pine stands provide good habitat for rabbits, northern bobwhite, and many nongame birds. Mature stands with a sparse shrub layer are less valuable habitat . PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : The nutrient content (percent dry weight) of Virginia pine foliage was reported as follows : Ca 0.55 Mg 0.08 P 0.10 K 0.32 lignin 33.6 COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Within its natural range, Virginia pine is often a pioneer on mined soils . Virginia and loblolly pines have naturally reforested some surface coal mines in Alabama, and are substantial producers of commercial softwoods . Natural revegetation on manganese mine spoils in Virginia and Tennessee includes Virginia pine. It is widely planted in the middle and southern Appalachian region on surface coal mine spoils, and has good potential for revegetation of other disturbed sites [6,34,36,54]. Virginia pine is adapted to a wide range of mined soils and performs well on acidic and droughty sites . On dark-colored coal mine wastes in Pennsylvania, Virginia pine was more resistant to heat damage than eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), Scotch pine (P. sylvestris) or jack pine (P. banksiana). Plantings of Virginia pine outside its native range are usually invaded by hardwoods within 15 to 20 years . Performance of Virginia pine on surface coal mine spoils varies with planting conditions and post-planting environmental conditions [42,53,54,59,62]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Virginia pine is planted for Christmas trees [7,14]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Virginia pine can produce good yields on sites that are marginal for loblolly pine. Yields and performance vary with seed source [25,49]. Virginia pine is best managed with even-aged silvicultural systems. Strip and patch cutting in short rotations are successful techniques for harvest and regeneration of Virginia pine [18,50,58]. The transition from mostly pure Virginia pine stands to oak-pine or oak-hickory (Carya spp.) can be hastened by harvesting techniques [50,58]. Results of plantation trials of Virginia pine in the Cross Timbers area of Oklahoma varied with moisture availability; survival rates are mostly very high. Virginia pine, therefore, has good potential for reforestation projects in this area . Virginia pine is a common woody competitor of loblolly pine in plantations . It is recommended that old, decaying trees be left standing near the margins of clearcuts for woodpecker nest sites . Virginia pine can be propagated by grafting, and can be rooted from cuttings . Principal diseases of Virginia pine include heart rot and pitch canker. Principal insect pests include the southern pine beetle, Ips spp., Virginia pine sawfly, redheaded pine sawfly, and pales weevil. Meadow mice may girdle young trees . Virgina pine is resistant to damage by ozone [13,20].
SPECIES: Pinus virginiana
BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Virginia pine is a native, medium-sized, two-needle pine. Average height at maturity (50 years of age) is 50 to 75 feet (15-23 m) on better sites . Its long horizontal branches are irregularly spaced [5,19]. Open-grown trees have persistent, heavy branches to the ground . The trunk is relatively short, with an open, flat-topped crown . The needles are about 2 inches (5 cm) long. The bark of young stems is smooth; older stems have platy scales with shallow fissures [14,25]. It is relatively short-lived; senescence usually occurs around 65 to 90 years. It rarely lives beyond 150 years of age [12,14,15]. The root system is relatively shallow except on deep sands, where the taproot can be from 6.6 to 10 feet (2-3 m) deep . RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Age of sexual maturity for open-grown Virginia pine is usually around 5 years of age. Some precocious specimens have flowered at 18 months. Sexual maturity may be delayed for up to 50 years of age in trees in suppressed stands . Virginia pine is a prolific seed producer [15,29]. The cones open at maturity, and persist for at least several years . Most seeds are dispersed within 100 feet (30 m) of the parent . Exposed mineral soil is required for successful seedling establishment; little to no shade is required. Seedlings are tolerant of lower soil moisture than most other pines, though growth is slower on dry sites . Asexual regeneration: Sprouts on cut stumps of Virginia pine have been reported, but are usually short lived . SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Virginia pine grows soils derived from marine deposits, crystalline rocks, sandstones and shales, and to a lesser extent, limestone . Most of these soils are well- to excessively drained, sandy, and weakly acidic [14,19,27,29]. The best growth of Virginia pine is on clay, loam, or sandy loam. Growth is poor on serpentine, shallow shale, or very sandy soils . Soil pH ranges from 4.6 to 7.9. Virginia pine occurs at elevations from 50 to 2,500 feet (15-760 m), with hilly topography [7,27,58]. Tree associates not previously mentioned include scarlet oak (Q. coccinea), hickories (Carya ovata, C. ovalis, C. glabra), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), and eastern white pine [7,33]. There is usually a sparse shrub understory . SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Obligate Initial Community Species Virginia pine is an aggressive invader of burned sites [5,14,37]. It is intolerant of shade [7,14]. Virginia pine is a transitional type, and is usually quickly replaced by tolerant hardwoods . In pioneer stands in Virginia, Virginia pine made up to 50 percent of the total importance value. Its importance decreases with stand age. Mixed stands with white oak, yellow-poplar and sweetgum are formed by mid-succession. Late-successional stands are dominated by oaks and hickories, with very little Virginia pine remaining [38,50]. Virginia pine is usually well represented in early stages of oldfield succession on dry sites . SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Virginia pine pollen is released from March to May, depending on latitude [7,14]. Fertilization occurs in June, 13 months after pollination. Seeds mature by mid- to late August. Cones mature by late September to early November. Seed dispersal begins in October and is usually complete by January .
