Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Viburnum acerifolium


Introductory

SPECIES: Viburnum acerifolium
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Viburnum acerifolium. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : VIBACE SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : VIAC COMMON NAMES : mapleleaf viburnum dockmackie mapleleaved arrow-wood possum-haw squash-berry guelder-rose TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for mapleleaf viburnum is Viburnum acerifolium L. [11]. Two intergrading varieties are recognized: V. a. var. acerifolium and V. a. var. glabrescens Rehd. [2]. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Viburnum acerifolium
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Mapleleaf viburnum occurs from southern Ontario to Quebec, south to eastern Texas, and east to the northern panhandle of Florida [5,9,24]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES10 White - red - jack pine FRES11 Spruce - fir FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood FRES18 Maple - beech - birch FRES19 Aspen - birch STATES : AL AR CT DE FL GA IL IN IA KS LA ME MD MI MN MS MO NE NJ NY NC OH OK PA RI SC TN TX VA WV WI ON PQ BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K093 Great Lakes spruce - fir forest K095 Great Lakes pine forest K096 Northeastern spruce - fir forest K097 Southeastern spruce - fir forest K099 Maple - basswood forest K100 Oak - hickory forest K101 Elm - ash forest K102 Beech - maple forest K103 Mixed mesophytic forest K104 Appalachian oak forest K106 Northern hardwoods K107 Northern hardwoods - fir forest K108 Northern hardwoods - spruce forest K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest SAF COVER TYPES : 5 Balsam fir 14 Northern pin oak 15 Red pine 17 Pin cherry 20 White pine - northern red oak - red maple 21 Eastern white pine 22 White pine - hemlock 23 Eastern hemlock 25 Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch 26 Sugar maple - basswood 27 Sugar maple 28 Black cherry - maple 30 Red spruce - yellow birch 31 Red spruce - sugar maple - beech 32 Red spruce 33 Red spruce - balsam fir 34 Red spruce - Fraser fir 35 Paper birch - red spruce - balsam fir 39 Black ash - American elm - red maple 42 Bur oak 43 Bear oak 44 Chestnut oak 46 Eastern redcedar 58 Yellow-poplar - eastern hemlock 59 Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak 60 Beech - sugar maple 62 Silver maple - American elm 75 Shortleaf pine 76 Shortleaf pine - oak 78 Virginia pine - oak 93 Sugarberry - American elm - green ash 107 White spruce 108 Red maple SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Mapleleaf viburnun is a dominant or codominant understory species in many beech-maple (Fagus-Acer) forests in the northeastern and midwestern United States [6,17,25].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Viburnum acerifolium
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : The fruits of mapleleaf viburnum are eaten by white-tailed deer, rabbits, mice, skunks, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasants, wild turkeys, and many species of songbirds [1,9]. The twigs, bark, and leaves are eaten by white-tailed deer, moose, rabbits, and beavers [9]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : The dense undergrowth of mapleleaf viburnum provides good nesting and escape cover for numerous species of birds and small mammals [9,24]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : Mapleleaf viburnum has been cultivated since 1736 for its attractive flowers and foliage [24]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Viburnum acerifolium
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Mapleleaf viburnum is a large, deciduous, rhizomatous shrub from 3 to 6 feet (1-2 m) tall [11,24]. It has a straight trunk with spreading, ascending branches, and forms dense thickets. The maple-like leaves are 3 to 5 inches (7.5-12.5 cm) long. The flowers are arranged in flat upright clusters. The fruit is a one-seeded drupe [4,10]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Mapleleaf viburnum begins to produce seed at approximately 2 years of age, and produces large amounts of seed every year. The seed is dispersed by animals and by gravity [9]. Most mapleleaf viburnum seeds have an impermeable seedcoat and exhibit embryo dormancy that requires a warm-cold stratification sequence to be broken [9]. Mapleleaf viburnum probably reproduces vegetatively by rhizomes [19]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Mapleleaf viburnum occurs in upland forests, woodlands, ravine slopes, and hillsides [12,15,21]. It occurs in well-drained, moist soils and is particularly tolerant of acid soils [4,9]. Common understory associates of mapleleaf viburnum include witchhazel (Hamamelis virginiana), mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia), eastern hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), low sweet blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium), Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), and striped maple (Acer pensylvanicum) [15,17,25]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Mapleleaf viburnum is a mid- to late-seral species [16,19]. It is shade tolerant and requires partial shading for optimum growth and development [9,14]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Mapleleaf viburnum flowers from May to August, depending on location. Fruits ripen from July to October [9,11].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Viburnum acerifolium
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Mapleleaf viburnum is not well adapted to fire. Fire is harmful to mapleleaf viburnum at both short and long return intervals [3]. Presumably, low- to moderate-severity fires top-kill mapleleaf viburnum. It probably survives fire by sprouting from underground rhizomes. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Viburnum acerifolium
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Presumably, fire top-kills the aerial portions of mapleleaf viburnum. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Following a prescibed fire in a pine-mixed woodwood forest in Ontario, mapleleaf viburnum decreased in both frequency and biomass [20]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Viburnum acerifolium
REFERENCES : 1. Baird, John W. 1980. The selection and use of fruit by birds in an eastern forest. Wilson Bulletin. 92(1): 63-73. [10004] 2. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. [12914] 3. Brown, James H., Jr. 1960. The role of fire in altering the species composition of forests in Rhode Island. Ecology. 41(2): 310-316. [5935] 4. Chapman, William K.; Bessette, Alan E. 1990. Trees and shrubs of the Adirondacks. Utica, NY: North Country Books, Inc. 131 p. [12766] 5. Clewell, Andre F. 1985. Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press. 605 p. [13124] 6. Eggler, Willis A. 1938. The maple-basswood forest type in Washburn County, Wisconsin. Ecology. 19(2): 243-263. [6907] 7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 8. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 9. Gill, John D.; Pogge, Franz L. 1974. Viburnum L. Viburnum. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 844-850. [7775] 10. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329] 11. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239] 12. Host, George E.; Pregitzer, Kurt S. 1992. Geomorphic influences on ground-flora and overstory composition in upland forests of northwestern lower Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 22: 1547-1555. [19671] 13. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 14. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. [19376] 15. Lutz, H. J. 1930. The vegetation of Heart's Content, a virgin forest in northwestern Pennsylvania. Ecology. 11(1): 2-29. [14480] 16. Milne, Bruce T. 1985. Upland vegetational gradients and post-fire succession in the Albany Pine Bush, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 112(1): 21-34. [8682] 17. Nichols, George E. 1913. The vegetation of Connecticut. II. Virgin forests. Torreya. 13(9): 199-215. [14069] 18. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 19. Roberts, Mark R.; Christensen, Norman L. 1988. Vegetation variation among mesic successional forest stands in northern lower Michigan. Canadian Journal of Botany. 66(6): 1080-1090. [14479] 20. Sidhu, S. S. 1973. Early effects of burning and logging in pine-mixed woods. I. Frequency and biomass of minor vegetation. Inf. Rep. PS-X-46. Chalk River, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Petawawa Forest Experiment Station. 47 p. [7901] 21. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. [12907] 22. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 23. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 24. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707] 25. Wilm, H. G. 1936. The relation of successional development to the silviculture of forest burn communities in southern New York. Ecology. 17(2): 283-291. [3483]


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