Index of Species Information
SPECIES: Vaccinium pallidum
SPECIES: Vaccinium pallidum
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION :
Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ .
SCS PLANT CODE :
COMMON NAMES :
Blue Ridge blueberry
The currently preferred scientific name of hillside blueberry is
Vaccinium pallidum Ait. .
Hillside blueberry hybridizes with many species including Darrow's
evergreen blueberry (V.darrowii), sweet hurt's blueberry (V. boreale),
small cluster blueberry (V. tenellum), highbush blueberry (V.
fuscatum), deerberry (V. stamineum), mayberry (V. elliottii), velvetleaf
blueberry (V. myrtilloides), downy blueberry (V. atrococcum), low sweet
blueberry (V. angustifolium), V. caesariense, and V. virgatum
[14,19,58,60]. Hybrid swarms or complexes involving hillside blueberry,
swamp highbush blueberry, and black highbush blueberry have been
reported . Some researchers suggest that V. alto-montanum may be a
derivative of hillside blueberry hybridization [57,58] or, alternately,
an autotetraploid of hillside blueberry . Vander Kloet 
reported that hillside blueberry may be an ancestor of highbush
blueberry (V. corymbosum). Hairy-fruited blueberry (V. hirsutum) may be
the product of hillside blueberry-deerberry hybridization .
LIFE FORM :
FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS :
No special status
OTHER STATUS :
DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
SPECIES: Vaccinium pallidum
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION :
Hillside blueberry grows from Minnesota and southern Ontario to Maine,
and southward to the uplands of Georgia, Alabama, and Arkansas [58,61].
It occurs abundantly in the Allegheny Plateau but is primarily local to
the west in Illinois, Wisconsin, Kansas, and Oklahoma [8,61]. Hillside
blueberry grows throughout the Ozarks, southern Appalachians, and
Coastal Plain but is restricted to isolated populations to the north in
much of New England [55,58].
FRES10 White - red - jack pine
FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine
FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine
FRES14 Oak - pine
FRES15 Oak - hickory
AL AR CT DE GA IL IN IA KS KY
MD MA MI MN ME MO NH NJ NY NC
OH OK PA RI SC TN VT VA WV WI
BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :
KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :
K095 Great Lakes pine forest
K100 Oak - hickory forest
K104 Appalachian oak forest
K110 Northeastern oak - pine forest
K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest
K112 Southern mixed forest
SAF COVER TYPES :
1 Jack pine
40 Post oak - blackjack oak
44 Chestnut oak
45 Pitch pine
52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak
53 White oak
55 Northern red oak
70 Longleaf pine
71 Longleaf pine - scrub oak
76 Shortleaf pine - oak
81 Loblolly pine
82 Loblolly pine - hardwood
110 Black oak
SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES :
HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES :
Hillside blueberry is a prominent understory species in oak (Quercus
spp.) woodlands, red maple (Acer rubrum) swamps, oak-chestnut (Castanea
dentata spp.) woodlands, pine (Pinus spp.)-oak communities, ecotonal
white pine (P. strobus) thickets, pitch pine (P. rigida) barrens, and
open pine savannas [9,23,61,64]. Numerous evergreen and deciduous
overstory dominants grow in association with hillside blueberry. Common
associates include northern red oak (Q. rubra), black oak (Q. velutina),
white oak (Q. alba), post oak (Q. stellata), chestnut oak (Q. prinus),
blackjack oak (Q. marilandica), Virginia pine (P. virginia), shortleaf
pine (P. echinata), pitch pine (P. rigida), loblolly pine (P. taeda),
longleaf pine (P. palustris), jack pine (P. banksiana), eastern hemlock
(Tsuga canadensis), red maple, and black cherry (Prunus serotina)
Understory associates: Hillside blueberry grows as a principal species
in higher elevation spirea (Spirea corymbosa) meadows of Virginia .
