Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Juniperus coahuilensis


Introductory

SPECIES: Juniperus coahuilensis
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Juniperus coahuilensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : JUNCOA SYNONYMS : Juniperus erythrocarpa var. coahuilensis Martinez [23] Juniperus texensis Van Melle [25] SCS PLANT CODE : JUCO11 COMMON NAMES : redberry juniper rose-fruited juniper TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for redberry juniper is Juniperus coahuilensis (Martinez) Gaussen [10,26,27]. Confusion about the correct name for this entity arose over its morphological resemblance to oneseed juniper (J. monosperma) and over its red cones, which resemble those of Pinchot juniper (J. pinchottii). Redberry juniper intergrades with Pinchot juniper in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas, where their ranges overlap. There is a probable hybrid swarm in the Basin of the Chisos Mountains, Texas [1,14]. Zanoni and Adams [24] determined that redberry juniper and Pinchot juniper are the most closely related junipers based on similarity of leaf oil terpenoids and other characters. LIFE FORM : Tree, Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Juniperus coahuilensis
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Redberry juniper occurs in disjunct populations from western Texas (Trans-Pecos), southwestern New Mexico, and southern Arizona south to San Luis Potosi, Mexico [10,14]. ECOSYSTEMS :    FRES33  Southwestern shrubsteppe    FRES34  Chaparral - mountain shrub    FRES35  Pinyon - juniper    FRES40  Desert grasslands STATES :      AZ  NM  TX  MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :     7  Lower Basin and Range    13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :    K023  Juniper - pinyon woodland    K031  Oak - juniper woodlands    K058  Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe    K059  Trans-Pecos shrub savanna SAF COVER TYPES :     66  Ashe - redberry (Pinchot) juniper    239  Pinyon - juniper    241  Western live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : In the Southwest junipers (Juniperus spp.) are associated with oaks (Quercus spp.) and true pinyon (Pinus edulis).  Junipers increase in dominance over oaks and pinyons on dry sites [14].  Redberry juniper is common in alligator juniper (J. deppeana)-pinyon woodlands and savannas, and in areas where its range overlaps with Utah juniper (J. osteosperma), oneseed juniper (J. monosperma), and Rocky Mountain juniper (J. scopulorum) [8].  It occurs in evergreen oak woodlands with Emory oak (Q. emoryi) and Mexican blue oak (Q. oblongifolia) [11]. Redberry juniper is also found in Arizona chaparral woodlands with shrub live oak (Q. turbinella) and Arizona rosewood (Vauquelinia californica) [20].  It occurs as scattered individuals in grama (Bouteloua spp.) grasslands, along with scattered velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina), Mexican blue oak, and alligator juniper [14]. A publication listing redberry juniper as a codominant species is as follows: Classification of pinyon-juniper (p-j) sites on National Forests in the    Southwest [12]

