Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Carya tomentosa


Introductory

SPECIES: Carya tomentosa
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Carya tomentosa In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : CARTOM SYNONYMS : Carya alba (Mill.) K. Koch SCS PLANT CODE : CATO6 COMMON NAMES : mockernut hickory mockernut white hickory whiteheart hickory hognut bullnut TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for mockernut hickory is Carya tomentosa Nutt. [19]. Recognized morphological varieties based on differences in the leaves and fruit include [32]: Var. subcoriacea (Sarg.) Palm. & Steyermark, commonly known as Gulf mockernut hickory, it is distiguished from the typical variety by having thicker, more pubescent leaves, and a fruit more prominently angled with thicker and larger nuts. Var. ficoides Sarg., commonly known as fig mockernut hickory, is distinguished from the typical variety by having a stipelike base to the fruit. Var. ovoidea Sarg., commmonly known as ovoid mockernut hickory, is distinguished from the typical variety by having a long-acuminate ovoid fruit. Mockernut hickory hybrid products are [32]: C. tomentosa x C. illinoensis = C. X schneckii Sarg. C. tomentosa x C. ovata = C. X collina Laughlin LIFE FORM : Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Carya tomentosa
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Mockernut hickory grows from Massachusetts and New York west to southern Ontario, southern Michigan, northern Illinois, southeastern Iowa, Missouri, and eastern Kansas; south to eastern Texas; and east to northern Florida. Mockernut hickory is most abundant southward through Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida. It is also abundant in the lower Mississippi Valley and grows largest in the lower Ohio River Basin [4,28]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood FRES18 Maple - beech - birch STATES : AL AR CT DE FL GA IL IN IA KS KY LA MD MA MI MS MO NJ NY NC OH OK PA RI SC TN TX VA WV BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K089 Black Belt K096 Northeastern spruce - fir forest K097 Southeastern spruce - fir forest K100 Oak - hickory K101 Elm - ash forest K102 Beech - maple forest K103 Mixed mesophytic forest K104 Appalachian oak forest K110 Northeastern oak - pine forest K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest K113 Southern floodplain forest SAF COVER TYPES : 40 Post oak - blackjack oak 42 Bur oak 43 Bear oak 44 Chestnut oak 45 Pitch pine 46 Eastern redcedar 51 White pine - chestnut oak 52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak 53 White oak 55 Northern red oak 57 Yellow-poplar 60 Beech - sugar maple 61 River birch - sycamore 64 Sassafras - persimmon 65 Pin oak - sweet gum 70 Longleaf pine 71 Longleaf pine - scrub oak 72 Southern scrub oak 75 Shortleaf pine 76 Shortleaf pine - oak 78 Virginia pine - oak 79 Virginia pine 80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine 81 Loblolly pine 82 Loblolly pine - hardwood 83 Longleaf pine - slash pine 87 Sweetgum - yellow-poplar 91 Swamp chestnut oak - cherrybark oak 92 Sweetgum - willow oak 93 Sugarberry - American elm - green ash 110 Black oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : NO-ENTRY