In the southern Appalachians, mountain-laurel (Kalmia latifolia),
rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum), yellow birch (Betula
alleghaniensis), black huckleberry (Gaylussacia bacatta), wintergreen
(Gaultheria procumbens), and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium)
typically occur with hillside blueberry . Common associates in oak,
oak-pine communities, and the Pine Barrens of New Jersey include black
huckleberry, melampyrum (Melampyrum lineare), sweet-fern (Comptonia
peregrina), cat greenbriar (Smilax glauca), mountain-laurel, dangleberry
(Gaylussacia frondosa), yellow sedge (Carex pensylvanica), and bracken
fern (Pteridium aquilinum) [12,18,34]. Sweet-fern, black huckleberry,
dangleberry, and low sweet blueberry often grow with hillside blueberry
in oak woodlands . In the upper Midwest, sedges (Carex spp.),
Dichanthelium depauperatum, and dewberry (Rubus hispidus) are common
understory associates .
Hillside blueberry grows as a "diagnostic understory species" in certain
old-growth post oak-black oak communities of the Piedmont . It is
listed as an indicator or codominant in the following community type
Old-growth forests within the Piedmont of South Carolina 
SPECIES: Vaccinium pallidum
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE :
The wood of hillside blueberry is soft and white but has no known
commercial value .
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE :
Browse: The importance of hillside blueberry browse to wild ungulates
appears variable. It is reported to have fair forage value in the
Ozarks  and receives only light year-round use by white-tailed deer
in parts of central Pennsylvania . White-tailed deer seldom feed on
hillside blueberry browse during the winter in New Jersey, but in parts
of Pennsylvania, it may be eaten during the spring and summer .
Hillside blueberry has been described as a preferred white-tailed deer
food in parts of Virginia . This preference may be due in part to
the presence of juicy, flavorful berries.
Fruit: Fruit of hillside blueberry is widely used by numerous species
of small birds and mammals . In Virginia and presumably elsewhere,
berries are readily consumed by the wild turkey . Blueberry
(Vaccinium spp.) fruits are eaten by many species of birds including the
rufous-sided towhee, northern mockingbird, gray catbird, brown thrasher,
American robin, whimbel, herring gull, Canada goose, ruffed grouse,
spruce grouse, eastern bluebird, and various tanagers and thrushes
[40,59,63]. The black bear, red squirrel, gray fox, red fox, skunks,
and chipmunks also feed on blueberry fruit [40,59,61].
Palatability of hillside blueberry browse to deer has not been well
documented . Several food habit studies suggest that it is of at
least fair palatability to deer in many areas. The juicy, sweet fruit
is highly palatable to numerous species of birds and mammals .
NUTRITIONAL VALUE :
Fruit: Hillside blueberry is characterized by a high soluble solid
content . Soluble solids average 13.07 percent, with a titratable
acidity of 0.67 . Each berry averages 8 calories .
Browse: Leaf nutrient content varies according to phenological
development. Killingbeck and Costigan  reported the following
micrograms per cm -2
N P Cu Fe Zn
pre-senescent leaves 57.5 5.5 0.05 0.15 0.07
senescent leaves 2.3 0.4 0.002 0.008 0.013
COVER VALUE :
The low-statured hillside blueberry presumably provides minimal cover
for large mammals. However, plants form good ground cover for a variety
of small mammals . Fallen leaves commonly lodge in dense thickets
of this shrub increasing its cover value during late fall and winter
VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES :
Hillside blueberry can retard erosion on steep slopes . Most
blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) can be readily propagated by hardwood
cuttings or by seed . The weight of 100 seeds averages 0.001 ounce
(34 mg) . Propagation techniques have been examined in detail .
OTHER USES AND VALUES :
Fruit of hillside blueberry is sweet to bland and of "fair quality"
[14,58]. Fruit is eaten fresh or used to make pies and jellies .
It receives casual use throughout its range but is harvested
commercially in northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, western and
northwestern Arkansas, and West Virginia . In many areas,
quantities of berries are difficult to collect because the fruit ripens
over a relatively long period of time .
Hillside blueberry has shown promise for use in breeding hardy,
early-ripening, fruit-producing cultivars [4,19]. It has shown
particular promise for developing commercial blueberries adapted to
upland mineral soils . Hillside blueberry is an attractive shrub
and is occasionally grown for its ornamental value as well as its fruit
OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS :
Drought resistance: Hillside blueberry is resistant to drought [19,61]
but is not as drought tolerant as many other southern blueberries
(Vaccinium spp.) .
