Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Pinus leiophylla var. chihuahuana


Introductory

SPECIES: Pinus leiophylla var. chihuahuana
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Pavek, Diane S. 1994. Pinus leiophylla var. chihuahuana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : PINLEIC PINLEI SYNONYMS : Pinus leiophylla Scheide & Dieppe Pinus chihuahuana Engelm. [56] SCS PLANT CODE : PILE PILEC COMMON NAMES : Chihuahua pine yellow pine pino real TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of Chihuahua pine is Pinus leiophylla Scheide & Dieppe var. chihuahuana (Engelm.) Shaw. It is a member of the pine family (Pinaceae) [17,39,70]. There is disagreement about its taxonomic status; some authors have elevated it to specific status, Pinus chihuahuana Engelm. [32,47,56]. Chihuahua pine has three needles per bundle, and ocote (Pinus leiophylla Scheide & Dieppe var. leiophylla Shaw) has five needles per bundle [22,39]. This report presents information on Chihuahua pine. LIFE FORM : Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Pinus leiophylla var. chihuahuana
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Chihuahua pine is found in the mountains of southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico [17,22,34,35,39]. The main part of its range extends southward along the Sierra Madre Occidental to southern Mexico [32,35,40,70]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub FRES35 Pinyon - juniper STATES : AZ NM MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 7 Lower Basin and Range KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K019 Arizona pine forest K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland K031 Oak - juniper woodlands SAF COVER TYPES : 210 Interior Douglas-fir 211 White fir 235 Cottonwood - willow 237 Interior ponderosa pine 239 Pinyon - juniper 240 Arizona cypress 241 Western live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Chihuahua pine commonly occurs in mixed forests and woodlands composed of evergreen conifers and oaks (Quercus spp.) [15,38,48]. It occurs in or just above the Madrean evergreen woodlands and pygmy conifer-oak woodlands [10,51]. Chihuahua pine extends upward in elevation into the mixed pine (Pinus spp.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests [2,38,43]. Pine-oak woodlands have a diagnostic understory of evergreen oaks with emergent pines over 16.4 feet (5 m) tall such as Chihuahua pine and Mexican pinyon (Pinus cembroides) [12,18,49,51,72]. These woodlands are climax over a wide area from southern Arizona to Mexico [41]. Chihuahua pine occurs as scattered individuals in pine forests, often with Arizona pine (Pinus ponderosa var. arizonica), interior ponderosa pine (P. p. var. scopulorum), and Apache pine (P. engelmannii) [22,26,42]. Chihuahua pine is the principal tree in the Chihuahua pine series [1,9,20,24,38,50]. Minor climax species or codominants with Chihuahua pine in some areas are Arizona pine, Mexican pinyon, Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), and junipers (Juniperus spp.) [25,38,59,72]. Chihuahua pine is subdominant in Apache pine/silverleaf oak (Quercus hypoleucoides) habitat types and white fir (Abies concolor) forests [38,50]. Chihuahua pine is found as scattered individuals in encinal oak woodlands such as Arizona white oak (Q. arizonica)-silverleaf oak and Arizona white oak-Emory oak (Q. emoryi) community types [13,20,29, 32,59]. It is a characteristic species in Mexican blue oak (Q. oblongifolia) communities [42]. Infrequently, Chihuahua pine occurs in interior chaparral community types such as pointleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens)-silverleaf oak and pointleaf manzanita-Toumey oak (Q. toumeyi) [59]. Chihuahua pine is a common tree in riparian associations in various communities such as the Arizona sycamore (Platanus wrightii) series and Arizona cypress associations [12,19,49,54,64]. Chihuahua pine is listed as a dominant or indicator species in the following publications: (1) Classification of the forest vegetation on the National Forests of Arizona and New Mexico [1] (2) Forest and woodland habitat types (plant associations) of Arizona south of the Mogollon Rim and southwestern New Mexico [9] (3) A digitized computer-compatible classification for natural and potential vegetation in the Southwest with particular reference to Arizona [16] (4) Forest habitat types south of the Mogollon Rim, Arizona and New Mexico [19] (5) Preliminary classification for the coniferous forest and woodland series of Arizona and New Mexico [38] (6) A series vegetation classification for Region 3 [49]. Species associated with Chihuahua pine but not previously mentioned in OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION include Arizona madrone (Arbutus arizonica), Arizona walnut (Juglans major), thinleaf alder (Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia), pinyon ricegrass (Piptochaetium fimbriatum), and longtongue muhly (Muhlenbergia longiligula) [19,38,59,64,65].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Pinus leiophylla var. chihuahuana