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Juniperus coahuilensis
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : Redberry juniper wood is used locally for posts and fuel [21]. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : The fleshy, berry-like cones of redberry juniper are eaten by at least four species of songbirds, Gambel's quail, coyotes, foxes, raccoons, rock squirrels, Hopi chipmunks, and probably other birds and mammals [14,21]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : Juniper bark was used by Native Americans to make mats, saddles, and other items.  They also used the seeds for beads or ground the fleshy cones for flour [14,21]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Juniperus coahuilensis
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Redberry juniper is a native, evergreen, small tree or large shrub. Mature height usually ranges from 12 to 15 feet (3.6-4.5 m), with spreading and ascending branches forming an open, irregular crown.  The ovulate cones contain one seed [15].  The bark is shreddy, but but is formed close to the trunk.  Redberry juniper tends to have a central erect stem with lower branches originating near the ground level [5]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :    Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Redberry juniper reproduces by seed.  Further information specific to reproduction in redberry juniper is not available.  Pinchot juniper is one of the few juniper species known to sprout after top-kill, and it is closely related to redberry juniper.  In most junipers germination may be delayed up to 2 years through embryo dormancy, seedcoat impermeability, or chemical inhibitors.  Juniper seedling establishment is enhanced by light shade, which helps maintain adequate moisture [7]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : In Trans-Pecos Texas junipers are most common on rocky or poor soils [14].  Redberry juniper occurs most often on dry, well-drained soils in full sun [19].  It occurs at elevations of 4,000 feet (1,200 m) to 6,500 feet (2,000 m) through its range [1,16]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Redberry juniper is intolerant of shade [7].  Junipers often invade grasslands and are gradually replaced by pinyons [7]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Redberry juniper is pollinated in late fall, and the ovulate cones mature in late spring [5].  Most juniper seeds germinate in spring [7].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Juniperus coahuilensis
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Redberry juniper occurs on juniper savannas, which are kept open by fire.  Fires in these habitats tend to be surface fires carried by grasses, which burn so rapidly that heat levels lethal to large redberry juniper are rarely generated [7].  Fire-free intervals of 10 years or more are usually sufficient to allow juniper (Juniperus spp.) saplings to reach fire-resistant size:  about 3 to 6 feet (1-2 m) [22].  Redberry juniper occurs in evergreen oak woodlands [11] which experience rapidly burning grass fires approximately every 10 to 20 years [22]. In some areas, junipers (probably including redberry juniper) are encroaching on grasslands that were historically kept clear of trees and shrubs by very frequent fires.  Climatic changes and intensive livestock grazing have also been implicated in this encroachment [7]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :    Tree without adventitious-bud root crown    Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Juniperus coahuilensis
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Specific information in the immediate effect of fire on redberry juniper is lacking in the literature. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : NO-ENTRY DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Juniperus coahuilensis
REFERENCES :  1.  Adams, Robert P.; Kistler, J. R. 1991. Hybridization between Juniperus        erythrocarpa Cory and Juniperus pinchotii Sudworth in the Chisos        Mountains, Texas. Southwestern Naturalist. 36(3): 295-301.  [17084]  2.  Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals,        reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's        associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO:        U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p.        [434]  3.  Bowers, Janice E.; McLaughlin, Steven P. 1987. Flora and vegetation of        the Rincon Mountains, Pima County, Arizona. Desert Plants. 8(2): 50-94.        [495]  4.  Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and        Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p.  [905]  5.  Fletcher, Reggie A. 1985. Differentiation of Juniperus erythrocarpa and        Juniperus monosperma. Range Notes No. 3. Albuquerque, NM: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region. 5 p.        [22198]  6.  Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others].        1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range        ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p.  [998]  7.  Gottfried, Gerald J. 1992. Ecology and management of the southwestern        pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J.;        Bennett, Duane A.; [and others], technical coordinators. Ecology and        management of oaks and associated woodlands: perspectives in the sw        United States & n Mexico: Proceedings; 1992 April 27-30; Sierra Vista,        AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-218. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station: 78-86.  [19745]  8.  Hill, Alison. 1990. Ecology and classification of the pinyon-juniper        woodlands in western New Mexico. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State        University. 75 p. Dissertation. In: Dissertation Abstracts        International. 51(11): 5116-B. [1991].  [24518]  9.  Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation        of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York:        American Geographical Society. 77 p.  [1384] 10.  Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native        and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p.  [2952] 11.  McPherson, Guy R. 1992. Ecology of oak woodlands in Arizona. In:        Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Bennett, Duane A.; [and        others], technical coordinators. Ecology and management of oak and        associated woodlands: perspectives in the sw United States & n Mexico:        Proceedings; 1992 April 27-30; Sierra Vista, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-218.        Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky        Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 24-33.  [19737] 12.  Moir, W. H.; Carleton, J. O. 1987. Classification of pinyon-juniper        (p-j) sites on National Forests in the Southwest. In: Everett, Richard        L., compiler. Proceedings--pinyon-juniper conference; 1986 January        13-16; Reno, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-215. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 216-226.        [6852] 13.  Pieper, Rex D. 1992. Species composition of woodland communities in the        Southwest. In: Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Bennett, Duane        A.; [and others], technical coordinators. Ecology and management of oak        and assoiciated woodlands: perspectives in the sw United States & n        Mexico: Proceedings; 1992 April 27-30; Sierra Vista, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep.        RM-218. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 119-124.        [19750] 14.  Powell, A. Michael. 1988. Trees & shrubs of Trans-Pecos Texas including        Big Bend and Guadalupe Mountains National Parks. Big Bend National Park,        TX: Big Bend Natural History Association. 536 p.  [6130] 15.  Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant        geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p.  [2843] 16.  Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas        Monthly Press. 372 p.  [11708] 17.  Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern        Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire        Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p.  [20090] 18.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982.        National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names.        SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p.  [11573] 19.  Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States,        their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S.        Department of Agriculture. 362 p.  [4240] 20.  Van Devender, Thomas R.; Mead, Jim I.; Rea, Amadeo M. 1991. Late        Quaternary plants and vertebrates from Picacho Peak, Arizona.        Southwestern Naturalist. 36(3): 302-314.  [17089] 21.  Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest.        Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p.  [7707] 22.  Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States        and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p.  [2620] 23.  Zanoni, Thomas A.; Adams, Robert P. 1975. The genus Juniperus        (Cupressaceae) in Mexico and Guatemala: numerical and morphological        analysis. Boletin de la Sociedad Botanica de Mexico. 35: 69-91.  [20641] 24.  Zanoni, Thomas A.; Adams, Robert P. 1976. The genus Juniperus in Mexico        and Guatemala: numerical and chemosystematic analysis. Biochemical        Systematics and Ecology. 4: 147-158.  [19991] 25.  Zanoni, T. A. 1978. The American junipers of the section Sabina        (Juniperus, Cupressaceae) -- a century later. Phytologia. 38(6):        433-454.  [4954]    26. Flora of North America Association.  2000.  Flora of North America        north of Mexico. Volume 2: Pteridophytes and gymnosperms, [Online].  Available:        http://hua.huh.harvard.edu/FNA/ [2003, August 12].  [36990]   27.  Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A.  1999.  Synthesis of the        North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM].  Available: North        Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with the Nature Conservancy, Natural        Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001,        January 16].  [36715] 


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