Radiation: Hillside blueberry is resistant to ionizing gamma radiation
. Plants sprouted from rhizomes 0.4 inch (1.0 cm) or greater in
depth following aerial exposure to 105 R per day. Plants did not sprout
after rhizomes were exposed to 65 to 70 R per day .
Disease: The shrub is susceptible to "stunt" virus .
Timber harvest: Cover of hillside blueberry is reportedly greater in
cut stands (20 percent) than in uncut stands (9 percent) .
BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
SPECIES: Vaccinium pallidum
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS :
Hillside blueberry is a variable, erect, deciduous shrub that commonly
reaches 9 to 21 inches (23-51 cm) in height [14,48,61]. On some sites,
plants reach maximum heights of only 3 inches (8 cm), but on extremely
favorable sites, individuals may grow to 39 inches (100 cm) . This
rhizomatous shrub forms small to extensive colonies [14,61]. The terete
to slightly angled twigs are pale green, reddish, yellow, or pale gray
[33,48,48,53]. The variable twigs are glabrous to pubescent . Stem
morphology has been examined in detail . Smooth, slightly ridged
bark is greenish-brown or red . Roots are finely textured .
The simple, alternate leaves are variable in both color and morphology
. Leaves are ovate, obovate, spatulate, or broadly elliptic and 0.8
to 2.3 inches (2.0-6 cm) in length [48,58]. Margins are entire,
minutely serrulate, or ciliate [53,58]. The glabrous upper surface is
yellow-green, pale green, or dark blue green, whereas leaves are paler
and glaucous to pubescent beneath [25,58,61]. Leaves turn scarlet or
crimson in the fall .
Cylindric to urceolate-campanulate inflorescences are borne in groups of
4 to 11 on axillary or terminal racemes [25,48,58]. The perfect flowers
are pink, greenish-white, or occasionally white [53,61] and average 0.25
inch (6 mm) in length . Floral morphology has been reported in
detail . Fruit is a sweet, juicy, globular berry 0.2 to 0.5 inch
(4-12 mm) in diameter [25,33,48,58]. Average berry weight has been
estimated at approximately 0.01 ounce (0.28 g) . Berries are blue
and glaucous to black and shiny [25,61]. White-fruited forms, although
rare, have also been reported . Each berry contains 8 to 14
variable, irregular seeds [25,53]. Of this number, approximately four
are viable . Viable seeds tend to be brown or reddish-brown
[25,53]. The glossy, pitted seeds average 0.04 to 0.06 inch (1-1.6 mm)
in length .
RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :
REGENERATION PROCESSES :
Hillside blueberry can regenerate through seed or by vegetative means.
Seed: In some areas, fruit is produced in abundance [33,53], but
elsewhere yields are more often small . Vander Kloet and
Austin-Smith  reported that plants produce fruit "en masse" in the
Appalachians and Ozarks but produce fruit sporadically near the Atlantic
Coast. Little is known about specific germination requirements.
Radicles generally emerge within 13 days, dicotyledons develop within 23
days, and true leaves are produced within 38 days after planting .
The seeds of most blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) germinate only on good
sites in favorable years. Ballington and others  observed only a few
surviving hillside blueberry seedlings.
Vegetative regeneration: Hillside blueberry spreads by means of rhizome
expansion to form extensive colonies [43,61]. Plants sprout readily
from underground rhizomes after aboveground vegetation is damaged or
destroyed. Most rhizomes are concentrated in the top 1.9 inches (5 cm)
of the A horizon of the soil, but some extend to depths of 6 inches (15
cm) . Buds nearest the stem apex typically sprout first after
SITE CHARACTERISTICS :
Hillside blueberry grows on dry, rocky hillsides, upland ridges, rocky
outcrops and ledges, sandy knolls, and in shale barrens [14,58,61,53].
It commonly occurs on a variety of disturbed sites, such as abandoned
pastures and farmlands, along roadsides, and in clearcuts [14,44,58,61].
Hillside blueberry is a common component of dry, open woods but also
grows in hardwood swamps [51,61]. It generally occurs below 3,500 feet
(1,061 m) in elevation .
Soils: Hillside blueberry grows on dry, sandy or gravelly soils, as
well as on heavy clay [17,25,30]. It grows well on acidic soils .