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : Although of minor commercial importance due to its limited distribution, Chihuahua pine is used for lumber [22,26,37,39,68]. The best grades of Chihuahua pine are as good as ponderosa pine for commercial purposes [30]. The wood of Chihuahua pine is durable but not strong, soft to hard, light, and straight-grained [39,55,70]. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : In oak-juniper-pinyon woodland of southeastern Arizona, 36 breeding bird species foraged for insects on Chihuahua pine and Mexican pinyon needles; this level of use was higher than would have been expected from random foraging patterns [4,5]. Chihuahua pine seeds are eaten by thick-billed parrots [68]. Chihuahua pine is codominant with Arizona walnut in open riparian communities in southeastern Arizona, which acorn woodpeckers use for nesting [52]. Mexican spotted owls are yearlong residents of oak-pine forests, in which Chihuahua pine occurs [27]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Chihuahua pine was planted with 37 other pine species in trials on sandhill sites in northwestern Florida. It did not survive [14]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Chihuahua pine was evaluated for suitability as a timber tree at the Wind River Arboretum in Wyoming. It was winter-killed after 5 years [60]. Different Chihuahua pine habitat types have differing productivity. Types located in well-watered positions such as on lower slopes or alluvial terraces achieve maximum productivity at 80 years. Drier habitat types reach maximum productivity at about 100 years [50]. Equations to estimate understory production have been developed for the oak-pine forests in which Chihuahua pine occurs [26]. Sampling methods that classify riparian communities to which Chihuahua pine belongs are discussed in the literature [65]. Chihuahua pine was included in a breeding program that studied pollen production at the Eddy Arboretum in California. Chihuahua pine produced pollen during May for 1 year [21]. Chihuahua pine is susceptible to dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium gillii ssp. gillii). Dwarf mistletoe infection of Chihuahua pine causes reduced growth rates, increased mortality, and reduced seed production, and predisposes Chihuahua pine to attack by insects and fungi [31].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Pinus leiophylla var. chihuahuana
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Chihuahua pine is a native, small to medium, monoecious tree that grows 35 to 60 feet (10.7-18.3 m) tall and 1 to 2 feet (0.3-0.6 m) in trunk diameter [30,34,39,55,70]. Large branches form a narrow crown. The bark of Chihuahua pine is 0.9 to 1.5 inches (2.3-3.8 cm) thick [30,55]. The evergreen needles are in bundles of three, are 2 to 4.7 inches (5-12 cm) long, and persist for 3 or more years [22,30,34,57,70]. The cones are 1.5 to 2.7 inches (3.8-7 cm) long and persist for 5 or more years [30,34,39]. The seeds of Chihuahua pine are 0.13 inch (0.33 cm) long with large (0.33 inch [0.84 cm]) wings [70]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Chihuahua pine sprouts from cut stumps or from the root crown [10,39,45,55]. The minimum seed-bearing age of Chihuahua pine is 28 to 30 years [35]. It has persistent, serotinous and semiserotinous (delayed dispersal) cones that may remain closed for 5 or more years [20,57,68]. Reports of cone crop size are variable. While some cones mature every year, Chihuahua pine produces large seed crops about every other year [30]; however, Krugman and Jenkinson [35] report that intervals between large seed crops are 3 to 4 years. Cone and seed collection and seed germination procedures are discussed in the literature [35]. The small seeds of Chihuahua pine weigh an average of 0.003 ounce (0.01 g) and are wind dispersed [66]. Recruitment is often sparse in undisturbed stands which may be partly due to closed cones that delay seed dispersal [30]. Birds consume Chihuahua pine seeds, but it is not known whether they facilitate Chihuahua pine dispersal and establishment [45]. Chihuahua pine seedlings are sensitive to intense light and heat [30]. Deep litter reduces Chihuahua pine seedling emergence [6]. In a study that evaluated relative drought resistance, Chihuahua pine established beneath nurse plants such as older trees and shrubs, and beneath logs and boulders [7,30]. Near the lower elevation limit of this species, Chihuahua pine seedlings occur in relatively moist microsites. Just below the lowest elevational limit, Chihuahua pine seedlings die from water stress [7]. Chihuahua pine seedlings were less drought tolerant than Mexican pinyon seedlings and more drought tolerant than Apache pine seedlings [8]. Humphrey [33] suggested that a 100-year drought from 1869 to 1956 was responsible for high Chihuahua pine mortality during the 1950's in southeastern Arizona. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Chihuahua pine grows in climates that range from semiarid with bimodal precipitation to temperate-subhumid with most precipitation falling in summer [12,62,69]. Chihuahua pine is common on upland slopes, mesas, canyon bottoms, alluvial terraces, and intermittent washes [9,10,62]. Chihuahua pine occurs at elevations from 4,920 to 7,800 feet (1,500-2,377 m) throughout its range [9,39,69]. Chihuahua pine occurs on soils of varying textures ranging from sandy to clayey sand with gravel [69]. Soils are often shallow and cobbly [9,10]. Parent materials are igneous, rhyolite, basalt, or schist [10,69]. Along a moisture gradient from mesic to xeric sites in Arizona, Chihuahua pine was not present at the most mesic or xeric ends of the gradient. It had 50 to 100 stems per hectare at the midmesic point [71]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Chihuahua pine is climax in pine-oak woodlands and forests [9,12]. Young Chihuahua pine is shade tolerant beneath oaks and junipers. Depending on the site characteristics, Chihuahua pine may become dominant and replace the oaks and junipers [20]. It is seral in white fir forests [38]. Chihuahua pine becomes shade intolerant after it is about 20 feet (6.1 m) tall [30,68]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Chihuahua pine requires 3 years for cones to mature [17,22,30,53,57]. Reproductive buds are initiated in the summer of the first year [53,57]. Pollination occurs in spring or early summer of the second year [35,53,70]. Fertilization occurs the following spring. Seeds mature in the fall of the third year [30,35,53]. Some seeds may disperse December through January [35].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Pinus leiophylla var. chihuahuana
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Chihuahua pine has fire-associated regeneration [6]. It endures and regenerates after fire due to abundant seed production, delayed seed release from some serotinous cones, and sprouting potential, even in mature trees [10,45]. When pine-oak woodland is burned, fire-enduring species such as Chihuahua pine survive to become dominant since the less tolerant species are eliminated [10]. Fire frequencies in Chihuahua pine forests have not been studied. Stand-replacing fires may encourage the growth of competing vegetation; oak and alligator juniper (Juniperus deppeana) sprout, and manzanita (Arctostaphylos spp.) and ceanothus (Ceanothus spp.) seeds germinate after stand-replacing fires [20]. Chihuahua pine grows in oak-pine woodlands; these are probably fire-tolerant, fire-maintained communities, although their fire regime is not well understood [62]. Chihuahua pine occurs in the oak-pine forest and adjacent conifer gallery forest in Rhyolite Canyon in the Chiricahua National Monument, Arizona. Historically, surface fires occurred every 1 to 38 years [63]. Based on the fire scars of cooccurring Apache pine, the mean fire interval from 1655 to 1924 was 12.5 years in the lower canyon area [62]. In this and similar areas, fire intervals increased with livestock grazing and the subsequent reduction in surface fuels [63]. Fire is characteristic of interior ponderosa pine forests. Fires from these communities may extend downward into mixed pine or oak-pine forests in which Chihuahua pine occurs. In the Rincon Mountains close to the northern latitudinal limits of Chihuahua pine, the estimated mean fire intervals from 1757 to 1983 for Arizona pine communities ranged from 1 to 13 years, based on fire-scarred trees [3]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/soboliferous species root sucker Crown residual colonizer (on-site, initial community) Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Pinus leiophylla var. chihuahuana
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : The immediate effects of fire on Chihuahua pine were not described in the literature. Chihuahua pine saplings and pole trees are probably top-killed by fire and may be killed by severe fires. Mature trees with thick bark are probably unaffected by most fires. Fire generally opens serotinous and semiserotinous cones, and seed is released. Root crowns protected from fire by soil and surviving stumps probably sprout. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Chihuahua pine established quickly from seed in recently burned oak woodlands in Arizona [46]. Establishment may be delayed if moist and protected microsites provided by nurse plants or other cover are not available following severe fire. Regeneration rates are increased by vigorous sprouting of surviving Chihuahua pine. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Fire suppression has created crowded, stunted Chihuahua pine stands with high amounts of tree litter and dead fuel in oak-pine communities of Arizona. Increased grazing has removed light surface fuels such as grasses. The potential for severe fire hazard exits in these communities [44]. Dwarf mistletoe infection in Chihuahua pine may increase fire hazard conditions partly due to increased numbers of dead trees [31].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Pinus leiophylla var. chihuahuana
