SPECIES: Pinus lambertiana
SPECIES: Pinus lambertiana
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Habeck, R. J. 1992. Pinus lambertiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ .
ABBREVIATION : PINLAM SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : PILA COMMON NAMES : sugar pine TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of sugar pine is Pinus lambertiana Dougl. . There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms. LIFE FORM : Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY
SPECIES: Pinus lambertiana
DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Sugar pine extends from the western slope of the Cascade Range in north-central Oregon to the Sierra San Pedro Martir in Baja California. Its distribution is almost continuous through the Klamath and Siskiyou mountains and on western slopes of the Cascade Range and Sierra Nevada. Smaller and more disjunct populations are found in the Coast Range of southern Oregon and California, Transverse and Peninsula ranges of southern California, and east of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada crests. Its southern extremity is an isolated population high on a plateau in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir in Baja California, Mexico. Over 80 percent of its distribution is in California [16,21]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES26 Lodgepole pine FRES27 Redwood FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub STATES : CA NV OR MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 3 Southern Pacific Border 4 Sierra Mountains KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K002 Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest K005 Mixed conifer forest K006 Redwood forest K007 Red fir forest K008 Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest K010 Ponderosa shrub forest K034 Montane chaparral SAF COVER TYPES : 207 Red fir 211 White fir 229 Pacific Douglas-fir 231 Port-Orford-cedar 232 Redwood 234 Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone 244 Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir 246 California black oak 247 Jeffrey pine 249 Canyon live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Sugar pine usually occurs in mixed-conifer forest stands with a wide variety of overstory associates including ponderosa and Jeffrey pine (Pinus ponderosa and P. jeffreyi), California red fir (Abies magnifica), white fir (A. concolor), noble fir (A. procera), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) [4,21]. In southern California, sugar pine is characteristically found in vegetation types of the woodland and timberland chaparral zones. Canyon live oak (Quercus chrysolepis) is found with sugar pine on more mesic sites, while at higher elevations sugar pine occurs with mountain whitethorn (Ceanothus cordulatus), Parry manzanita (Arctostaphylos parryana var. pinctorum), and bush chinquapin (Chrysolepsis sempervirens) . Publications listing sugar pine as a codominant species in plant vegetation types (vts) or community types (cts) are listed as follows: Area Classification Authority ---- -------------- --------- s CA forest (vts) Horton 1960 s CA forest (cts) Thorne 1977 CA forest (cts) Thorne 1976
SPECIES: Pinus lambertiana
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : High-grade sugar pine lumber is sought after for its dimensional stability and workability. The wood is light and resists deformity. It is easily milled and is favored for molding, window and door frames, window sashes, doors, and other special products like piano keys and organ pipes . IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Birds and mammals use sugar pine as a source of food and shelter. Douglas' squirrels and white-headed woodpeckers have been noted to occupy sugar pine trees . PALATABILITY : Sugar pine is considered low in palatability to livestock and wildlife. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : Sugar pine is used for cover by wildlife. Early in sugar pine development, large mammals use dense stands as hiding and thermal cover. Mature trees are used by arboreal species such as birds, squirrels, and other small mammals. Old-growth sugar pine is prime habitat for cavity nesters such as woodpeckers and owls . VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : Native Americans used the pitch from sugar pine to repair canoes and to fasten arrowheads and feathers to shafts . OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Sugar pine is planted on a vast scale in Oregon and California, and also has been tried in several countries around the world. Large-scale plantings, however, are few due to establishment difficulties and restrictive site requirements for good growth . Sugar pine does not self-prune; therefore, high-quality clear-lumber requires the pruning of lower limbs. It is the most tolerant to oxidant air pollution among its coniferous associates [8,16]. Disease: Sugar pine is highly susceptible to white pine blister rust caused by the fungus Cronartium ribicola. Among commercially important North American white pines, sugar pine is the most susceptible to this disease. Infected seedlings and young trees are inevitably killed by cankers girdling the main stem. Incidence and intensity of infection on sugar pine are highest in Oregon and northern California and become progressively less to the south, as the climate becomes warmer and drier. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium californicum) may seriously damage infected trees, but spread is slow and can be controlled by sanitation cutting [13,16,21]. Insects: The most damaging insect threatening sugar pine is the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). During periods of drought, other insects such as the red turpentine beetle (D. valens) and California flathead borer (Melanophila californica) usually attack unhealthy trees and those under moisture stress. The sugar pine cone beetle (Conophthorus lambertianae) is extremely destructive to developing second-year cones [5,16]. Animals: Small mammals such as pocket mice, jumping mice, chipmunks, and ground squirrels forage on young seedlings, thus reducing regeneration on disturbed sites .