Parent materials are variable but include chert, granite, gneiss, and
Climate: Hillside blueberry grows in a humid mesothermal climatic
regime . Average annual precipitation amounts have been reported as
ranging from 39 to 47 inches (100-120 cm) [6,34,50].
SUCCESSIONAL STATUS :
Hillside blueberry is reported to have "ruderale tendencies" [57,58].
It commonly invades disturbed sites, such as abandoned farms and
clearcuts [58,61]. In parts of New England, it has become widely
established on abandoned pasturelands. Hillside blueberry, black
huckleberry, and roundleaf greenbrier (Smilax rotundifolia) have assumed
dominance in these relatively stable plant communities . In many
areas, it becomes more abundant on plots burned at frequent intervals
Hillside blueberry also grows in several climax communities. It occurs
in climax stands in pine-oak communities of New Jersey and in old-growth
post oak-black oak communities of the South Carolina Piedmont [30,37].
SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT :
Flowers generally appear before the leaves are "half grown" . The
mean interval between flowering and fruiting is approximately 66 days
. Vander Kloet  reported a period of 60 days until seed set.
Hillside blueberry often ripens over a relatively long period of time
, although much geographic variation has been observed. In the
foothills of the Appalachian and Ozark mountains, populations often
fruit synchronously . However, in coastal regions, fruit ripens
sporadically . Ballington and others  observed peak ripeness in
early June, although berries could be harvested from July 12 to July 29.
Generalized flowering and fruiting dates are as follows:
Location Flowering Fruit ripe Authority
VA ---- July - August Uttal 1987
Great Plains April - June July - September Great Plains Flora
Flora Assoc. 1986
n-c Great Plains mid-April early July Stephens 1973
NC, SC March - April June - July Radford and others
OH ---- July 16-28 Gorchov 1987
New England May 10 - June 14 ---- Seymour 1985
SPECIES: Vaccinium pallidum
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS :
Fire is a dominant influence in many Coastal Plain forests in which
hillside blueberry occurs . Historic fire intervals have been
estimated at approximately 65 years in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey
. Fire intervals are estimated at 40 years in oak-pine stands and as
frequent as every 8 years in pitch pine stands of New Jersey .
Hillside blueberry is well represented in these communities. Although
it can survive during fairly long fire-free intervals, this shrub is
particularly well adapted to frequent fires. In the New Jersey Pine
Barrens, it typically assumes importance under a regime of frequent
fires [10,12]. Burning more than once within 5 years can produce
increases in the relative abundance of hillside blueberry. Buell and
Cantlon  observed no "regular trend in cover until burns became more
frequent than every 3 years." However, plants may be reduced by annual
burning. On annually burned plots, hillside blueberry cover was
approximately one-half that of less frequently burned plots .
Hillside blueberry is well adapted to fire . It readily regenerates
in postfire communities  from rhizomes, root crowns, or surviving
portions of aerial stems . As with other lowbush blueberries,
clones of hillside blueberry are rejuvenated as fire removes decadent
material and stimulates sprouting . Birds and mammals may transport
some seed from off-site, but establishment is probably limited to good
sites in favorable years.
POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :
Small shrub, adventitious-bud root crown
Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil
Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)
FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS :
Prescribed fire: Clones of lowbush blueberries such as hillside
blueberry persist for years on undisturbed sites. However, fruit
production and overall vigor typically decline with age . Fire has
been widely used to rejuvenate decadent clones and improve wildlife
Biomass: Estimates of hillside blueberry biomass in New Jersey Pine
Barrens were as follows :
control wildfire wildfire pres. burn pres. burn
---- + 1 162 35
Environmental consideration: Hillside blueberry is able to persist in
chestnut-oak woodlands of Pennsylvania adjacent to zinc smelters .
Studies in these contaminated communities indicated that many species,
normally favored by fire, were weakened by exposure to high soil levels
of zinc and did not assume prominence on burned sites. However,
hillside blueberry, although also weakened by exposure to soil
contaminants, nevertheless increased on burned plots. Percent cover was
as follows :
(sampled 14-15 years after fire)
control 7.8 1.2
smelter site 4.7 0.9
SPECIES: Vaccinium pallidum
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT :
Most aboveground stems are presumably killed by fire. However, buds are
resistant to heat damage . Brayton and Woodwell  observed a
"few" surviving aboveground stems after a "heavy burn" in New York.