REFERENCES : 1. Alexander, Robert R.; Ronco, Frank, Jr. 1987. Classification of the forest vegetation on the National Forests of Arizona and New Mexico. Res. Note RM-469. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 10 p. [3515] 2. Arno, Stephen F.; Hammerly, Ramona P. 1984. Timberline: Mountain and arctic forest frontiers. Seattle, WA: The Mountaineers. 304 p. [339] 3. Baisan, Christopher H.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1990. Fire history on a desert mountain range: Rincon Mountain Wilderness, Arizona, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 20: 1559-1569. [14986] 4. Balda, Russell P. 1975. Vegetation structure and breeding bird diversity. In: Smith, Dixie R., technical coordinator. Proceedings of the symposium on management of forest and range habitats for nongame birds; 1975 May 6-9; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-1. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 59-80. [17768] 5. Balda, Russell P.; Masters, Nancy. 1980. Avian communities in the pinyon-juniper woodland: a descriptive analysis. In: DeGraaf, Richard M., technical coordinator. Management of western forests and grasslands for nongame birds: Workshop proceedings; 1980 February 11-14; Salt Lake City, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-86. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 146-169. [17903] 6. Barton, Andrew Marder. 1991. Factors controlling the elevational positions of pines in the Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona: drought, competition, and fire. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan. 174 p. Dissertation. Dissertation Abstracts International. 52(3): 1188-B. Abstract No. DA9123977. [22561] 7. Barton, Andrew M. 1992. Factors controlling lower elevational limits of plants: responses of pines to drought in the Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona. In: Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Bennett, Duane A.; [and others], technical coordinators. Ecology and management of oak and associated woodlands: perspectives in the sw United States & n Mexico: Proceedings; 1992 April 27-30; Sierra Vista, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-218. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 191-194. [19764] 8. Barton, Andrew M.; Teeri, James A. 1993. The ecology of elevational positions in plants: drought resistance in five montane pine species in southwestern Arizona. American Journal of Botany. 80(1): 15-25. [20527] 9. Bassett, R.; Larson, M.; Moir, W. 1987. Forest and woodland habitat types (plant associations) of Arizona south of the Mogollon Rim and southwestern New Mexico. 2nd Edition. Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region. [Pages unknown]. [20308] 10. Bennett, Peter S.; Kunzmann, Michael R. 1992. The applicability of generalized fire prescriptions to burning of Madrean evergreen forest and woodland. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. 24-25: 79-84. [18324] 11. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 12. Bowers, Janice E.; McLaughlin, Steven P. 1987. Flora and vegetation of the Rincon Mountains, Pima County, Arizona. Desert Plants. 8(2): 50-94. [495] 13. Brady, Ward; Bonham, Charles D. 1976. Vegetation patterns on an altitudinal gradient, Huachuca Mountains, Arizona. Southwestern Naturalist. 21(1): 55-66. [21659] 14. Brendemuehl, R. H. 1981. Options for management of sandhill forest land. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 5: 216-222. [9305] 15. Brown, David E. 1982. Madrean evergreen woodland. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 59-65. [8886] 16. Brown, David E.; Lowe, Charles H. 1974. A digitized computer-compatible classification for natural and potential vegetation in the Southwest with particular reference to Arizona. Journal of the Arizona Academy of Science. 9: 3-11. [20374] 17. Critchfield, William B.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1966. Geographic distribution of the pines of the world. Misc. Publ. 991. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 97 p. [20314] 18. Davis, Russell; Sidner, Ronnie. 1992. Mammals of woodland and forest habitats in the Rincon Mountains of Saguaro National Monument, Arizona. Technical Report NPS/WRUA/NRTR-92/06. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona, School of Renewable Natural Resources, Cooperative National Park Resources Study Unit. 62 p. [20966] 19. DeVelice, Robert L.; Ludwig, John A. 1983. Forest habitat types south of the Mogollon Rim, Arizona and New Mexico. Final Report. Cooperative Agreement No. 28-K2-240 between U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station and New Mexico State University. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University. 47 p. [780] 20. Dick-Peddie, William A. 1993. New Mexico vegetation: past, present, and future. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. 244 p. [21097] 21. Duffield, J. W. 1953. Pine pollen collection dates--annual and geographic variation. For. Res. Notes No. 85. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, California Forest and Range Experiment Station. 9 p. [17970] 22. Elias, Thomas S. 1980. The complete trees of North America: field guide and natural history. New York: Times Mirror Magazines, Inc. 948 p. [21987] 23. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 24. Ferguson, Dennis E.; Carlson, Clinton E. 1991. Natural regeneration of interior Douglas-fir in the northern Rocky Mountains. In: Baumgartner, David M.; Lotan, James E., compilers. Interior Douglas-fir: The species and its management: Symposium proceedings; 1991 February 27 - March 1; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Department of Natural Resource Sciences, Cooperative Extension: 239-246. [18298] 25. Floyd, Mary Elizabeth. 