Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Gordonia lasianthus

Introductory

SPECIES: Gordonia lasianthus
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Gordonia lasianthus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ []. ABBREVIATION : GORLAS SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : GOLA COMMON NAMES : loblolly-bay holly bay gordonia bay TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for loblolly-bay is Gordonia lasianthus (L.) J. Ellis (Theacea) [10,25]. LIFE FORM : Tree, Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Gordonia lasianthus
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Loblolly-bay is distributed continuously along the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains from the Albermarle Sound of North Carolina to the Appalachicola River in the Florida Panhandle. Discontinuous populations exist in Florida, the coastal counties of Alabama, and southern Mississippi. In South Carolina it is common in the lower Coastal Plain but restricted to specific sites in the middle and upper Coastal Plain [1,6,9,12]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress STATES : AL FL GA MS NC SC BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest K113 Southern floodplain forest K114 Pocosin SAF COVER TYPES : 70 Longleaf pine 82 Loblolly pine - hardwood 97 Atlantic white-cedar 98 Pond pine 100 Pondcypress 104 Sweetbay - swamp tupelo - redbay SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Loblolly-bay occurs in evergreen shrub-tree bogsd and bayheads, baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps, and other and swamps [10,25].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Gordonia lasianthus
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : Loblolly-bay is slow growing, with soft, light-colored, fine-grained wood of little commercial value, although it could be managed as a source of pulpwood. Loblolly-bay is also be used as fuel wood [12,24]. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : White-tailed deer heavily browse the stump sprouts of loblolly-bay [12]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Loblolly-bay has been used in riparian ecosystem restoration in central Florida [17]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : In the Southeast, loblolly-bay is considered a handsome and hardy tree and valued as an ornamental. Extracts of its bark are used as a tanning agent [11,26]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Because of its ability to grow in bogs and wet flats where loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) does poorly, loblolly-bay plantations may offer a management alternative for such areas [12].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Gordonia lasianthus
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Loblolly-bay is a small to medium-sized native, evergreen tree or shrub. It grows to about 65 feet (20 m) in height and has a narrow conical to columnar crown [10]. The simple leaves are alternate, leathery, and thick. The rough bark of mature trees is thin, interlaced with flat-topped ridges and separated by narrow furrows. The perfect, solitary flowers are axillary to close-set leaves on the current years twigs. The fruit is a hard, woody, five-valved capsule about 0.6 inch (1.5 cm) long with each valve containing four to eight flat, winged seeds. Loblolly-bay has a large primary root with secondary roots branching downward [9,20,23,24]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Seed production and dissemination: Loblolly-bay produces an abundance of lightweight, winged seed. Most of the seeds fall within a radius of two to three times the height of the source tree. Seeds are shaken out of the capsules by the wind, and empty capsules remain attached until peduncle and capsule abscission [6,12]. Seedling development: Germination is epigeal. Most loblolly-bay seedlings do not live past the first growing season; those that do show slow initial growth. By the end of the third growing season the seedlings are about 4 to 6 inches (10-15 cm) tall and by the eighth growing season are 12 to 16 inches (30-40 cm) tall [12]. Vegetative reproduction: Vegetative reproduction of first-year shoots in a peat and sand medium under mist is commonly used by horticulturists. In the field, vegetative reproduction is more common than regeneration from seed. Stump sprouts may grow as much as 3 feet (1 m) in the first year [12]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Loblolly-bay grows in warm, wet, temperate climates with an average annual precipitation of 64 inches (1,630 mm) in Florida to about 44 inches (1,120 mm) in North Carolina. The species grows in acid, swampy soils of pinelands and bays on the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains. Loblolly-bay is found on several soil series. It grows on certain Spodosols, Inceptisols, Ultisols, and Histosols, and to a lesser degree on Entisols and Mollisols. Loblolly-bay grows in flat woodlands or shallow depressions with little or no slope, slow runoff, rapid permeability, and poor to very poor drainage. In South Carolina the soils are usually of sandy coastal plain or marine origin, except for the organic soils. The water table is usually at or near the soil surface from 6 to 9 months of the year [1,2,12,18]. Associated hardwoods include water oak (Quercus nigra), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), American holly (Ilex opaca), red bay Persea barbonia var. barbonia), and black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica). Associated shrubs include fetterbush (Lyonia lucida), inkberry (Ilex glabra), greenbrier (Smilax spp.), southern bayberry (Myrica cerifera), and swamp cyrilla (Cyrilla racemiflora) [1,3,11,18]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Faculative Seral Species. Loblolly-bay is classed as tolerant of shade. In bays and wet flats where tree cover is relatively light, loblolly-bay is a strong competitor [12,13,19]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Loblolly-bay flowers from the last week in June to the first week in July. Flowers remain open for 1 or 2 days and are pollinated by bees, flies, and hummingbirds. After the second day, the sepals and petals fall, leaving the ovary at the end of the peduncle. As the ovaries develop, they gradually turn brown and five sutures develop. Mature open capsules first appear during September or October, and all the capsules open by the middle of December. Seedfall starts in October, peaks in December, and continues until early March [12].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Gordonia lasianthus
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Loblolly-bay is sensitive to fire. The thin bark and shallow root system contribute to its low fire tolerance. Loblolly-bay has the ability to sprout from the root crown after being top-killed [4,5]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/root sucker

