Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Pinus quadrifolia


SPECIES: Pinus quadrifolia
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Esser, Lora L. 1993. Pinus quadrifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].

ABBREVIATION : PINQUA SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : PIQU COMMON NAMES : Parry pinyon four-needled pinyon nut pine TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of Parry pinyon is Pinus quadrifolia Parl. [7,24,32]. It is a member of the subgenus Haploxylon, subsection Cembroides [2,26]. Lanner [15] reduced Parry pinyon to hybrid status, (P. x quadrifolia Parl.), based upon studies of needle number, resin canal number, twig hairiness, and stomate position. He concluded that Parry pinyon is the result of hybridization between singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and a heretofore unrecognized 5-needle pinyon now named Sierra Juarez pinyon (Pinus juarezensis). There are divergent opinions among botanists and taxonomists regarding these conclusions. Perry [26] recognizes Parry pinyon as a separate species pending further studies. This paper will follow Perry's taxonomy. Parry pinyon hybridizes with P. monophylla and P. juarzensis. Lanner [15] also suggests that Parry pinyon crosses with P. edulis and P. cembroides. There are no recognized varieties, subspecies, or forms of Parry pinyon. LIFE FORM : Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Pinus quadrifolia
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Parry pinyon is the most widespread coniferous tree in northern Baja California [21]. It is mainly a Mexican species, growing in the Sierra de Juarez and Sierra San Pedro Martir. In the United States, Parry pinyon occurs in California. Several stands of Parry pinyon grow in southeastern San Diego County, and in the southwest corner of Imperial County, close to the Mexican border. A small population of Parry pinyon grows in south-central Riverside County, 30 miles (50 km) from the main distribution [34]. Ranges of singleleaf pinyon and Parry pinyon overlap in southwestern California and northern Baja California [7]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub FRES35 Pinyon - juniper STATES : CA MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 3 Southern Pacific Border 7 Lower Basin and Range KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland K033 Chaparral SAF COVER TYPES : 239 Pinyon - juniper 249 Canyon live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Parry pinyon is a dominant member of the pinyon-juniper woodland of southern California and northern Baja California. California juniper (Juniperus californica) commonly codominates with Parry pinyon [11]. In the mountains of northern Baja California, Parry pinyon is associated with pine-oak (Pinus-Quercus spp.) woodlands and typical California chaparral [32,33]. On the western flank of the interior Sierra de Juarez, Parry pinyon forms scattered groves within relatively dense chaparral of chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum) and red shank (A. sparsifolium). Along the crest and eastern rim of the Sierra de Juarez it forms continuous forests with desert chaparral species such as peninsular manzanita (Arctostaphylos peninsularis) [21]. A classifications listing Parry pinyon as a dominant species is: Woodland classification: the pinyon-juniper formation [11]. Common plant associates not previously mentioned include Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri), Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi), and interior live oak (Q. wislizeni) [15,21,23].


SPECIES: Pinus quadrifolia
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : Parry pinyon wood is close-grained, soft, and knotty [26]. It has little commercial value because of the tree's small size and poor growth form. It is used mainly for firewood and fenceposts [20,34]. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Parry pinyon seeds are an important food source for many species of birds and small mammals [1,18]. Pinyon-juniper woodlands provide food and shelter for deer, pronghorn, wild horses, and other species of mammals and birds. These woodlands have been extensively grazed by livestock for more than 100 years [20]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : The nutritional composition of Parry pinyon seeds are as follows: protein, 11 percent; fat, 37 percent; carbohydrate, 44 percent [37]. COVER VALUE : Parry pinyon provides cover for many species of birds [1]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : Parry pinyon produces a large, edible seed that is a staple food for southwestern Native Americans [18,34]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : When pinyon-juniper woodlands are harvested, reestablishment of conifers can be hastened by avoiding damage to the residual stand of small trees and seedlings and by providing a shading cover of slash over small seedlings exposed to full sunlight [20]. Insect defoliators that attack Parry pinyon include the larvae of gall midges, caterpillars of pine cone moths, larvae of small weevils, and pinyon cone beetles. All of these insects attack cones or seeds [18]. The pinyon Ips (Ips confusus) is endemic throughout pinyon range. Adults and larvae of this bark beetle feed on the phloem of pines [18,20]. Removal or burning of all pinyon slash larger than 3 inches (8 cm) in diameter after harvest will usually prevent pinyon Ips populations from reaching epidemic proportions [20]. Pinyon dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium divaricatum) causes reduced vigor and occasional dieback in Parry pinyon. It rarely causes death [20].


