Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Alnus rubra


Introductory

SPECIES: Alnus rubra
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Uchytil, Ronald J. 1989. Alnus rubra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : ALNRUB SYNONYMS : Alnus oregona Alnus incana var. rubra Alnus rubra var. pinnatisecta SCS PLANT CODE : ALRU2 COMMON NAMES : red alder Oregon alder western alder Pacific Coast alder TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of red alder is Alnus rubra Bong. [31,34,40]. There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms. LIFE FORM : Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Alnus rubra
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Red alder is confined to the Pacific Coast region from southeast Alaska to southern California. Although there is an isolated population growing along streams in northern Idaho, it ordinarily occurs no further inland than 100 miles (160 km) at elevations below 2,500 feet (762 m) [16,24,33]. Red alder is cultivated in Hawaii [71]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES22 Western white pine FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES24 Hemlock - Sitka spruce FRES27 Redwood FRES28 Western hardwoods STATES : AK CA HI ID OR WA BC BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 3 Southern Pacific Border 8 Northern Rocky Mountains KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K001 Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest K002 Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest K003 Silver fir - Douglas-fir forest K005 Mixed conifer forest K006 Redwood forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K013 Cedar - hemlock - pine forest K025 Alder - ash forest K029 California mixed evergreen forest SAF COVER TYPES : 210 Interior Douglas-fir 221 Red alder 222 Black cottonwood - willow 223 Sitka spruce 224 Western hemlock 225 Western hemlock - Sitka spruce 226 Coastal true fir - hemlock 227 Western redcedar - western hemlock 228 Western redcedar 229 Pacific Douglas-fir 230 Douglas-fir - western hemlock 231 Port Orford-cedar 232 Redwood 244 Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Red alder communities, both upland and riparian, generally are found within coniferous forests dominated by Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), grand fir (Abies grandis), and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) [18,19,67], or as components of deciduous forests of floodplains or swamps [18,19]. Generally, five types of red alder communities have been described [18,19,21,32,67]: (1) Upland, pure even aged stands of red alder, with a dense shrub undergrowth dominated by salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis) or elderberry (Sambucus melanocarpa), occurring within coniferous forests. (2) Upland mixed stands of red alder/other deciduous trees and shrubs/conifers within coniferous forests less than 100 years old, with red alder occurring as a dominant or codominant. (3) Riparian red alder communities within coniferous forests. (4) Mixed stands within deciduous riparian forests, red alder occurring as codominant with black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum). (5) In swamps often occurring with, or codominant with, western redcedar. In this type of community, red alder appears to be a climax species. Red alder communities were primarily restricted to streams and wet areas during presettlement times. Since then, disturbances such as logging have provided an abundance of open sites with bare mineral soil, which favor red alder colonization. Today red alder communities are common throughout much of coastal Oregon and Washington. Published classification schemes listing red alder as an indicator species or as a dominant part of the vegetation in community types (cts) or plant associations (pas) are presented below: Area Classification Authority AK general veg. cts Viereck & others 1992 CA hardwood forest & Barbour 1987 woodland cts CA general veg. cts Thorne 1976 s CA general veg. cts Paysen & others 1980 nw CA,w Or,w WA general veg. cts Franklin 1979 OR: Siuslaw NF general veg. pas Hemstrom & Logan 1986 OR postburn veg. cts Bailey & Poulton 1968 s OR: Cascade Mtns forest pas Atzet & McCrimmon 1990 OR, WA general veg. cts Franklin & Dyrness 1973 Pacific NW general veg. cts Hall 1984

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Alnus rubra
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : Red alder is considered the most important commercial hardwood of the Pacific Northwest. The fine even texture and moderate density of red alder wood make it easy to work with. It sands and polishes easily, holds paints and coatings well, stains readily, and seldom splits [3,38]. Due to these favorable characteristics, andthe fact that it is much less expensive than other hardwoods used in furniture manufacturing, red alder wood is extensively for furniture making and cabinetry [55]. It is also used in the manufacture of novelties, trim, paneling, pallets, veneers, plywoods, and paper roll plugs [3,67]. Smaller manufactured items include brush handles, spools, trays, shoe soles, and boxes. Red alder is an important source of pulp for paper products. Research is being conducted to determine the feasibility of producing 4x8 foot (1.2-2.4 m) sheets of waferboard from chips [29]. Trees less than 8 inches (20.3 cm) in diameter are generally chipped or cut for fuel wood. Sawmill logs need to be greater than 7 or 8 inches (17.8-20.3 cm) in diameter at the small end and over 30 feet (9.1 m) long [29]. Red alder is also an important source of firewood. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Red alder grows rapidly, often reaching heights of 35 feet (10 m) in 10 years; therefore, only young plants are available as browse. Leaves and twigs of saplings are eaten by cattle, sheep, and goats [64], sometimes in preference to other fairly good browse [57]. Deer and elk eat the leaves, twigs, and buds of young red alder trees in fall, winter, and early spring. Beavers eat the bark, and build dams and lodges with the stems [64]. Alder (Alnus spp.) seeds are eaten by redpolls, siskins, and goldfinches [42]. Red alder seeds are an important food for deer mice, especially when other primary foods are difficult to obtain. Seeds eaten off the snow after being dispersed [66]. PALATABILITY : The leaves and young twigs of red alder are generally considered to be a fair browse for cattle and sheep [11]. Red alder may be slightly less palatable to cattle than to sheep or goats. However, cattle make greater use of red alder, as they tend to frequent moist sites where red alder occurs [64]. The degree of use shown by livestock and wildlife species for red alder is rated as follows [30,57]: CA OR Cattle fair-poor ---- Sheep fair-poor ---- Horses fair-poor ---- Mule deer fair-useless fair NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : Red alder dominated early seral communities within recently clearcut Douglas-fir forests are favorable habitat for black-tailed deer. Red alder/thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus) stands in Oregon are preferred by black-tailed deer during the summer and early fall when daytime temperatures are highest [30]. These stands are generally avoided in the winter. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Red alder is useful for erosion control on steep slopes where soil has been disturbed because the heavy cover and litter layer which forms within 3 to 5 years effectively protects the soil [67]. Plants may be established by direct seeding or transplanting, but not by cuttings, as they seldom root [16]. To obtain seed, proven seed collection and seed extraction procedures should be followed [36,58]. Transplanted container-grown seedlings have shown a first year survival rate of about 75 to 80 percent [36]. Carefully dug wild seedlings also transplant well [29]. Recent research suggests that cuttings from 1- to 3-year-old plants can be induced to root by dipping the cutting for 10 seconds in a 8,000 p/m solution of indole-3 butyric acid and then dusting with 10 percent benomyl [47]. However, cuttings took 6 weeks to root in a warm greenhouse environment between 72 and 77 degrees F (22-25 deg C). OTHER USES AND VALUES : Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest extracted a red dye from the inner bark of red alder, which was used to dye fish nets, making the net "invisible" to fish. Red alder contains salicin, which chemically is closely related to acetylsalicylic acid (commonly known as aspirin). This is probably why Native Americans used various preparations for medicinal purposes. Native Americans also used the wood for various utensils. Red alder coals are currently used in the Northwest to smoke salmon [1]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Although long-term economic returns are higher with conifer crops than red alder, under certain conditions red alder should be considered as an alternative forest crop [29]. Upland sites too wet for Douglas-fir and hemlock (Tsuga spp.) are well suited for red alder. Red alder may also be planted onto areas infected with laminated root rot fungus, since hardwoods are immune to this infection. In Oregon, before an area can be reforested with red alder, regulations require that permission be obtained from the Oregon Department of Forestry. Due to red alder's ability to symbiotically fix atmospheric nitrogen, it has been proposed for use as a rotation crop before growing conifers [12,44]. Soil nitrogen accretion rates have shown increases ranging from 40 to 300 pounds per acre (45-355 kg/ha) per year under red alder stands [25]. Conifer stands which follow red alder exhibit increased growth and yields [2,67]. Studies have shown that Douglas-fir grown with red alder had increased heights and diameters compared to Douglas-fir grown without alder [43]. Research on aboveground biomass accretion rates in red alder stands suggests that for crop rotations, red alder should be harvested before age 20 [69]. This is because maximum annual productivity occurs between 10 and 15 years, and stands older than 20 years show signs of deterioration. Red alder stands reach an aboveground biomass plateau between ages 40 and 50. Herbicides have been used both to promote the growth of alder and to kill alder to promote the growth of conifers. To achieve desired stocking and distribution in potentially harvestable red alder stands, thinning and culling of selected red alder trees may be desirable. Numerous chemical applications are available to control red alders which are are competing with Douglas-fir or other valuable conifers. Stands may be aerially sprayed, or individual trees can be spot sprayed or injected. The most common chemicals used for control of red alder are 2,4-D, Tordon 101, triclopyr ester, and triclopyr amine [9,29,49]. Proper guidelines for the use and application of chemicals should be followed [9,29,49,62].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Alnus rubra