SPECIES: Pinus virginiana
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Virginia pine is not well adapted to survive fire due to thin bark and shallow roots . Large trees however, are apparently able to survive fires. Virginia pine stands that include six size classes (d.b.h) have nbeen documented. This size distribution is apparently due to fires that burned at approximately 20- to 30-year intervals. The larger trees, therefore, survived at least one fire . Virginia pine populations are maintained by fire or other disturbance; Virginia pine is a colonizer of recently burned sites . Root crown sprouts have been reported, but are apparently not an important fire survival mechanism . Fire regimes in habitats containing Virginia pine have been altered by humans for many years. It is thought that prior to European settlement, Indians maintained large tracts of pine forests through intentional burning of forest lands for various purposes (e.g., agriculture, wildlife harvest) [9,57]. These fires created a patchwork of communities, increasing the amount of area covered by pioneer or pyrophytic species such as Virginia and pitch pines . Currently, lightning fires do occur, but are of low importance compared to those started by people . Landers  estimated the fire return interval in the southeastern United States at approximately 2 fires of high intensity per 100 years. In the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennesee and South Carolina, fire intervals for 1856 to 1900 and for 1900 to 1940 were both estimated to be 9.2 years below 2,000 feet (610 m) elevation, and 11.3 years above that elevation . Virginia pine occurs in the area in and around Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, which has two fire seasons: spring (February 15 to May 15) and fall (October 15 to December 15) . POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tree without adventitious-bud root crown Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE :
SPECIES: Pinus virginiana
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Mature Virginia pine trees can withstand low- to moderate-severity surface fires. Severe fires will kill Virginia pine . DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Virginia pine is an aggressive invader of burned sites . After a hot surface fire in a 30-year-old pine-hardwood stand, 45 percent of all trees died within 2 years. There were large numbers of pine (Virginia and loblolly pine) seedlings by 2.25 years after the fire. Density was 10,750 per acre, compared with 250 per acre on unburned plots .
FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Approximately one-half of the standing crop of Virginia pine needles is shed annually. Leaf litter produced by a 17-year-old stand was calculated to be similar to the amount produced by longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) [29,31,32]. Strip-clearcutting followed by broadcast burning of slash prior to seedfall favors Virginia pine regeneration . Crown fires in pine or pine-hardwood forests in which Virginia pine occurs remove enough of the canopy for good Virginia pine regeneration. Hot or cool surface fires do not remove sufficient canopy for good Virginia pine regeneration . Virginia pine is less resistant to fire than loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, or pitch pine. Fire will therefore reduce the importance of Virginia pine in mixed stands . Sapling stands are more vulnerable to grass fires than similar-aged stands of shortleaf or loblolly pine . Thickness of Virginia pine bark was estimated at 2.7 percent of d.b.h. . Bark thickness required for 50 percent survival of Virginia pine subjected to low-intensity fire was calculated by three models. Using that estimate, the length of time needed for tree growth to be sufficient to resist fire damage was calculated as 13 years for open-grown stands and 23 to 28 years for closed-canopy stands . Virginia pine had the slowest decay rate for standing dead trees of 10 commonly associated species .