SPECIES: Pinus quadrifolia
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Parry pinyon is a long-lived, slow-growing, native tree that grows from 16.5 to 33 feet (5-10 m) tall [26]. According to Keeley [12], pinyons often live 200 to 500 years. The branches of Parry pinyon are stiff, low, and spreading, giving younger trees the appearance of a pyramid. Older trees develop a more rounded, irregular crown. The bark is thin and smooth on young trees, becoming deeply furrowed and scaly with age. Needles usually occur in bundles of four, but bundles of three and sometimes five are found on the same tree [22,26]. Conelets are borne singly or in clusters of two to four. Cones are 1.2 to 2 inches (3-5 cm) long, with thick cone scales [26]. Growth of pinyons is dependent upon soil moisture stored from winter snows. Pinyons have vertical taproots as well as lateral roots; both are capable of active absorption. In shallow soils, lateral root systems extend well beyond the radius of the crown [36]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Minimum seed-bearing age for Parry pinyon is 10 to 20 years of age. Optimum seed production occurs after 50 years of age. Good seed crops are produced every 1 to 5 years [12,13]. Cones produce relatively few, large, wingless, edible seeds that are well-adapted to dispersal by birds, rodents and other mammals [17,20]. Birds can disperse pinyon seeds 12 miles (20 km) or more [12]. Birds and rodents cache pinyon seeds in the ground, often at depths favorable for germination [20]. Fresh pinyon seeds have high viability and germinate readily with little or no stratification. They lose viability rapidly after 1 year. Seeds usually germinate in the spring if soil moisture is sufficient. Seedlings need some shade to survive [12,20]. Although the pinyon pines are tolerant of temperature and moisture stress, water is the most limiting factor in seedling establishment and growth [12,20]. Parry pinyon does not reproduce vegetatively [12]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Parry pinyon occurs on rocky slopes with thin soils that are typically well-drained [5,20]. Parry pinyon grows at elevations of 3,960 to 8,250 feet (1,200-2,500 m) throughout its range and is rarely found at elevations over 8,910 feet (2,700 m) [21,26]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Obligate Climax Species The pinyon pines are shade-intolerant as adults but require some shelter from shrubs or tree crowns to establish [20,35]. Pinyons can invade surrounding grassland communities [25,35]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Parry pinyon flowers in June. Cones ripen in September and seed dispersal begins in September and October [13].


SPECIES: Pinus quadrifolia
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Parry pinyon has low resistance to fire. Like other pinyons, it has thin bark, low branches, and no resprouting capability [12]. Fuel loads in pinyon habitats are discontinuous and light, which lowers fire frequency and severity [19]. Seed dispersal by birds may enable pinyon pines to colonize burns even when parent trees are not nearby. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tree without adventitious-bud root crown Secondary colonizer - off-site seed


