Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Viburnum edule


Introductory

SPECIES: Viburnum edule
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Viburnum edule. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : VIBEDU SYNONYMS : Viburnum pauciflorum LaPylaie Viburnum opulus var. edule Michx. Viburnum acerifolium Bong. SCS PLANT CODE : VIED COMMON NAMES : highbush cranberry squashberry lowbush cranberry mooseberry few-flowered highbush cranberry TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of highbush cranberry is Viburnum edule (Michx.) Raf., in the family Caprifoliaceae [1,18,32,35,47]. There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : See OTHER STATUS OTHER STATUS : Highbush cranberry is considered rare (species or habitat vulnerable or declining) in South Dakota [31]. It has also been placed on Maine's official Watch List [8].

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Viburnum edule
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Highbush cranberry is distributed throughout Alaska and across Canada to Newfoundland. It occurs south through the New England and Great Lakes States, and the Pacific Northwest [1,18,45,49,58]. Populations are also found in Idaho, Montana, North and South Dakota, Wyoming, and Colorado [10,11,26,43,53]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES10 White - red - jack pine FRES11 Spruce - fir FRES19 Aspen - birch FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES24 Hemlock - Sitka spruce FRES26 Lodgepole pine FRES28 Western hardwoods STATES : AK CO CT ID IA ME MD MA MI MN MT NH NY ND OR PA RI SD VT WA WI WY AB BC LB MB NB NF NT NS ON PE PQ SK YT BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 15 Black Hills Uplift KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K001 Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest K004 Fir - hemlock forest K008 Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest K015 Western spruce - fir forest K025 Alder - ash forest K093 Great Lakes spruce - fir forest K094 Conifer bog K095 Great Lakes pine forest K096 Northeastern spruce - fir forest K107 Northern hardwoods - fir forest K108 Northern hardwoods - spruce forest SAF COVER TYPES : 1 Jack pine 5 Balsam fir 12 Black spruce 13 Black spruce - tamarack 16 Aspen 17 Pin cherry 18 Paper birch 38 Tamarack 107 White spruce 201 White spruce 202 White spruce - paper birch 203 Balsam poplar 204 Black spruce 205 Mountain hemlock 206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir 217 Aspen 218 Lodgepole pine 222 Black cottonwood - willow 224 Western hemlock 227 Western redcedar - western hemlock 228 Western redcedar 251 White spruce - aspen 252 Paper birch 253 Black spruce - white spruce 254 Black spruce - paper birch SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Highbush cranberry may occur as a dominant or codominant understory species in open or closed coniferous forests, primarily in white spruce (Picea glauca) [12,19,50,57], but also in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) [7] or western redcedar (Thuja plicata) habitats [25]. It may also occur as an understory dominant in open or closed deciduous forests with quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), or balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) [7,19,57]. Common understory associates include: willows (Salix spp.), alders (Alnus spp.), raspberries (Rubus spp.), currants (Ribes spp.), prickly rose (Rosa acicularis), lignonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), rusty menziesia (Menziesia ferruginea), hazelnut (Corylus cornuta), bog Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum), one sided wintergreen (Pyrola secunda), dogwoods (Cornus canadensis and C. stolonifera), buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis), devil's club (Oplopanax horridus), queencup beadlily (Clintonia uniflora), oak fern (Gymnocarpium dryopteris), twinflower (Linnaea borealis), twinberry honeysuckle (Lonicera involucrata), fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), horsetails (Equisetum pratense, E. arvense, and E. sylvanicum), bluejoint reedgrass (Calamagrostis canadensis), and various feather mosses (Hylocomium and Pleurozium spp.), sedges (Carex spp.), lichens (Cladonia and Cladina spp.) and sphagnum mosses. Published classifications listing highbush cranberry as a dominant understory species in plant associations (pas), community types (cts), or vegetation types (vts) are as follows: AREA CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY wc AB forest cts Corns 1983 int AK gen. veg. cts Dyrness and others 1989 int AK postfire forest cts Foote 1983 YT vts Stanek 1980 BC: Salmon River Valley vts Harcombe and others 1983 AK gen. veg. pas Viereck & Dyrness 1980