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Red alder is the largest American alder. It is a rapidly growing, short-lived, medium-sized, deciduous tree, generally with one straight distinct trunk. Red alder reaches a maximum height of about 120 feet (37 m) with a maximum trunk diameter of about 32 inches (80 cm). However, mature trees are typically from 80 to 100 feet (24-30 m) tall and 14 to 18 inches (36-46 cm) in diameter [14,25,34,59]. Maximum age is one hundred years [58]. Trees growing in the Puget Sound area exibit the following age-growth characteristics [14,34]: Age Height Diameter Breast Height (years) (feet/meters) (inches/centimeters) 5 18 / 5.5 ------ 10 40 / 12.2 ------ 20 65 / 19.8 ------ 30 82 / 25.0 11 / 27.9 40 90 / 27.4 13 / 33.0 50 98 / 29.9 16 / 40.6 60 105 / 32.0 18 / 45.7 Red alder has thin (less than 0.75 inch [1.9 cm]), smooth gray-whitish mottled bark, which is often covered with green moss. The root system is shallow, but wind throw is seldom a problem, since the leaves are absent during winter and early spring when winds are the strongest and when soils are saturated with moisture [59]. Male and female flowers occur on the same tree in catkins. The drooping staminate catkins are up to 5 inches (12 cm) long and clustered near the end of a twig. The pistillate catkins are erect, 0.6 to ).8 inch (1.5-2 cm) long, turning woody and conelike at maturity [14,26]. Red alder is closely related to white alder (Alnus rhombifolia), and the two species are difficult to differentiate when growing together. However, their distribution and habitats do not overlap to any great extent. In the summer, leaf characteristics can be used to separate these alders, but in the winter proper identification is based on many subtle points. Several keys exist for proper identification. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Sexual reproduction: Red alder regenerates primarily by seed. Plants are monoecious and are primarily wind pollinated. Flowering generally occurs from late February to early May depending on latitude and climate [36]. After fertilization female catkins develop into woody cones about 0.5 to 1 inch (1.2-2.5 cm) long, containing 50 to 100 small, flattened, winged, nutlike seeds [16,67]. Seed dispersal and production: Seed dispersal begins soon after ripening in late summer, but most seeds are shed during fall and winter [14,66]. The seeds are very lightweight (about 666,000/pound [1,465,000/kg]) and are normally carried up to several hundred yards in the direction of the prevailing winds. Seed production begins at about 10 years [58] (but sometimes sooner), and continues throughout maturity, with optimum production at about 25 years of age [36]. A prolific seeder, red alder produces peak crops about every 4 years, with moderate to light crops produced in between [36]. Total seed crop failure is very rare; however, a total crop failure did occur following a severe freeze in November 1955 [16,36]. Germination: Under natural conditions, germination occurs in the spring. Germination is best on moist mineral soil in full sunlight [14,36]. Seed also germinates well on rotten wood and duff [45], and to a lesser extent on soil organic horizons and on rock-surfaced logging roads, but the roots must quickly penetrate to a moist nutritious substrate if seedlings are to survive [14]. Sunlight is required for germination [36]. Seeds under thick vegetation or buried deeply in the soil, willnot germinate until the site is disturbed, exposing the seeds to sunlight. Germination percentages range from 59 to 84 percent [52,58]. Germination rates of stratified and nonstratified seeds are about equal. Low germination percentages may be due to a high proportion of empty seeds known to occur in red alder [52]. Seeds remain viable in storage for about 3 years [25]. Seedling establishment: Generally, exposed mineral soil is needed for seedling establishment. Seed production is normally so prolific that dense stands quickly develop on exposed soils of logging roads, clearcuts, and burned over areas [25]. These areas may have from several hundred thousand to several million red alder seedlings per hectare in the spring of the first year after the disturbance [69]. Regeneration and establishment in dense, thick, brush fields is infrequent due to the lack of exposed sights, but any disturbance which removes the brush and exposes the soil will favor red alder establishment [67]. Plants often reach 6 to 18 inches (15-45 cm) in 1 year and may reach 18 feet (5.5 m) in 5 years [16]. This rapid juvenile growth gives the shade-intolerant red alder a competitive edge over