SPECIES: Pinus virginiana
REFERENCES : 1. Anderson, Robert L.; McClure, Joe P.; Hoffard, Willian H.; Cost, Noel D. 1981. Incidence and impact of damage to South Carolina's timber, 1979. Resour. Bull. SE-56. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 34 p.  2. Artigas, Francisco J.; Boerner, Ralph E. J. 1989. Advance regeneration and seed banking of woody plants in Ohio pine plantations: implications for landscape change. Landscape Ecology. 2(3): 139-150.  3. Barden, Lawrence S. 1976. Pine reproduction in the Thompson River watershed, North Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Science Society. 92(3): 110-113.  4. Barden, Lawrence S.; Woods, Frank W. 1976. Effects of fire on pine and pine-hardwood forests in the southern Appalachians. Forest Science. 22(4): 399-403.  5. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p.  6. Brothers, Timothy S. 1988. Indiana surface-mine forests: historical development and composition of a human-created vegetation complex. Southeastern Geographer. 28(1): 19-33.  7. Carter, Katherine K.; Snow, Albert G., Jr. 1990. Pinus virginiana Mill. Virginia pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 513-519.  8. Chamberlain, Everett B.; Meyer, H. Arthur. 1950. Bark volume in cordwood. TAPPI. 33(11): 554-555.  9. Christensen, Norman L. 1981. Fire regimes in southeastern ecosystems. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; [and others], technical coordinators. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 112-136.  10. Church, Thomas W., Jr. 1955. Observations following wildfire in a young stand of Virginia pine and hardwoods. Res. Notes No. 49. Upper Darby, PA: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 2 p.  11. Clark, F. Bryan. 1954. Forest planting on strip-mined land. Technical Paper No. 141. Columbus, OH: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Central States Forest Experiment Station. 33 p.  12. Collingwood, G. H. 1937. Knowing your trees. Washington, DC: The American Forestry Association. 213 p.  13. Davis, D. D.; Umbach, D. M.; Coppolino, J. B. 1981. Susceptibility of tree and shrub species and response of black cherry foliage to ozone. Plant Disease. 65(11): 904-907.  14. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p.  15. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p.  16. Garren, Kenneth H. 1943. Effects of fire on vegetation of the southeastern United States. Botanical Review. 9: 617-654.  17. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p.  18. Georgia Chapter, Society of American Foresters. 1979. Silvicultural guidelines for forest owners in Georgia. Georgia Forest Research Paper 6. [Place of publication unknown]: Georgia Forestry Commission, Research Division. 35 p.  19. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p.  20. Hacker, David; Renfro, James. 1992. Great Smoky Mountain plants studied for ozone sensitivity. Park Science. 12(1): 6-7.  21. Harlow, Richard F.; Shrauder, Paul A.; Seehorn, Monte E. 1975. Deer browse resources of the Oconee National Forest. Res. Pap. SE-137. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 16 p.  22. Harmon, Mark. 1982. Fire history of the westernmost portion of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 109(1): 74-79.  23. Harmon, Mark E. 1982. Decomposition of standing dead trees in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Oecologia. 52: 214-215.  24. Harmon, Mark E. 1984. Survival of trees after low-intensity surface fires in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Ecology. 65(3): 796-802.  25. Kellison, R. C.; Zobel, B. J. 1974. Genetics of Virginia pine. Res. Pap. WO-21. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 10 p.  26. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p.  27. Landers, J. Larry. 1991. Disturbance influences on pine traits in the southeastern United States. In: Proceedings, 17th Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1989 May 18-21; Tallahassee, FL. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 61-95.  28. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p.  29. Little, Silas. 1974. Effects of fire on temperate forests: northeastern United States. In: Kozlowski, T. T.; Ahlgren, C. E., eds. Fire and ecosystems. New York: Academic Press: 225-250.  30. Syle, E. S., Jr.; Janes, D. J.; Hicks, D. R.; Weingartner, D. H. 1976. Some vegetation and soil characteristics of coal surface mines in Alabama. In: Proceedings, 4th symposium on surface mining and reclamation; 1976 October 19-21; Louisville, KY. Washington, DC: National Coal Association: 140-156.  31. Madgwick, H. A. I. 1968. Seasonal changes in biomass and annual production of an old-field Pinus virginiana stand. Ecology. 49(1): 149-152.  32. Madgwick, H. A. I. 1970. Caloric values of Pinus virginiana as affected by time of sampling, tree age, and position in stand. Ecology. 51(6): 1094-1097.  33. Martin, William H.; DeSelm, Hal R. 1976. Forest communities of dissected uplands in the Great Valley of east Tennessee. In: Fralish, James S.; Weaver, George T.; Schlesinger, Richard C., eds. Central hardwood forest conference: Proceedings of a meeting; 1976 October 17-19; Carbondale, IL. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University: 11-29.  34. McMinn, James W.; Crane, Walter H. 1984. Five-year performance of selected woody species on an upper coastal plain spoil bank. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 8(4): 207-209.  35. Miller, James H.; Zutter, Bruce R.; Zedaker, Shepard M.; [and others]. 1991. A regional study on the influence of woody and herbaceous competition on early loblolly pine growth. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 15(4): 169-179.  36. Muncy, Jack A. 1989. Reclamation of abandoned manganese mines in southwest Virginia and northeast Tennessee. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W., compilers. Reclamation, a global perspective: Proceedings of the conference; 1989 August 27-31; Calgary, AB. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council: 199-208.  37. Oosting, Henry J. 1944. The comparative effect of surface and crown fire on the composition of a loblolly pine community. Ecology. 