Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Pinus glabra


SPECIES: Pinus glabra
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Pinus glabra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].

ABBREVIATION : PINGLA SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : PIGL2 COMMON NAMES : spruce pine Walter pine Walter's pine bottom white pine cedar pine TAXONOMY : The accepted scientific name for spruce pine is Pinus glabra Walt. There are no subspecies, varieties, or forms [13]. Spruce pine has been artificially hybridized with shortleaf pine (P. echinata) [9,13]. It does not form any natural hybrids. LIFE FORM : Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Pinus glabra
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Spruce pine is found on the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States from southern South Carolina south to north-central and northwestern Florida and west to Mississippi and southeastern Louisiana [3,13]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress STATES : AL FL GA LA MS SC BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K089 Black Belt K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest K113 Southern floodplain forest SAF COVER TYPES : 80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine 81 Loblolly pine 82 Loblolly pine - hardwood 84 Slash pine 85 Slash pine - hardwood 89 Live oak 91 Swamp chestnut oak - cherrybark oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Spruce pine tends to be a scattered component of the overstory in southern mixed-hardwood forests. It is rarely found in pure stands and is not cited as a dominant tree in any association. Its range overlaps that of other pines, but it usually occurs with the following hardwood species: magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), American beech (Fagus grandiflora), gum (Nyssa spp.), hickory (Carya spp.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), water oak (Quercus nigra), Shumard oak (Q. shumardii), cherrybark oak (Q. pagoda), swamp chestnut oak (Q. michauxii), live oak (Q. virginiana), and numerous other tree and shrub species of bottomlands [6,9,16].


SPECIES: Pinus glabra
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : Spruce pine wood is brittle, close-grained, and not durable. It is of limited commercial importance but is sometimes used for lumber or pulp [3,9]. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Northern bobwhite and squirrels eat spruce pine seeds [22]. Most pines are important resources for wildlife, both for food and cover. Specific information on wildlife use of spruce pine is lacking. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : Spruce pine is planted for Christmas trees [9]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Spruce pine is less susceptible to insects and disease than other pines, largely due to its scattered occurrence [9].


SPECIES: Pinus glabra
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Spruce pine is a medium-sized, native, evergreen conifer. It usually grows to 90 to 100 feet (27.4-30.5 m) tall and 24 to 36 inches (61-91 cm) in d.b.h. The national champion tree is 125 feet (38.1 m) tall. The needles are borne in bundles of two and are 1.6 to 4 inches (4-10 cm) long [3,22]. The bark is relatively thin (0.25 to 0.375 inch [0.64-0.95 cm])[2]. The bark is smooth on young trees, later developing close ridges with flat plates on the lower trunk of older trees. Upper branches and trunks maintain the smoother bark [3,23]. The branches are drooping [17]. Spruce pine develops a moderately deep taproot, with numerous moderately deep lateral roots. It is obligately mycorrhizal; seedlings that fail to develop mycorrhizae usually do not survive [2,9]. Longevity is approximately 113 years; the relatively short life span is probably a result of the high frequency of good seed crops [12]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Spruce pine is sexually mature by 10 years of age; peak cone production occurs between 20 and 40 years of age. Good seed crops occur frequently [12]. The small, winged seeds are released upon maturity and disseminated by wind. Seedling establishment does not appear to require a mineral seedbed [8,12]. Seedlings develop well in the shade of hardwoods or other pines, forming widespreading lateral roots near the surface before penetrating deeper into the soil [9]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Spruce pine grows in limited numbers in rich bottomland woods, swamps, and on hammocks and riverbanks. It occurs on the Coastal Plain where summers are long, hot, and humid; and winters are mild. Average rainfall is approximately 50 inches (1,270 mm) per year and generally evenly distributed, although fall tends to be the driest season [9]. Spruce pine is generally found on acidic sandy loam soils that are intermediate between dry sandy soils and alluvial bottomland soils [2,12]. Spruce pine grows well on moderately to poorly drained sites that may have a high water table or are intermittently waterlogged [12]. Soil orders tend to be Spodosols or Entisols [9]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Obligate Climax Species Spruce pine is very shade tolerant. Seedlings and saplings can grow where available light is as low as 250 foot-candles (2,778 lux) and are common in many parts of the southern mixed-hardwood forest where light intensity is less than 1000 foot-candles (11,111 lux) at noon on a summer day [2]. It is usually only found in late succession hardwood stands of magnolia, beech, or other climax species. In these stands, it is represented by all stages of growth [2,15,16]. Where it is found in younger seral stands, it has usually become established in the shade of loblolly or shortleaf pines [9,16]. According to Platt and Schwartz [24], however, spruce pine appears to capitalize on large-scale disturbance caused by hurricanes. They state that advance recruits in localized light gaps that are capable of rapid growth at high light intensities will capture space in the canopy following large-scale disruption by hurricanes. Hirsh and Platt found that age structures of spruce pine tend to consist of discrete age classes corresponding to dates of hurricanes [25]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Spruce pine pollen is released in February and March in Mississippi. Seed cones ripen in October of their second year, and seeds are dispersed in October and November [10].