Underground regenerative structures are generally well protected by
overlying layers of soil. Postfire mortality is apparently low.
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT :
PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE :
Hillside blueberry sprouts readily after fire [10,14] from underground
rhizomes, buds located on the root collar, and buds located on portions
of surviving aerial stems [10,42]. Surviving buds located nearest the
stem apex generally sprout to produce the new shoots . Plants
commonly sprout from underground rhizomes after aboveground foliage is
consumed by fire. Sprouts often originate from root collar buds after
only light damage .
Sprouting ability may be reduced by severe damage or by fires at too
frequent intervals . After wildfires in white oak-scarlet oak
(Quercus coccinea)-pitch pine forests of New Jersey, shoot elongation of
hillside blueberry was reduced by "heavy" as compared to "light" burns.
However, greater population increases were noted after "heavy" burns.
Comparative values were as follows :
stems/ m sq burn
Some seedling establishment may occur as birds and mammals transport
seed from off-site. However, seedling establishment in most blueberries
(Vaccinium spp.) is generally limited to favorable sites in good years.
Recovery of hillside blueberry is typically rapid. By the second year
after a prescribed fire in a clearcut jack pine stand in northern lower
Michigan, plants exhibited significant increases in cover . Hillside
blueberry was considered dominant in both burned and unburned stands
. Cover was documented as follows [1,2]:
1979 1980 1981
cover freq. cover freq. cover freq.
pine stand 27.2 30.0 -- -- -- --
clearcut 11.3 43.3 20.5 44.0 19.2 44.4
clearcut 14.3 34.2 9.0 41.0 19.4 43.9
Although hillside blueberry generally increases after fire, small
reductions have been noted on certain sites. Ten to 26 months after a
burn in north-central New York, Swan  reported average frequencies
on unburned plots of 47 percent, whereas the average frequency on burned
plots was 36 percent. Similarly, Brown  observed relative densities
of 37.58 percent on burned sites and 43.92 percent on unburned sites in
Rhode Island woodlands.
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE :
The following Research Project Summaries provide information on prescribed
fire and postfire response of plant community species, including lowbush
blueberry, that was not available when this species review was written:
SPECIES: Vaccinium pallidum
1. Abrams, Marc D.; Dickmann, Donald I. 1982. Early revegetation of
clear-cut and burned jack pine sites in northern lower Michigan.
Canadian Journal of Botany. 60: 946-954. 
2. Abrams, Marc D.; Dickmann, Donald I. 1984. Floristic composition before
and after prescribed fire on a jack pine clear-cut site in northern
lower Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 14: 746-749.
3. Ballington, J. R.; Ballinger, W. E.; Swallow, W. H.; [and others]. 1984.
Fruit quality characterization of 11 Vaccinium species. Journal of the
American Society for Horticultural Science. 109(5): 684-689. 
4. Ballington, J. R.; Ballinger, W. E.; Mainland, C. M.; [and others].
1984. Ripening period of Vaccinium species in southeastern North
Carolina. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science.
109(3): 392-396. 
5. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals,
reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's
associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO:
U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p.
6. Boerner, Ralph E. J. 1981. Forest structure dynamics following wildfire
and prescribed burning in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. American Midland
Naturalist. 105(2): 321-333. 
7. Bramble, W. C.; Goddard, M. K. 1943. Seasonal browsing of woody plants
by white-tailed deer in the bear oak forest type. Journal of Forestry.
41(7): 471-475. 
8. Braun, E. Lucy. 1936. Forests of the Illinoian till plain of
southwestern Ohio. Ecological Monographs. 6(1): 91-149. 
9. Braun, E. Lucy. 1942. Forests of the Cumberland Mountains. Ecological
Monographs. 12(4): 413-447. 
10. Brayton, R. D.; Woodwell, G. M. 1966. Effects of ionizing radiation and
fire on Gaylussacia baccata and Vaccinium vacillans. American Journal of
Botany. 53(8): 816-820. 