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Carya tomentosa
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : Nearly 80 percent of harvested mockernut hickory is used to manufacture tool handles, for which its hardness, toughness, stiffness, and strength make it especially suitable. Other uses include agricultural implements, dowels, gymnasium equipment, poles, and furniture. Mockernut hickory is also used for lumber, pulpwood, charcoal, and fuelwood [25,29]. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Mockernuts are preferred mast for wildlife, especially squirrels. Black bears, foxes, beavers, and white-footed mice feed on the nuts, and sometimes the bark. White-tailed deer browse the foliage, twigs and nuts. Mockernuts are a minor source of food for ducks, quail, and turkey [28]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : Mockernut hickory provides cavity-nesting sites for a variety of birds in the Missouri oak-hickory forest [2,7,27]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : The deep lateral roots of mockernut hickory make it a valuable species for watershed protection [25]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Mockernut hickory sawdust and chips are often used commercially to smoke meats. Although mockernut kernels are edible, because of their size they are rarely eaten by humans [25,28]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Mockernut hickory seedling establishment is difficult due to seed predation. Infrequent bumper crops produce some seed, but seedling survival is poor under a dense canopy. Clearcutting results in new sapling stands when advanced regeneration is present. Without advanced regeneration, clearcutting eliminates mockernut hickory except for stump sprouting [22,28].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Carya tomentosa
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Mockernut hickory is a medium-to-large native, deciduous tree, typically reaching a height of 65 to 100 feet (20-30 m) [10,12]. When grown in association with other trees, mockernut hickory develops a long, slender, straight trunk which is free of branchlets for about half the height of the tree. The crown is open, narrow, and rounded at the top. In the open, the crown covers much more of the length of the tree and is generally oblong, with branches that bear straight branchlets. Sometimes the branches droop. The trunk is often swollen at the base. As with other hickories, a deep strong taproot develops [8,14]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Seed production and dissemination: Mockernut hickory requires a minimum of 25 years to reach commercial seed-bearing age. Optimum production occurs from 40 to 125 years, and the maximum age for commercial seed production is 200 years. Good seed crops occur every 2 to 3 years. with light seed crops in the intervening years. Approximately 50 to 75 percent of the fresh seed will germinate [28]. Mockernut hickory has one of the heaviest seeds of the hickory genus. Cleaned seeds range from 32 to 113 per pound (70-200/kg). Seed is disseminated mainly by gravity, squirrels, and birds [28]. Seedling development: Hickory nuts seldom remain viable on the ground for more than 1 year. This species requires a moderately moist seedbed for satisfactory seed germination; germination is epigeal. Seedlings are slow growing. Vegetative reproduction: Mockernut hickory will sprout prolifically from the stump after cutting or fire. As the stumps increase in size, the number of stumps that produce sprouts decreases [28]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : In the north, mockernut hickory grows on rocky hills and slopes and less frequently on alluvial bottomlands [1]. In the Cumberland Mountains and in the hills of southern Indiana, it grows on dry sites, typically south and west slopes or dry ridges. Most of the merchantable mockernut hickory grows on moderately fertile uplands. It attains its best development on deep fertile soils [15,28]. In addition to those indicated by SAF cover types (DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE) common tree associates of mockernut hickory include eastern hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), sweet birch (Betula lenta), bitternut (Carya cordiformis), shagbark hickory (C. glabra), flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), green ash (Fraxinus americana), and oaks (Quercus spp.) [18,23]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Mockernut hickory is classified as intolerant of shade, but at certain times during its life, may be variously classified as tolerant to intolerant. It recovers rapidly from disturbances and is probably a climax species on moist sites [17,28]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Mockernut hickory flowers open from early April in central Florida to the end of May in eastern New England. The fruit ripens in September and October, and the seed is dispersed from September through December [21,31].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Carya tomentosa
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Mockernut hickory is extremely sensitve to fire because of the low insulating capacity of the bark [24,28]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : survivor species; on-site surviving root crown or caudex off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Carya tomentosa
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Winter burning in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stand in the lower Atlantic Coastal Plain top-killed all mockernut hickory up to 4 inches (10 cm) d.b.h. [13]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Mockernut hickory will sprout from the stump after aboveground portions are killed by fire [3,6]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Late spring and early summer fires have the greatest weakening effect on mockernut hickory. Repeated annual fires has eliminated mockernut hickory in the prairies and central plains [13].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Carya tomentosa
REFERENCES : 1. Adams, Dwight E.; Anderson, Roger C. 1980. Species response to a moisture gradient in central Illinois forests. American Journal of Botany. 67(3): 381-392. [13295] 2. Allen, Arthur W.; Corn, Janelle G. 1990. Relationships between live tree diameter and cavity abundance in a Missouri oak-hickory forest. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 7: 179-183. [13504] 3. Blair, Robert M.; Brunett, Louis E. 1976. Phytosociological changes after timber harvest in a southern pine ecosystem. Ecology. 57: 18-32. [9646] 4. Bonner, F. T.; Maisenhelder, L. C. 1974. Carya Nutt. hickory. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 269-272. [7571] 5. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. [12914] 6. DeSelm, H. R.; Clebsch, E. E. C. 1991. Response types to prescribed fire in oak forest understory. In: Nodvin, Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the environment: ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-69. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 22-33. [16630] 7. Dickson, James G.; Conner, Richard N.; Williamson, J. Howard. 1983. Snag retention increases bird use of a clear-cut. Journal of Wildlife Management. 47(3): 799-804. [13855] 8. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764] 9. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 10. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p. (Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny Series; vol. 2). [14935] 11. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 12. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239] 13. Hodgkins, Earl J. 1958. Effects of fire on undergrowth vegetation in upland southern pine forests. Ecology. 39(1): 36-46. [7632] 14. Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p. [3375] 15. Jones, Steven M. 1988. Old-growth forests within the Piedmont of South Carolina. Natural Areas Journal. 8(1): 31-37. [11008] 16. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 17. Kurz, Herman. 1944. Secondary forest succession in the Tallahassee Red Hills. Proceedings, Florida Academy of Science. 7(1): 59-100. [10799] 18. Lawson, Edwin R. 1990. Pinus echinata Mill. shortleaf pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 316-326. [13394] 19. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952] 20. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 21. McCarthy, Brian C.; Quinn, James A. 1990. Reproductive ecology of Carya (Juglandaceae): phenology, pollination, and breeding system of two sympatric tree species. American Journal of Botany. 77(2): 261-273. [13305] 22. McNab, Henry W. 1988. Hardwoods and site quality. In: Smith, H. Clay; Perkey, Arlyn W.; Kidd, William E., Jr., eds. Guidelines for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands: Workshop proceedings; 1988 May 24-26; Morgantown, WV. SAF Publ. 88-03. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Books: 226-240. [13949] 23. Metzger, F. T. 1990. Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch eastern hophornbeam. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 490-496. [13970] 24. Niering, William A.; Goodwin, Richard H.; Taylor, Sally. 1971. Prescribed burning in southern New England: introduction to long-range studies. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1970 August 20-21; Fredericton, NB. No. 10. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 267-286. [15704] 25. Randall, Charles Edgar. 1968. Enjoying our trees. Washington, DC: The American Forestry Association. 122 p. [1933] 26. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 27. Sharp, Ward M. 1963. The effects of habitat manipulation and forest succession on ruffed grouse. Journal of Wildlife Management. 27(4): 664-671. [16737] 28. Smith, H. Clay. 1990. Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. mockernut hickory. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 226-233. [17165] 29. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1956. Wood...colors and kinds. Agric. Handb. 101. Washington, DC. 36 p. [16294] 30. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 31. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240] 32. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]


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