Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Pinus contorta var. contorta


SPECIES: Pinus contorta var. contorta
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Cope, Amy B. 1993. Pinus contorta var. contorta. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].
ABBREVIATION : PINCONC PINCON SYNONYMS : Pinus boursieri Carr. Pinus tenuis Lemmon SCS PLANT CODE : PICO COMMON NAMES : shore pine beach pine coast pine lodgepole pine TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of shore pine is Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud var. contorta [24,33]. Shore pine is one of four varieties of lodgepole pine. The other three varieties are [9,24]: Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia), Sierra lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. murrayana), Mendocino White Plains lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. bolanderi). This write-up will focus on shore pine. LIFE FORM : Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Pinus contorta var. contorta
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Shore pine occurs along the Pacific Coast from Yakutat Bay, Alaska, south through the Coast Ranges to Mendocino County, California [9,10,24,31,33]. In the eastern part of its range, shore pine occurs intermittently with Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine in the Cascade Range of northwestern Washington, British Columbia, and Alaska [38]. Shore pine is also found in the Klamath Mountains of Oregon and California [49]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES24 Hemlock - Sitka spruce FRES26 Lodgepole pine FRES27 Redwood FRES28 Western hardwoods STATES : AK CA HI OR WA BC BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 3 Southern Pacific Border KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K001 Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest K003 Silver fir - Douglas-fir forest K004 Fir - hemlock forest K006 Redwood forest K008 Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest K009 Pine - cypress forest K013 Cedar - hemlock - pine forest SAF COVER TYPES : 205 Mountain hemlock 206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir 215 Western white pine 218 Lodgepole pine 223 Sitka spruce 224 Western hemlock 225 Western hemlock - Sitka spruce 226 Coastal true fir - hemlock 227 Western redcedar - western hemlock 228 Western redcedar 232 Redwood 255 California coast live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Shore pine is a dominant species in the northern part of its range. Farther south, shore pine is a codominant or subdominant species. In mixed stands, shore pine may form scrubby thickets or sparse to dense groves. Other vegetation is usually sparse [1,48]. Shore pine is listed as an indicator in the following published classifications: Provisional plant community types of southeastern Alaska [1] A classification system for California's hardwood rangelands [2] Preliminary forest plant association management guide [11] Preliminary forest plant associations of the Stikine Area, Tongass National Forest [42] The Alaska vegetation classification system [46] The closed-cone pine and cypresses [48].


SPECIES: Pinus contorta var. contorta
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : The wood of shore pine is light, brittle, coarse grained, and has a high specific gravity [18,33]. Shore pine is occasionally used as fuel and produces 8,730 British thermal units per pound [18]. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Rodents eat the seeds of shore pine [27], and porcupines consume the cambium [3]. Shore pine is of slight importance to big game but provides important edge habitat for other animals [6,42,44]. Alaskan brown bears travel through corridors of shore pine while traveling to feeding areas. Shore pine provides nesting habitat for yellowlegs in Alaska [11]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Shore pine survives strong, salty winds on dry crests and wet depressions. Shore pine has helped stabilize recent sand dune expansion in California [20]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Native Americans boiled the inner bark of shore pine for food [16]. Coastal Native Americans used the pitch of shore pine to treat open sores and chewed the buds to relieve sore throats [3]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Shore pine is a useful species for watershed stabilization [22]. It has shown potential in shelterbelt plantings because of its branching habit and winter hardiness [22,28]. Road construction should be avoided on shore pine sites where possible because of the exceptionally deep, wet soils [11]. Shore pine sites are important because they absorb excessive rainfall and regulate waterflows [11]. Shore pine is valued for the rapid early growth of seedlings [22]. Shore pine is a primary host to lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum); however, infection by this parasite has been observed only in a few coastal areas of British Columbia [14,21]. Shore pine is a host to hemlock dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense), which can cause localized infections [5,30].