SPECIES: Pinus glabra
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Spruce pine occurs in wet bottomlands that rarely experience fire. It is not well adapted to fire: the bark is thin and easily damaged, cones are nonserotinous, and seedling establishment is not enhanced by fire disturbances. McCune [14] places spruce pine in the fire resilient group of pines, largely due to its prolific seeding habit. It does not exhibit any other fire adaptations, nor is it an early colonizer of disturbed areas (unless provided with a shade or nurse tree). POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tree without adventitious-bud root crown


SPECIES: Pinus glabra
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Spruce pine is probably easily killed by fire at all stages of growth. Specific data on the severity of fire needed to kill spruce pine is lacking. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Spruce pine does not sprout after the top is damaged or killed [12]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Stoddard [20] described mixed stands of magnolia, beech, oak, and spruce pine that are usually clear of undergrowth due to heavy shading. He recommends against prescribed burning for wildlife, since even carefully controlled, low-severity fires do considerable harm to this type of forest.


SPECIES: Pinus glabra
REFERENCES : 1. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 2. Dial, Steve C; Batson, Wade T.; Stalter, Richard. 1976. Some ecological and morphological observations of Pinus glabra Walter. Castanea. 41: 361-377. [20745] 3. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764] 4. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 5. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 6. Hodges, John D.; Switzer, George L. 1979. Some aspects of the ecology of southern bottomland hardwoods. In: North America's forests: gateway to opportunity: Proceedings, 1978 joint convention of the Society of American Foresters and the Canadian Institute of Forestry. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters: 360-365. [10028] 7. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954] 8. Komarek, E. V. 1974. Effects of fire on temperate forests and related ecosystems: southeastern United States. In: Kozlowski, T. T.; Ahlgren, C. E., eds. Fire and ecosystems. New York: Academic Press: 251-277. [10167] 9. Kossuth, Susan V.; Michael, J. L. 1990. Pinus glabra Walt. spruce pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654.. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 355-358. [13195] 10. Krugman, Stanley L.; Jenkinson, James L. 1974. Pinaceae--pine family. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 598-637. [1380] 11. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 12. Landers, J. Larry. 1991. Disturbance influences on pine traits in the southeastern United States. In: Proceedings, 17th Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1989 May 18-21; Tallahassee, FL. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 61-95. [17601] 13. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952] 14. McCune, Bruce. 1988. Ecological diversity in North American pines. American Journal of Botany. 75(3): 353-368. [5651] 15. Monk, Carl D. 1968. Successional and environmental relationships of the forest vegetation of north central Florida. American Midland Naturalist. 79(2): 441-457. [10847] 16. Shipman, Robert D. 1958. Planting pine in the Carolina sandhills. Station Pap. No. 96. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 43 p. [17265] 17. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606] 18. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 19. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 20. Stoddard, Herbert L. 1961. The use of controlled fire in southeastern game management. In: The Cooperative Quail Study Association: May 1, 1931-May 1, 1943. Misc. Publ. No. 1. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 179-197. [15068] 21. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 22. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240] 23. Ward, Daniel B. 1963. Contributions to the flora of Florida--2, Pinus (Pinaceae). Castanea. 28(1): 1-10. [17991] 24. Platt, William J.; Schwartz, Mark W. 1990. Temperate hardwood forests. In: Myers, Ronald L.; Ewel, John J., eds. Ecosystems of Florida. Orlando, FL: University of Central Florida Press: 194-229. [17390] 25. Hirsh, Donald W.; Platt, William J. 1981. Dynamics of regeneration within a spruce pine population in a beech-magnolia forest in north-central Florida. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America. 62: 71-72. Abstract. [20746]

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