25(1): 61-69.  38. Orwig, David A.; Abrams, Marc D. 1991. Effect of stand age and soils on forest composition at Spotsylvania Battlefield, Virginia. In: McCormick, Larry H.; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds. Proceedings, 8th central hardwood forest conference; 1991 March 4-6; University Park, PA. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-148. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 591.  39. Osterhaus, Cary A.; Lantz, Clark W. 1978. Pine plantations on the cross timbers area of Oklahoma. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 2(3): 90-93.  40. Probst, John R. 1979. Oak forest bird communities. In: DeGraaf, Richard M.; Evans, Keith E., compilers. Management of north central and northeastern forests for nongame birds: Proceedings of the workshop; 1979 January 23-25; Minneapolis, MN. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-51. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 80-88.  41. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p.  42. Ringe, James M. 1979. Effects of bark mulch, fertilization, and herbaceous cover on survival and growth of three tree species on eastern Kentucky mine spoil. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky. 74 p. Thesis.  43. Schramm, J. R. 1966. Plant colonization studies on black wastes from anthracite mining in Pennsylvania. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. [Philidelphia, PA]; 56(1): 5-194.  44. Sharpe, D. M.; Cromack, K., Jr.; Johnson, W. C.; Ausmus, B. S. 1980. A regional approach to litter dynamics in Southern Appalachian forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 10: 395-404.  45. Smalley, Glendon W. 1984. Classification and evaluation of forest sites in the Cumberland Mountains. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-50. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 84 p.  46. Smalley, Glendon W. 1986. Classification and evaluation of forest sites on the northern Cumberland Plateau. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-60. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 74 p.  47. Smalley, Glendon W. 1991. Classification & evaluation of forest sites on the Natchez Trace State Forest, State Resort Park, and Wildlife Management Area in w. Tennessee. SO-85. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 73 p.  48. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p.  49. Talbert, John; White, Gordon; Webb, Charles. 1980. Analysis of a Virginia pine seed source trial in the Interior South. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 4(3): 153-156.  50. Trimble, George R., Jr.; Patric, James H.; Gill, John D.; [and others]. 1974. Some options for managing forest land in the central Appalachians. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-12. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 42 p.  51. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p.  52. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p.  53. Vogel, Willis G. 1973. The effect of herbaceous vegetation on survival and growth of trees planted on coal-mine spoils. In: Research and applied technology symposium on mined-land reclamation: Proceedings; [Date of conference unknown]; [Location of conference unknown]. Monroeville, PA: Bituminous Coal Research, Inc.: 197-207.  54. Vogel, Willis G. 1977. Revegetation of surface-mined lands in the East. In: Forests for people: A challenge in world affairs: Proc. of the Society of American Foresters 1977 national convention; 1977 October 2-6; Albuquerque, NM. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters: 167-172.  55. Waggoner, Gary S. 1975. Eastern deciduous forest, Vol. 1: Southeastern evergreen and oak-pine region. Natural History Theme Studies No. 1, NPS 135. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 206 p.  56. Wiegert, Richard G.; Monk, Carl D. 1972. Litter production and energy accumulation in three plantations of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill). Ecology. 53(5): 949-953.  57. Wilhelm, Gene. 1973. Fire ecology in Shenandoah National Park. In: Komarek, Edwin V., Sr., technical coordinator. Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1972 June 8-9; Lubbock, TX. Number 12. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 445-488.  58. Williston, Hamlin L.; Balmer, William E. 1980. Management of Virginia pine. Forestry Report SA-FR-7. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Area. 5 p.  59. Wittwer, Robert F. 1981. Reclamation systems for returning surface mine lands to a forest land use. In: Land-use allocation: processes, people, politics, professionals: Proc., 1980 conven. of the Soc. of Amer. For.; [Date of conference unknown]; [Location of conference unknown]. Washington, D.C.: The Society of American Foresters: 222-226.  60. Zahner, Robert; Smalley, Glendon W. 1989. Site quality: the ecological basis for pine-hardwood management decisions. In: Waldrop, Thomas A., ed. Proceedings of pine-hardwood mixtures: a symposium on management and ecology of the type; 1989 April 18-19; Atlanta, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-58. Asheville, SC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 59-63.  61. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minespoils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p.  62. Vogel, Willis G.; Curtis, Willie R. 1978. Reclamation research on coal surface-mined lands in the humid east. In: Schaller, Frank W.; Sutton, Paul, eds. Reclamation of drastically disturbed lands. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy: 379-397.  63. Jones, Steven M. 1991. Landscape ecosystem classification for South Carolina. In: Mengel, Dennis L.; Tew, D. Thompson, eds. Ecological land classification: applications to identify the productive potential of southern forests: Proc. of a symp; 1991 January 7-9; Charlotte, NC. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-68. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 59-68.  64. Stone, E. L., Jr.; Stone, M. H. 1954. Root collar sprouts in pine. Journal of Forestry. 52: 487-491.