conifers, as it quickly overtops them. Vegetative reproduction: Red alder will sprout following an injury to a stem, but in the absence of disturbance, sprouting is infrequent. Red alder's sprouting ability following cutting is summarized as follows [25,27]: (1) Sprouting vigor is greatest on trees 1 to 3 years old. Vigor falls off dramatically after 15 years. Trees 15 years or older rarely have live sprouts 2 years after cutting. (2) The average number of sprouts per cut stem increases significantly as stump height is increased. (3) Stumps with the cut surface facing south or west have the least mortality and are most likely to sprout. (4) Level cuts have higher mortality and fewer sprouts than angled stumps. (5) Stems cut in January have the lowest mortality; stems cut during the growing season, especially July or August, have the highest mortality. (6) The number of sprouts per cut stem is not affected by the season of cutting. Propagation: Cuttings of red alder do not root easily [66]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Historical evidence suggests that the distribution of red alder was much more restricted than it is today; it occurred chiefly along streams and in other wet areas [18]. Continual disturbance over the past 100 years, primarily from logging, has created an abundance of open areas with bare mineral soil (both are required for seedling establishment) which red alder has colonized, thus increasing its acreage dramatically. This is especially true of uplands, where it was previously infrequent. Red alder is found primarily within Douglas-fir, western hemlock, western redcedar, sitka spruce, and grand fir forests in the Pacific Northwest [16,66,67]. Individual trees or clumps of trees may occur to varying degrees of mixture within these coniferous forests, but stand development is best along streams, moist bottomlands, and moist lower slopes [14,35,66,67]. In these mesic locations, pure stands are nearly always even-aged. Along the southern portion of its range in California and in the dry interior valleys of Washington and Oregon, red alder is restricted to riparian deciduous forests [8,19]. In these areas it may mix with white alder. Soils: Red alder occurs on a wide variety of soil types ranging from well-drained gravels and sands to poorly drained clay or organic soils [25]. The best stands are found on deep, well-drained loams or sandy loams of alluvial origin [14,16]. Stands also grow well on residual or colluvial soils of volcanic origin [14]. Soils under red alder stands develop higher available and total nitrogen contents than soils under adjacent coniferous stands because of red alder's ability to fix nitrogen. Nitrogen accretion rates vary with stand location, vigor, age, and density, with rates varying from 40 to 300 pounds of nitrogen per acre (45-355 kg/ha) per year [14,25]. As soil nitrogen increases, soil pH under red alder stands drops. In coastal Oregon, pure alder stands had soil pH values averaging 4.3 to 4.4, while adjacent conifer stands had pH values averaging 5.3 [20]. Red alder leaves also contain significant amounts of nitrogen. Leaves decompose rapidly, forming a deep humus and thus improving soil structure [16]. Climate: Red alder grows in humid coastal climates characterized by cool wet winters and warm dry summers. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 16 to 220 inches (40-560 cm) [25]; precipitation occurs chiefly as rain during the winter. Trees need more than 25 inches (64 cm) of precipitation annually, and most stands are located on sites receiving in excess of 40 inches (102 cm) [16]. Coniferous forest associates: Red alder grows both in pure stands and in mixtures with native conifers [67]. Pure and mixed stands are mostly even aged. Trees generally become established in forest openings created from a disturbance. As stands develop and trees mature, they prevent other red alder seedlings from becoming established, due to the seedlings' shade intolerance. Common coniferous associates include: Douglas-fir, western redcedar, western hemlock, grand fir, and Sitka spruce. Red alder communities within coniferous forests contain a number of deciduous trees and shrubs also. Deciduous trees and shrubs include bigleaf maple, vine maple (Acer circinatum), Pacific willow (Salix lasiandra), and bitter cherry (Prunus emarginata). Understory shrubs and herbs include salmonberry, western thimbleberry, American devilsclub (Oplopanax horridum), black elderberry (Sambucus racemosa), trailing blackberry (Rhubus ursinus), Siberian minerslettuce (Montia sibirica), and false lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum dilatatum) [19,21,67]. Deciduous riparian forest associates: In California, red alder chiefly occurs in riparian forests where it often codominates with Sitka spruce, redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), black cottonwood, bigleaf maple, and Pacific willow [54,56]. Along larger rivers in Oregon and Washington, red alder typically codominates with bigleaf maple, Oregon ash (Fraxinus latifolia), black cottonwood, and willows (Salix spp.) [18,19]. Other deciduous forest associates include Pacific wax-myrtle (Myrica californica), Pacific red elder (Sambucus