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Viburnum edule
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Highbush cranberries are consumed by many small mammals and songbirds [22,58]. Game birds including spruce grouse and ruffed grouse also eat the berries [15,34]. Foliage is browsed by beaver, rabbit, and snowshoe hare [22]. Highbush cranberry is of low to moderate importance as browse to Roosevelt elk, Rocky Mountain elk, mountain goat, bighorn sheep, black-tail deer, mule deer, white-tailed deer, and caribou [2,5]. The foliage is also browsed by moose throughout the year [37,48]. Highbush cranberries are a major food of grizzly bears [3,23,40]. Black bears consume highbush cranberries in late fall [27]. PALATABILITY : Viburnum foliage is low in palatability to livestock [55]. Pease [42] states that Viburnum foliage is highly unpalatable to snowshoe hare, but others report it to be a preferred hare food in some areas [60]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Highbush cranberry's current annual stem and leaf growth collected in July from Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, were analyzed for browse quality to moose. In-vitro dry matter digestibility was 52.8 percent and protein content was 10.3 percent. Concentrations of the following elements were found [41]: Macroelements (ppm) Ca K Mg Na ___________________________________________ 3,284 10,798 2,112 106 Microelements (ppm) Cu Fe Mn Zn ___________________________________________ 21.0 5.0 24.4 23.5 COVER VALUE : Viburnum species are important components of forest-edge and hedgerow habitats that provide cover for small mammals and birds [21]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : The value of highbush cranberry for rehabilitative purposes has not been well documented. It was studied for its use in oil sands reclamation, but no results were detailed [17]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Highbush cranberries are edible and make excellent jams, jellies, and sauces if picked before fully mature [29,32,58]. The berries were an important food of Native Americans of the Bella Coola region of British Columbia, where a single shrub may yield up to 100 berries [38]. The plant is cultivated for its brilliant red autumnal foliage [58]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Highbush cranberry is not considered to be a primary competitor to conifers but is a component of major brush complexes that occur on moist, productive sites on floodplains or under deciduous canopies. It can compete significantly with natural or planted white spruce seedlings in the Sub-Boreal Spruce and Boreal White and Black Spruce (Picea mariana) Zones, where it is most abundant [22]. Highbush cranberry has shown varying responses to overstory removal. Near Prince George, British Columbia, highbush cranberry in white spruce-subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests had not become a significant component of the vegetation 6 years after clearcutting, although it was present on all sites prior to the harvest [14]. In Alberta, highbush cranberry had significantly lower cover in 6- to 12-year-old clearcut areas than in adjacent mature lodgepole pine stands. In contrast, logging of a balsam poplar stand in Alaska caused a dramatic increase in highbush cranberry density. It was one of the dominant shrubs and reached 3.3 feet (1 m) in height within 4 years [22]. In general, frequency and cover are expected to remain constant or decrease slightly in the first few years after overstory removal. Vigor may increase slowly on favorable sites [6]. Highbush cranberry is a seed-banking species, and soil disturbance resulting from mechanical site preparation favors germination of stored seed. The disturbance may also provide favorable seedbeds for freshly deposited seed. Plants damaged in site preparation sprout from root stocks and stem bases [6]. Highbush cranberry increased less in a winter-logged balsam poplar stand than in one that had been summer-logged. Higher soil disturbance on the summer-logged site may have stimulated sprouting. However, scarification did not enhance cover of highbush cranberry in clearcut areas near Edson, Alberta [22]. Highbush cranberry was also less abundant on mechanically prepared sites than on unscalped sites in interior Alaska. Frequency and cover of highbush cranberry 3 years after clearcutting and shelterwood cutting of white spruce stands were as follows [63]: Clearcut Shelterwood scalped unscalped scalped unscalped _____________________________________________________ Frequency (%) 13.3 38.3 13.3 20.0 Cover (%) 1.8 5.2 1.7 3.2 Highbush cranberry can be propagated vegetatively by hardwood or softwood cuttings, although softwood cuttings are far more successful at producing roots. Softwood cuttings root sooner and more prolifically in sand than in perlite. Rooting success greatly increases by treating cuttings with IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid). Rhizome cuttings also successfully produce roots when planted immediately after fall collection [30]. Seeding may also be used for propagation of Viburnums. Seeds may be broadcast sown on prepared seedbeds and mulched with sawdust or sown with drills and mulched with straw. Seedlings may require shading, depending on location. Fertile, moist soils which are neutral to slightly acidic result in best germination [21]. Herbicides can be used to control highbush cranberry. Glyphosate exhibits good control and causes moderately severe damage to the plant [2,22]. Aerially spraying a young aspen-balsam poplar stand in June resulted in 95 percent defoliation and heavy mortality of highbush cranberry [22]. Roundup also causes defoliation and moderate mortality rates [6]. Hexazinone does not appear to control highbush cranberry effectively [2,6]. Highbush cranberry is utilized heavily in tent caterpillar outbreaks [52]. Aphids, thrips, spider mites, and scale are also likely to occur on Viburnums. A leaf spot (Ascochyta viburni) has been found on plants along coastal British Columbia, and a rust (Puccinia linkii) has been found on plants in northern British Columbia. Neither of these diseases is considered serious [22].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Viburnum edule