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Gordonia lasianthus
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire typically top-kills loblolly bay. Five major fires in 1954 and 1955 occurred in the Okefenokee Swamp during an extreme drought. In some areas the fires were severe enough to burn into the peat, completely killing all loblolly-bay trees. Where only surface fires occurred, the larger top-killed trees sprouted from the root crown [4,5]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Loblolly-bay sprouts from the root crown following fire [5,12]. Data pertaining to postfire density, frequency, or growth rates of loblolly-bay following fire were not found in the literature. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Within swamp bay forests, three fires occurring within 60 or 70 years or a single, deep peat burn with a high postburn water table may produce open marsh areas or "prairies". These open areas provide important habitat for a number of wildlife species, including the sandhill crane, bitterns, rails, gallinules, the round-tailed muskrat, and waterfowl [5].

References for species: Gordonia lasianthus


1. Best, G. Ronnie; Segal, Debra S.; Wolfe, Charlotte. 1990. Soil-vegetation correlations in selected wetlands and uplands of north-central Florida. Biol. Rep. 90(9). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 51 p. [18161]
2. Brown, Randall B.; Stone, Earl L.; Carlisle, Victor W. 1990. Soils. In: Myers, Ronald L.; Ewel, John J., eds. Ecosystems of Florida. Orlando, FL: University of Central Florida Press: 35-69. [17386]
3. Buford, Marilyn A.; Williams, Claire G.; Hughes, Joseph H. 1991. Growth and survival of Atlantic white-cedar on a South Carolina coastal plain site--first year results. In: Coleman, Sandra S.; Neary, Daniel G., compilers. Proceedings, 6th biennial southern silvicultural research conference: Volume 2; 1990 October 30 - November 1; Memphis, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-70. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 579-583. [17502]
4. Namkoong, G.; Roberds, J. H. 1974. Extinction probabilities and the changing age structure of redwood forests. The American Naturalist. 108(961): 355-368. [11081]
5. Cypert, Eugene. 1973. Plant succession on burned areas in Okefenokee Swamp following the fires of 1954 and 1955. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1972 June 8-9; Lubbock, TX. Number 12. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 199-217. [8467]
6. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764]
7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]
8. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]
9. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
10. Godfrey, Robert K.; Wooten, Jean W. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 933 p. [16907]
11. Gresham, Charles A. 1982. Biomass relations of Gordonia lasianthus, loblolly-bay. In: Baldwin, V. C., Jr.; Lohrey, R., eds. Proceedings, Southern forest biomass working group workshop; 1982 June 16-18; Alexandria, LA. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 81-87. [15862]
12. Gresham, Charles A.; Lipscomb, Donald J. 1990. Gordonia lasianthus (L.) Ellis loblolly-bay. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., tech. coords. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 365-369. [19444]
13. Johnson, A. Sydney; Hillestad, Hilburn O.; Shanholtzer, Sheryl Fanning; Shanholtzer, G. Frederick. 1974. An ecological survey of the coastal region of Georgia. Scientific Monograph Series No 3, NPS 116. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 233 p. [16102]
14. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384]
15. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
16. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496]
17. Manci, Karen M. 1989. Riparian ecosystem creation and restoration: a literature summary. Biol. Rep.89(20). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 60 p. [11757]
18. Monk, Carl D. 1968. Successional and environmental relationships of the forest vegetation of north central Florida. The American Midland Naturalist. 79(2): 441-457. [10847]
19. Penfound, William T. 1952. Southern swamps and marshes. The Botanical Review. 18: 413-446. [11477]
20. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
21. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]
22. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573]
23. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
24. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
25. Wunderlin, Richard P.; Hansen, Bruce F. 2003. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. 2nd edition. Gainesville, FL: The University of Florida Press. 787 p. [69433]


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