callicarpa), and California laurel (Umbellularia californica) [18,56]. Elevation: Red alder is generally found no farther inland than 100 miles, at elevations below 2,500 feet. Elevational ranges for several western states are presented below [16,33,34,48,66]: from sea level to 500 feet (0-152 m) in CA 1,030-3,600 feet (314-1,097 m) in ID sea level to 2,500 feet (0-762 m) in OR sea level to 2,500 feet (0-762 m) in WA SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Red alder is common on many disturbed areas. Many of the stands which exist today were created because of the pioneering habit of red alder. Red alder quickly invaded lands clearcut and burned during the 1920's to 1940's [3,39]. In 1920 there was an estimated 1/3 of a billion board feet of red alder, but by the mid 1960's, red alder acreage increased dramatically, containing an estimated 12 billion board feet [39]. By 1988, red alder covered an estimated 13 percent of commercial forest lands along the Pacific Coast of Washington and Oregon [55]. Red alder is an early seral species. It quickly invades forest openings, such as those created from fires, logging, wind throws, or road cuts, and it also pioneers volcanic mud flows [19,46]. Red alder and Douglas-fir are reported as the principal pioneer tree species of lower and middle elevation forests from southwestern British Columbia to northwestern California [41]. Thus they often dominate the first postfire community in the Pacific Northwest. Disturbed areas are naturally seeded by numerous wind-dispersed seeds, resulting in stands that start out with several thousand alder trees per acre [3]. Due to red alder's shade intolerance, stands are self-thinning; trees that do not maintain their height in the canopy die, resulting in even-aged stands [17,66]. Conifers such as Douglas-fir that become established at the same time are quickly overtopped by this extremely fast growing species. These early seral red alder communities suppress competing conifers, but after about 25 years, conifers equal red alder height and begin to overtop them. After about 40 years, Douglas-fir becomes dominant. Few red alder trees remain in stands past 60 years [16,67]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Red alder is a deciduous tree. Flowers begin to form in the spring before the leaves expand. Flowering in Oregon and Washington generally begins in late February and continues until early May [58]. Fruits ripen in late summer and early fall; seeds are dispersed during fall and winter [58] and can often be seen on fresh snow. The following dates have been recorded for phenological events in Oregon and Washington [16]: Phenological Event 17 locations throughout Snohomish County Oregon and Washington Washington Leaf bud bursts March 21 - April 23 April 3 Completely leafed out April 9 - May 16 May 2 Flowering begins February 19 - May 4 March 29 Flowers all fallen March 18 - June 5 April 12 Fruit ripe August 5 - October 29 August 27 Leaves mostly fallen September 18 - November 24 November 13 In the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, red alder is one of the first deciduous trees to lose its leaves. The majority of leaves fall during October, with virtually all leaves lost by the first week in November [10].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Alnus rubra
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Red alder's bark, although thin, is sufficiently fire resistant to protect trees from light surface fires. The foliage and leaf litter do not carry fires well [1,16]. Red alder stands often lack flammable understory debris and are often on moist sites which burn infrequently [14,16]. Red alder revegetates burned areas via seed from off-site plants [35]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/soboliferous species root sucker Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Alnus rubra
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Information regarding the effects of fire on red alder is lacking. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Red alder is an early seral species which quickly invades burned areas. Off-site plants inhabiting fire resistant draws and streambeds provide an abundance of seed, which reportedly can travel several hundred yards via wind. Thus red alder quickly colonizes soils exposed after forest fires. Red alder along with Douglas-fir are often the dominant postfire vegetation on low to middle elevation sites throughout the Pacific Northwest [41]. Red alder may dominate and suppress conifers following a fire for 20 to 25 years, after which the conifers overtop the alder [68]. Information regarding the sprouting response of red alder after aboveground plant parts have been killed by fire is lacking. However, responses after cutting show that red alder tends to sprout at the root collar or along the lower stem no matter where the stem is cut [27]. For detailed information regarding the sprouting response of red alder after cutting, refer to the Regeneration Slot. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Fire hazard is generally low in red alder stands. Stands may be used as natural fire breaks [67]. The thin litter permits easy construction of fire lines.