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Highbush cranberry is a straggling to erect deciduous shrub that reaches heights ranging from 2 to 12 feet (0.6-3.5 m) [22,32,58]. It has several to many stems that may grow to 1.5 inches (4 cm) in diameter [58]. The plant has smooth gray bark and sharply toothed leaves that are shallowly lobed. Milky-white flowers are borne in few-flowered terminal cymes. The fruit is an orange to red drupe that contains one seed [1,32,58]. The berries often overwinter on twigs. Highbush cranberry roots in the organic layer [51] and is rhizomatous [22]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte (Microphanerophyte) Phanerophyte (Nanophanerophyte) Cryptophyte (Geophyte) REGENERATION PROCESSES : Sexual reproduction: Highbush cranberry begins to produce fruits at approximately 5 years of age, and then produces large quantities nearly every year thereafter. The one-seeded fruits are dispersed by the birds and mammals that consume them [6,22]. Germination is normally delayed until the second growing season after ripening. The seeds exhibit seed coat and embryo dormancy that requires a two-stage stratification to be broken. Most successful germination takes place when a warm period is followed by cold stratification [21,22,59]. The radicle emerges and begins growth during the warm period, and the cold period breaks the dormancy of the plumule, which then grows when temperatures become warmer. The time period of these stages is critical but has not been worked out in detail. Clean, air-dried seeds can be stored up to 10 years without losing viability. Highbush cranberry is a seed-banking species [21,22]. Vegetative reproduction: Highbush cranberry can reproduce vegetatively by natural layering and sprouting from damaged root stocks, stembases, and stumps. The plant is rhizomatous, but there is no evidence of lateral spread from the parent by rhizome or root suckers [22]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Highbush cranberry is found in moist woods or forests, along stream or lake margins on gravel or rocky banks, and on swamp or bog margins [22,49,58]. In British Columbia, the plant is found from sea level to about 4,900 feet (1,500 m) [22], but in Colorado elevational range is 7,000 to 9,000 feet (2,100-2,700 m) [26]. The southern extent of highbush cranberry's distribution is determined by high temperatures and low humidity. Its presence at northern latitudes indicates a high tolerance to frost and the ability to grow in low soil and air temperatures. In moist climates, highbush cranberry grows on submesic to subhydric soils, but in drier climates it is restricted to subhygric and wetter moisture regimes. Highbush cranberry commonly grows under a deciduous or coniferous canopy but probably develops best under full sunlight [22]. Highbush cranberry grows best on well-drained, alluvial soils [6,9,12,62]. Soil textures include clay, silty clay, sandy clay loam, and fine loam [9,33,62]. Soil types include Luvisols, Brunisols, Humo-Ferric Podzols, Regosols, and Gleysols [22]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Highbush cranberry is moderately shade tolerant [6] and is important throughout all stages of forest succession [46,61]. In floodplain succession, highbush cranberry is present from the pioneer willow through seral balsam poplar stages. It remains important in mature and climax white spruce and black spruce-white spruce types [56]. Highbush cranberry sprouts following fire and is an important component of early, midseral, and climax postfire communities [13,61]. The following frequencies and densities were found in white spruce stands in interior Alaska: Stage Years after fire Frequency(%) Density(stems/acre) _______________________________________________________________________ Newly burned 0-1 78 15,201 (37,562 st/ha) Moss-herb 1-5 21 2,795 (6,906 st/ha) Tall shrub-sapling 3-30 30 13,445 (33,222 st/ha) Dense tree 26-45 36 3,713 (9,175 st/ha) Hardwood 46-150 55 15,378 (38,000 st/ha) Spruce 150-300+ 39 2,049 (5,062 st/ha) Low successive peaks between the newly burned, tall shrub-sapling, and hardwood stages may have been caused by stand differences or successful establishment followed by opportunism [19]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Highbush cranberry flowers from May to August, depending on location. Fruits ripen from August to October and persist throughout the winter [18,22,58]. Leaf flush begins in April or May, and senescence and abscission take place earlier than on associated shrubs [22].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Viburnum edule
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Highbush cranberry sprouts from the stump, roots, or underground stems following fire [13,61]. Sprouting may also occur at the base of fire-killed aboveground stems [22,24]. Highbush cranberry roots are buried approximately 8 inches (20 cm) below the soil surface, allowing them to survive light fires that do not entirely remove the organic layer [51]. Rhizomes will also survive fires of this nature. Highbush cranberry seeds are hard and have thick seed coats, making them somewhat resistant to fire [59]. Regeneration by seeds stored in the soil may actually be favored by low-severity fires [22]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : survivor species; on-site surviving root crown or caudex survivor species; on-site surviving rhizomes ground-stored residual colonizer; fire-activated seed on-site in soil off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2 secondary colonizer; off-site seed carried to site after year 2

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Viburnum edule
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire top-kills highbush cranberry. Moderate- to high-severity fires which remove soil organic layers may kill roots, underground stems, and buried seeds. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Highbush cranberry sprouts within weeks following fire [19,22] and often becomes one of the dominant postfire shrubs [22]. Low-severity fires stimulate germination of seeds stored in the soil [24,47]. Abundance of the plant may be initially reduced after fire, but an increase over prefire density may take place within the next 10 years [6,28]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : The Research Project Summary Understory recovery after burning and reburning quaking aspen stands in central Alberta provides information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species including highbush cranberry. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Prescribed fires of low-severity and short duration are recommended for the management of highbush cranberry. Fires of this type favor the germination of buried seeds and sprouting of vegetative structures [6,22,47].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Viburnum edule
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