SPECIES: Pinus contorta var. contorta
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Shore pine is a short-lived, native conifer [9,22,25,43]. At maturity, depending on the site, shore pine reaches heights of 20 to 50 feet (6-15 m) and d.b.h.'s of 6 to 20 inches (15-50 cm) [16,26,40,46]. The trunk is often twisted, and crown shape varies from dense and round to irregular [17,19,27]. The bark of shore pine is furrowed and up to 1 inch (2.54 cm) thick [3,9,26]. Shore pine has many branches [4,9,26]. The short, narrow leaves occur in fascicles of two [3,17,19,26,44]. The cones are persistent [19,22,33,44,49]. They are about 1.5 to 2 inches (3.8-5.1 cm) long [19,49]. Cones of shore pine are typically nonserotinous [9,10,26]. Serotiny tends to increase farther inland but is erratic and unpredictable [26]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Shore pine does not reproduce by sprouting [40]. Shore pine begins producing cones between 5 and 10 years of age [10,22]. Good seed crops usually occur every other year [10]. Owen and Molden [50] discuss development of lateral shoot terminal buds. Shore pine produces large amounts of flowers and pollen [3,9,49]. Percentage of sound seed ranges from 75 to 79 percent [9]. Fresh seed requires no stratification, but stored seed requires 20 to 30 days stratification. Seeds are viable for up to 17 years in cold storage [22]. Seed falls approximately 200 feet (60 m) from the source under normal conditions [9]. Shore pine requires absorbent soils, light, and warm temperatures for germination [8,22]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Shore pine grows in a maritime climate throughout most of its range. Annual precipitation, which falls year-round and mostly in the form of rain, is 60 to 200 inches (1,500-5,000 mm) [15,26]. Shore pine occurs from sea level to the subalpine zone (5,030 feet [1,525 m]) in Alaska [3,45]. Shore pine occurs in peat bogs and muskegs on gentle slopes and lowlands [11,19,40,42,49]. It is most common on poorly drained, deep Histosols [11,42,45]. Conditions are xeric in the southern-most part of shore pine's distribution, where it occurs in closed-cone pine and cypress communities of California [48]. Shore pine habitat here includes coastal dunes, seaside bluffs, and exposed rocky headlands; winds may be strong and salty [48]. Soils are Inceptisols, Alfisols, and Ultisols; best growth is on well-drained loams with a pH of 5 [16,26]. Here shore pine occurs at elevations between sea level and 1,690 feet (0-507 m) [33]. Overstory and understory tree species not mentioned in Distribution and Occurrence include yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), Mendocino White Plains lodgepole pine, bishop pine (Pinus muricata), and common juniper (Juniperus communis) [20,34,47]. Associated shrubs are huckleberries (Vaccinium spp.), bog Labrador-tea (Ledum groenlandicum), bog kalmia (Kalmia polifolia), northern twinflower (Linnaea borealis), bunchberry dogwood (Cornus canadensis), and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) [1,8,41,46,47]. Commonly associated herbs are sedges (Carex spp.), naked sedge (Calamagrostis nutkatensis), rusty menziesia (Menziesia ferruginea), and narrowleaf cottonsedge (Eriophorum angustifolium) [8,46,47]. Sphagnum moss (Sphagnum spp.) is a common associate in Alaska [46,47]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Shore pine occurs in extreme habitats that are unfavorable to other, potentially competitive species [9,49]. Windthrow and landslides are common [15]. Shore pine is a climatic climax in bog woodlands, reproducing under its own canopy [36]. Shore pine is considered a climax species in many areas [6,41,46]. Shore pine is shade intolerant [25,26,40]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Male and female strobili are initiated late in the growing season. Development continues in the spring [26]. Pollen shedding begins in mid- to late May [9,10,26]. Cones mature between September and October, with seed dispersal following shortly afterward [22,26,40].


SPECIES: Pinus contorta var. contorta
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Fire is not an important factor in forest succession where shore pine occurs in southeastern Alaska [15]. Fire is infrequent in maritime forest types and usually is of little ecological significance [25]. The fire interval is 150 to 350 years but may not be cyclic [35]. The coastal cedar-pine-hemlock biogeoclimatic zone of British Columbia has little or no fire history. The presence of shade-tolerant firs and hemlocks and fire0sensitive species, such as shore pine, indicate that fire is rare in this area [34]. The coastal dunes where shore pine occurs in California are considered fire-free [48]. The foliage of shore pine is moderately flammable. Shore pine has a moderate to low degree of fire resistance [25]. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tree without adventitious-bud root crown Secondary colonizer - off-site seed


SPECIES: Pinus contorta var. contorta


SPECIES: Pinus contorta var. contorta
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