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Alnus rubra
REFERENCES : 1. Arno, Stephen F.; Hammerly, Ramona P. 1977. Northwest trees. Seattle, WA: The Mountaineers. 222 p. [4208] 2. Atkinson, William A.; Hamilton, Willard I. 1978. The value of red alder as a source of nitrogen in Douglas-fir/alder mixed stands. In: Briggs, David G.; DeBell, Dean S.; Atkinson, William A., compilers. Utilization and management of alder: Proceedings of a symposium; 1977 April 25-27; Ocean Shores, WA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-70. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 337-351. [21618] 3. Atterbury, Toby. 1978. Alder characteristics as they affect utilization. In: Briggs, David G.; DeBell, Dean S.; Atkinson, William A., compilers. Utilization and management of alder: Proceedings of a symposium; 1977 April 25-27; Ocean Shores, WA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-70. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 71-81. [21619] 4. Atzet, Thomas; McCrimmon, Lisa A. 1990. Preliminary plant associations of the southern Oregon Cascade Mountain Province. Grants Pass, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siskiyou National Forest. 330 p. [12977] 5. Bailey, Arthur W.; Poulton, Charles E. 1968. Plant communities and environmental interrelationships in a portion of the Tillamook Burn, northwestern Oregon. Ecology. 49(1): 1-13. [6232] 6. Barbour, Michael G. 1987. Community ecology and distribution of California hardwood forests and woodlands. In: Plumb, Timothy R.; Pillsbury, Norman H., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the symposium on multiple-use management of California's hardwood resources; 1986 November 12-14; San Luis Obispo, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-100. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 18-25. [5356] 7. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 8. Bolsinger, Charles L. 1988. The hardwoods of California's timberlands, woodlands, and savannas. Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-148. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 148 p. [5291] 9. Burrill, Larry C.; Braunworth, William S., Jr.; William, Ray D.; [and others], compilers. 1989. Pacific Northwest weed control handbook. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Extension Service, Agricultural Communications. 276 p. [6235] 10. Campbell, Alsie Gilbert; Franklin, Jerry F. 1979. Riparian vegetation in Oregon's western Cascade Mountains: composition, biomass, and autumn phenology. Bull. No. 14. Seattle, WA: U.S./International Biological Program, University of Washington, Ecosystem Analysis Studies, Coniferous Forest Biome. 90 p. [8433] 11. Dayton, William A. 1931. Important western browse plants. Misc. Publ. 101. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 214 p. [768] 12. DeBell, Dean S. 1979. Future potential for use of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in forest management. In: Gordon, J. C.; Wheeler, C. T.; Perry, D. A., eds. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the management of temperate forests: Proceedings of a workshop; 1979 April 2-5; Corvallis, OR. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Forest Research Laboratory: 451-466. [4312] 13. DeBell, Dean S.; Strand, Robert F.; Reukema, Donald L. 1978. Short-rotation production of red alder: some options for future forest management. In: Briggs, David G.; DeBell, Dean S.; Atkinson, William A., compilers. Utilization and management of alder: Proceedings of a symposium; 1977 April 25-27; Ocean Shores, WA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-70. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 231-244. [21621] 14. DeBell, Dean S.; Turpin, Thomas C. 1983. Red Alder. In: Burns, Russel M, compiler. Silvicultural systems for the major forest types of the United States. 1 ed. Agricultural Handbook No. 445. Washington: U. S. Department of Agriculture: 26-28. [6205] 15. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 16. Fowells, H. A., compiler. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agric. Handb. 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 762 p. [12442] 17. Franklin, Jerry F. 1979. Vegetation of the Douglas-fir region. In: Heilman, Paul E.; Anderson, Harry W.; Baumgartner, David M., eds. Forest soils of the Douglas-fir region. Pullman, Wa: Washington State University, Cooperative Extension Service: 93-112. [8207] 18. 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