SPECIES: Pinus quadrifolia
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire eliminates younger age classes of pinyon pines, but large seed-source trees may survive [12,35]. Where pinyon trees have recently invaded sagebrush-grassland communities, young trees less than 4 feet (1.2 m) tall are easily killed by fire. As tree dominance increases, understory is gradually suppressed. Understory fuels also decrease, and the potential for severe, stand-replacing fire is reduced [35]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Literature concerning the response of Parry pinyon is lacking. See the FEIS species monograph on singleleaf pinyon and true pinyon (P. edulis) for description of general pinyon response to fire. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Pinus quadrifolia
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Res. Bull. PNW-RB-166. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 37 p. [10365] 5. Brown, David E. 1982. Great Basin conifer woodland. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 52-57. [535] 6. Cane, James H.; Stock, Molly W.; Wood, David L.; Gast, Sandy J. 1990. Phylogenetic relationships of ips bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): electrophorectic and morphometeric analyses of the grandicollis group. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 18(5): 359-368. [21748] 7. Critchfield, William B.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1966. Geographic distribution of the pines of the world. Misc. Publ. 991. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 97 p. [20314] 8. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 9. 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Rare and local conifers in the United States. Conservation Research Rep. No. 19. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 25 p. [15691] 18. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1977. Research in the pinyon-juniper woodland. In: Aldon, Earl F.; Loring, Thomas J., technical coordinators. Ecology, uses, and management of pinyon-juniper woodlands: Proceedings of the workshop; 1977 March 24-25; Albuquerque, NM. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-39. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 8-19. [17252] 19. McCune, Bruce. 1988. Ecological diversity in North American pines. American Journal of Botany. 75(3): 353-368. [5651] 20. Meeuwig, Richard O.; Bassett, Richard L. 1983. Pinyon-juniper. In: Burns, Russell M., compiler. Silvicultural systems for the major forest types of the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 445. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 84-86. [3899] 21. Minnich, Richard A. 1987. The distribution of forest trees in northern Baja California, Mexico. Madrono. 34(2): 98-127. [6985] 22. Mirov, N. T. 1967. The genus Pinus. New York: Ronald Press. 602 p. [1663] 23. Moran, Reid. 1972. Plant notes from the Sierra Juarez of Baja California, Mexico. Phytologia. 35(3): 205-214. [20382] 24. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155] 25. Neilson, Ronald P. 1987. On the interface between current ecological studies and the paleobotany of pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: Everett, Richard L., compiler. Proceedings--pinyon-juniper conference; 1986 January 13-16; Reno, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-215. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 93-98. [4816] 26. Perry, Jesse P., Jr. 1991. The pines of Mexico and Central America. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 231 p. [20328] 27. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 28. Smith, R. H.; Preisler, H. K. 1988. Xylem monoterpenes of Pinus monophylla in California and Nevada. Southwestern Naturalist. 33(2): 205-214. [5266] 29. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 30. Vasek, Frank C.; Thorne, Robert F. 1977. Transmontane coniferous vegetation. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley & Sons: 797-832. [4265] 32. Wells, Philip V. 1987. Systematics and distribution of pinyons in the Late Quaternary. In: Everett, Richard L., compiler. Proceedings--pinyon-juniper conference; 1986 January 13-16; Reno, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-215. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 104-108. [4818] 33. West, Neil E.; Cain, Donald R.; Gifford, Gerald F. 1973. Biology, ecology, and renewable resource management of the pigmy conifer woodlands of western North American: a bibliography. Research Report 12. Logan, UT: Utah State University, Utah Agricultural Experiment Station. 36 p. [16955] 34. Zavarin, Eugene; Snajberk, Karel; Debry, Ron. 1980. Terpenoid and morphological variability of Pinus quadrifolia and its natural hybridization with Pinus monophylla in n. Baja California and adjoining United States. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 8(3): 225-235. [21750] 35. Wright, Henry A.; Neuenschwander, Leon F.; Britton, Carlton M. 1979. The role and use of fire in sagebrush-grass and pinyon-juniper plant communities: A state-of-the-art review. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-58. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Statio. 48 p. [2625] 36. Everett, Richard L.; Sharrow, Steven H. 1983. Response of understory species to tree harvesting and fire in pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Shaw, Nancy, compilers. Managing Intermountain rangelands--improvement of range and wildlife habitats: Proceedings of symposia; 1981 September 15-17; Twin Falls, ID; 1982 June 22-24, Elko, NV. General Technical Report INT-157. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 62-66. [897] 37. Lanner, Ronald M. 1981. The pinon pine: A natural and cultural history. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. 208 p. [21981]

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