1981. The reproductive biology of two species of pinyon pine in the southwestern United States. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado. 269 p. Ph.D. dissertation. [1676] 26. Gallina, Sonia; Ffolliott, Peter F. 1983. Overstory-understory relationships: oak-pine forests of Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. In: Bartlett, E. T.; Betters, David R., eds. Overstory-understory relationships in western forests. Western Regional Res. Publ. No. 1. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University Experiment Station: 19-20. [3312] 27. Ganey, Joseph L.; Duncan, Russell B.; Block, William M. 1992. Use of oak and associated woodlands by Mexican spotted owls in Arizona. In: Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Bennett, Duane A.; [and others], technical coordinators. Ecology and managememt of oaks and associated woodlands: perspectives in the sw United States & n Mexico: Proceedings; 1992 April 27-30; Sierra Vista, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-218. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 125-128. [19751] 28. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 29. Gehlbach, Frederick R. 1967. Vegetation of the Guadalupe Escarpment, New Mexico-Texas. Ecology. 48(3): 404-419. [5149] 30. Graves, Henry S. 1917. The pine trees of the Rocky Mountain region. Bulletin No. 460. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 48 p. [20321] 31. Hawksworth, Frank G. 1978. Biological factors of dwarf mistletoe in relation to control. In: Scharpf, Robert F.; Parmeter, John R., Jr., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the symposium on dwarf mistletoe control through forest management; 1978 April 11-13; Berkeley, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-31. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 5-15. [14249] 32. Hernandez C., Victor Manuel; Hernandez, Francisco Javier; Gonzales, Santiago Solis. 1992. Ecology of oak woodlands in the Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico. In: Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Bennett, Duane A.; [and others], technical coordinators. Ecology and management of oak and associated woodlands: perspectives in the sw United States & n Mexico: Proceedings; 1992 April 27-30; Sierra Vista, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-218. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 39-40. [19739] 33. Humphrey, Robert R. 1958. The desert grassland: A history of vegetational change and an analysis of causes. Bull. 299. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station. 61 p. [5270] 34. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563] 35. Krugman, Stanley L.; Jenkinson, James L. 1974. Pinaceae--pine family. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 598-637. [1380] 36. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 37. Lamb, S. H. 1971. Woody plants of New Mexico and their value to wildlife. Bull. 14. Albuquerque, NM: New Mexico Department of Game and Fish. 80 p. [9818] 38. Layser, Earle F.; Schubert, Gilbert H. 1979. Preliminary classification for the coniferous forest and woodland series of Arizona and New Mexico. Res. Pap. RM-208. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 27 p. [1428] 39. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1950. Southwestern trees: A guide to the native species of New Mexico and Arizona. Agriculture Handbook No. 9. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 109 p. [20330] 40. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1975. Rare and local conifers in the United States. Conservation Research Rep. No. 19. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 25 p. [15691] 41. Lowe, Charles H., Jr. 1961. Biotic communities in the sub-Mogollon region of the inland Southwest. Arizona Academy of Science Journal. 2: 40-49. [20379] 42. Lowe, Charles H. 1964. Arizona's natural environment: Landscapes and habitats. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press. 136 p. [20736] 43. Lowe, Charles H.; Holm, Peter A. 1991. The amphibians and reptiles at Saguaro National Monument, Arizona. Technical Report No. 37. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, School of Renewable Natural Resources, Cooperative National Park Resources Study Unit. 20 p. [18335] 44. Marshall, Joe T., Jr. 1963. Fire and birds in the mountains of southern Arizona. In: Proceedings, 2nd annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1963 March 14-15; Tallahassee, FL. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 135-141. [18998] 45. McCune, Bruce. 1988. Ecological diversity in North American pines. American Journal of Botany. 75(3): 353-368. [5651] 46. McPherson, Guy R. 1992. Ecology of oak woodlands in Arizona. In: Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Bennett, Duane A.; [and others], technical coordinators. Ecology and management of oak and associated woodlands: perspectives in the sw United States & n Mexico: Proceedings; 1992 April 27-30; Sierra Vista, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-218. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 24-33. [19737] 47. Mirov, N. T. 1961. Composition of gum turpentines of pines. Tech. Bull. No. 1239. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 158 p. [22164] 48. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1992. Mount Lemmon, Arizona. Natural History. 101(9): 66-68. [20207] 49. Moir, W. H. 1983. A series vegetation classification for Region 3. In: Moir, W. H.; Hendzel, Leonard, tech. coords. Proceedings of the workshop on Southwestern habitat types; 1983 April 6-8; Albuquerque, NM. Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region: 91-95. [1672] 50. Muldavin, Esteban H.; DeVelice, Robert L. 1987. A forest habitat type classification of southern Arizona and its relationship to forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico. In: Aldon, Earl F.; Gonzales Vicente, Carlos E.; Moir, William H., technical coordinators. Strategies for classification and management of native vegetation for food production in arid zones: Proceedings; 1987 October 12-16; Tucson, AZ. Gen, Tech. Rep. RM-150. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 24-31. [2728] 51. Niering, William A.; Lowe, Charles H. 1984. Vegetation of the Santa Catalina Mountains: community types and dynamics. Vegetatio. 58: 3-28. [12037] 52. O'Brien, G. Patrick. 1983. Power pole damage by acorn woodpeckers in southeastern Arizona. In: Davis, Jerry W.; Goodwin, Gregory A.; Ockenfeis, Richard A., technical coordinators. Snag habitat management: proceedings of the symposium; 1983 June 7-9; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-99. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 14-18. [17813] 53. Owens, John N. 1986. Cone and seed biology. In: Shearer, Raymond C., compiler. Proceedings--conifer tree seed in the Inland Mountain West symposium; 1985 August 5-6; Missoula, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-203. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 14-31. [12782] 54. Parker, Albert J. 1980. Site preferences and community characteristics of Cupressus arizonica Greene (Cupressaceae) in southeastern Arizona. Southwestern Naturalist. 25(1): 9-22. [20418] 55. Peattie, D. C. 1953. A natural history of western trees. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co. 751 p. [19269] 56. Perry, Jesse P., Jr. 1991. The pines of Mexico and Central America. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 231 p. [20328] 57. Preston, Richard J., Jr. 1948. North American trees. Ames, IA: The Iowa State College Press. 371 p. [1913] 58. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 59. Reeves, Timothy. 1976. Vegetation and flora of Chiricahua National Monument, Cochise County, Arizona. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University. 180 p. Thesis. [20385] 60. Silen, Roy R.; Olson, Donald L. 1992. A pioneer exotic tree search for the Douglas-fir region. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-298. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 44 p. [21668] 61. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 62. Swetnam, Thomas W.; Baisan, Christopher H.; Brown, Peter M.; Caprio, Anthony C. 1989. Fire history of Rhyolite Canyon, Chiricahua National Monument. Tech. Rep. No. 32. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, School of Renewable Natural Resources, Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. 47 p. [10573] 63. Swetnam, Thomas W.; Baisan, Christopher H.; Caprio, Anthony C.; Brown, Peter M. 1992. Fire history in a Mexian oak-pine woodland and adjacent montane conifer gallery forest in southeastern Arizona. In: Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Bennett, Duane A.; [and others], technical coordinators. Ecology and management of oak and associated woodlands: perspectives in the sw United States & n Mexico: Proceedings; 1992 April 27-30; Sierra Vista, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-218. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 165-173. [19759] 64. Szaro, Robert C. 1989. Riparian forest and scrubland community types of Arizona and New Mexico. Desert Plants. 9(3-4): 70-138. [604] 65. Szaro, Robert C.; King, Rudy M. 1990. Sampling intensity and species richness: effects on delineating Southwestern riparian plant communities. Forest Ecology and Management. 33/34: 335-349. [13783] 66. Tomback, Diana F.; Linhart, Yan B. 1990. The evolution of bird-dispersed pines. Evolutionary Ecology. 4: 185-219. [17534] 67. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 68. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240] 69. Villa-Salas, Avelino B.; Manon-Garibay, A. Cecilia. 1980. Multiresource management research in northern Sonora. In: IUFRO/MAB conference: research on multiple use of forest resources: Proceedings; 1980 May 18-23; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-25. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 20-25. [15925] 70. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707] 71. Whittaker, R. H. 1967. Gradient analysis of vegetation. Biological Review. 49: 207-264. [19966] 72. Whittaker, R. H.; Niering, W. A. 1965. Vegetation of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona: a gradient analysis of the south slope. Ecology. 46: 429-452. [9637]


FEIS Home Page