SPECIES: Pinus lambertiana
BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Sugar pines may live 400 to 500 years and are second only to giant sequoia (Sequoia gigantea) in total volume. A record sugar pine in California measured 216 feet (66 m) tall and 122 inches (310 cm) in d.b.h. Trees up to 250 feet (76 m) tall and 10 feet (3 m) in diameter have been reported. Mature sugar pine cones are among the largest of all conifers, averaging 12 inches (30 cm) in length, and can reach 22 inches (56 cm) long. Its needles are 3 inches (7.5 cm) long and have five to a cluster. Sugar pines pyramidal crown has whorls of horizontal branches with several conspicuously longer than others. Its sap contains a sugary substance [7,16,21]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte: (Megaphanerophyte) Phanerophyte: (Mesophanerophyte) REGENERATION PROCESSES : Sugar pine does not sprout, but young trees can be rooted from cuttings. Its primary regeneration strategy is via seed [3,16]. Flowering and fruiting: Sugar pine is monoecious. Reproductive buds are set in July and August, but are not discernible until late the next spring. Time of pollination ranges from late May to early August, depending on elevation. Female strobili are approximately 1 to 2 inches (2.5-5.0 cm) long when pollinated and may double in size by the end of the growing season. Fertilization occurs the following spring, approximately 12 months after pollination. Dates of cone opening range from mid-August at low elevations to early October at high elevations. Sugar pine does not become a good cone producer until it has attained a diameter of about 30 inches (75 cm) or is about 150 years old [2,16]. Seed production and dissemination: Mature trees produce large amounts of seeds, averaging up to 150 seeds per cone. In good crop years, the proportion of sound seeds is usually high (67 to 99 percent) but in light crop years can fall as low as 28 percent. Seed shed may begin in late August at low elevations and at higher elevations is usually complete by the end of October. Seeds are large and heavy, averaging 2,100 seeds per pound (4,630/kg). Seeds are not dispersed great distances by wind, and 80 percent fall within 100 feet (30 m) of the source. Birds and small mammals aid in seed dissemination . Seedling development: Sugar pine seeds may lie dormant, but dormancy can be broken by a 60 to 90 day stratification. Fresh seed may germinate with a 90 percent success rate if adequately ripened, cleaned, and stratified. Losses due to unprepared seedbeds, drought, insects, and rodents may be high. Germination is epigeal. Seedlings rapidly grow a deep taproot when seeds germinate on mineral soil. Seedlings will germinate on both litter and bare mineral soil, but development is slow under shade conditions. After 2 years, taproots range from 22 to 40 inches (56-102 cm) deep. Planting sugar pine has met with some failure. A low drought tolerance may be the determining factor. Sowing stratified seed in February or March extends the growing season and produces healthy seedlings of plantable size in one season [4,16]. Growth and yield: Early growth of sugar pine is slow compared to ponderosa pine but increases rapidly in the pole stage and continues through maturity. On favorable sites, growth increments in basal area of 2.5 percent or more can be sustained for up to 100 to 150 years. The best growth can be found between 4,500 to 6,000 feet (1,370-1,830 m) in the central Sierra Nevada, between the American and San Joaquin Rivers. Sugar pine is semitolerant to shade and may exhibit poor growth if seedlings are enclosed by brush. Sugar pine is a deep-rooted species that is not susceptible to windthrow [9,16,21]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Sugar pine is found on a variety of sites from moist, steep, north- and east-facing slopes, to more mesic, south-facing slopes. The fuels under sugar pine are generally heavy with deep soils. Climate: Temperature and precipitation vary widely throughout the range of sugar pine. The general weather pattern consists of hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters. Precipitation during July and August is usually less than 1 inch (2.5 cm) per month and summertime relative humidities are low. Most precipitation occurs between November and April, mostly in the form of snow at middle elevations. Total precipitation varies from 33 to 69 inches (83-173 cm) per year . Soils and topography: Soil parent material include rocks of volcanic, granitic, and sedimentary origin. Soils formed from peridotite or serpentinite typically support sugar pine stands of inferior growth and quality. The most extensive soils supporting sugar pine are well-drained, moderately to rapidly permeable, and slightly acidic to neutral pH (7.0). Best development of sugar pine is on mesic soils with sandy to clayey loam textures. Much of the terrain occupied by sugar pine is steep and rugged. Sugar pines are equally distributed on all aspects at lower elevations but grow best on warm exposures as elevation increases. Optimum growth occurs on gentle terrain at middle elevations . Elevation: Sugar pine ranges from near sea level in the Coast Range to more than 10,000 feet (3,000 m) in the Transverse Range. Elevational limits increase with decreasing latitude. Typical elevational ranges are as follows : Cascade Range: 1,100 to 5,400 feet (335-1,645 m) Sierra Nevada: 2,000 to 7,500 feet (610-2,285 m) Sierra San Pedro Mártir: 7,056 to 9,100 feet (2,150-2,775 m) Transverse and Peninsular Ranges: 4,000 to 10,000 feet (1,220-3,000 m) SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Sugar pine is primarily an early-seral to seral species. It is rarely found in pure stands. When sugar pine is found to be the dominant species in old-growth stands, it most often was dominant to begin with or released by natural causes. White fir would usually be the climax species in mixed conifer forest in the absence of any natural disturbances. When disturbance does occur, it creates gaps in which sugar pine is well adapted to grow [3,4,16,25]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Seasonal growth durations of sugar pine at various elevations in the Sierra Nevada are as follows : Height Radial Growth* Growth ------ ------ Start (days)** 146 107 Start (date) May 26 April 17 Length (days) 51 129 Rapidity (days) 15 46 * An 8-year average. ** Number of days from January 1.
SPECIES: Pinus lambertiana
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Sugar pine is very resistant to low- to moderate-severity fires. It has adapted a thick, fire-resistant bark and open canopy that retards aerial fire spread. Young sugar pine seedlings prefer bare mineral seedbeds [2,3]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : off-site colonizer; seed carried by wind; postfire years 1 and 2 off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT :
SPECIES: Pinus lambertiana
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Sugar pine is rated as intermediate in fire tolerance. Young sugar pines are susceptible to low- to high-severity fires. Mature trees can survive most fires, suffering only bole scorch. Sugar pine susceptibility to secondary attack by insects and disease following fire is rated as low .
Near the Plumas National Forest, prescribed fire in a mixed-conifer-California black oak forest with a sugar pine component successfully reduced fuel load. When a wildfire burned through the site previously burned under prescription, fire severity and fire suppression costs were less compared to adjacent land where fire had been excluded . For further information on this study, see the Research Paper by Moghaddas . A fall prescribed fire in the Tharp Creek Watershed of Sequoia National Park produced 17.2% and 11.7% average annual sugar pine mortality on 2 white fir-mixed conifer sites monitored for 5 years after fire. Mortality was concentrated in the subcanopy. The fire burned from 23 to 26 October 1990. Relative humidity during the day was 21% to 30% and at night was 30% to 40%. Fuel moisture levels in the litter and duff averaged 28%. For 100-hour and 1,000-hour fuels, moisture levels were 14% and 64%, respectively. At the time of ignition, air temperatures were 50 to 61 °F (10-16 °C) and winds were calm. The fire was a combination of backing and strip head fires with flame lengths of 0.16 to 7.9 feet (0.05-2.4 m). One-hour, 10-hour, and 100-hour fuels were reduced by 96%, 77%, and 60%, respectively. Tree (≥4.6 feet (1.4 m)) mortality was evaluated before and after fire as well as from an unburned reference site. Basal area (m˛/ha) changes were also monitored before and after the fire. Mean annual percent change in sugar pine basal area increased by an average of 0.17% and 1.39% on the 2 burned sites before the fire compared to the control site. From 1989 to 1994 (includes 1 year of prefire data), sugar pine basal area was reduced 4.28% to 15.67% on the burned sites compared to the control . For more information, see the entire Research Paper by Mutch and Parsons . PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Sugar pine reaction to a low-severity fire is by seeding on the exposed mineral soil, thus enhancing germination. High-severity fires that occur during periods of high stress will generally result in death [3,16]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : Jeffrey pine FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Prescribed burning has been found to be an effective management treatment that will destroy infected stands of sugar pine where dwarf mistletoe and other diseases have rendered stands unmerchantable . Dead sugar pine is susceptible to blue stain fungus in the sapwood; however, the heartwood is very durable. Salvagable trees may be found up to 17 years after being killed by fire .
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