11. Brown, James H., Jr. 1960. The role of fire in altering the species
composition of forests in Rhode Island. Ecology. 41(2): 310-316. 
12. Buell, Murray F.; Cantlon, John E. 1953. Effects of prescribed burning
on ground cover in the New Jersey pine region. Ecology. 34: 520-528.
13. Camp, W. H. 1942. On the structure of populations in the genus
Vaccinium. Brittonia. 4(2): 189-204. 
14. Camp, W. H. 1945. The North American blueberries with notes on other
groups of Vacciniaceae. Brittonia. 5(3): 203-275. 
15. Carlile, D. W.; Tipton, A. R.; Whelan, J. B.; Sharik, T. L. 1978.
Changes in prod. of food for white-tailed deer & wild turkey following a
forest thinning operation in the Ridge & Valley Prnd province of VA.
Virginia Journal of Science. 29(2): 58. 
16. Chandler, F. B.; Hyland, Fay. 1941. Botanical and economic distribution
of Vaccinium L. in Maine. Proceedings of the American Society for
Horticultural Science. 38: 430-433. 
17. Chapman, William K.; Bessette, Alan E. 1990. Trees and shrubs of the
Adirondacks. Utica, NY: North Country Books, Inc. 131 p. 
18. Collins, Scott L.; Good, Ralph E. 1986. Canopy-ground layer
relationships of oak-pine forests in the New Jersey Pine Barrens.
American Midland Naturalist. 117(2): 280-288. 
19. Darrow, George M. 1960. Blueberry breeding, past, present, future.
American Horticultural Magazine. 39(1): 14-33. 
20. Erb, W. Alan; Draper, Arlen D.; Swartz, Harry J. 1988. Screening
interspecific blueberry seedling populations for drought resistance.
Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 113(4):
21. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and
Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. 
22. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others].
1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range
ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. 
23. Golden, Michael S. 1979. Forest vegetation of the lower Alabama
Piedmont. Ecology. 60(4): 770-782. 
24. Gorchov, David L. 1987. Sequence of fruit ripening in bird-dispersed
plants: consistency among years. Ecology. 68(1): 223-225. 
25. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.
Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. 
26. Hall, Christine N.; Kuss, Fred R. 1989. Vegetation alteration along
trails in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Biological Conservation.
48: 211-227. 
27. Hall, I. V. 1955. Floristic changes following the cutting and burning of
a woodlot for blueberry production. Canadian Journal of Agricultural
Science. 35: 143-152. 
28. Hemond, Harold F.; Niering, William A.; Goodwin, Richard H. 1983. Two
decades of vegetation change in the Connecticut Arboretum Natural Area.
Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 110(2): 184-194. 
29. Johnson, Leo J.; Law, Jay R. 1989. A five year record of change for a
declining scarlet oak stand in the Missouri Ozarks. In: Rink, George;
Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference;
1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest
Experiment Station: 103-107. 
30. Jones, Steven M. 1988. Old-growth forests within the Piedmont of South
Carolina. Natural Areas Journal. 8(1): 31-37. 
31. Jordan, Marilyn J. 1975. Effects of zinc smelter emissions and fire on a
chestnut-oak woodland. Ecology. 56: 78-91. 
32. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of
the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume
II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North
Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie
Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. 
33. Keeler, Harriet L. 1969. Vacciniaceae--huckleberry family. In: Our
northern shrubs and how to identify them. New York: Dover Publications,
Inc.: 315-342. 
34. Killingbeck, Keith T.; Costigan, Steve A. 1988. Element resorption in a
guild of understory shrub species: niche differentiation and resorption
thresholds. Oikos. 53: 366-374. 
35. Korcak, Ronald F. 1988. Nutrition of blueberry and other calcifuges.
Horticultural Reviews. 10: 183-227. 
36. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation
of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York:
American Geographical Society. 77 p. 
37. Little, S.; Moore, E. B. 1949. The ecological role of prescribed burns
in the pine-oak forests of southern New Jersey. Ecology. 30(2): 223-233.
38. Little, Silas; Moorhead, George R.; Somes, Horace A. 1958. Forestry and
deer in the Pine Region of New Jersey. Station Pap. No. 109. Upper
Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern
Forest Experiment Station. 33 p. 
39. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession
following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall
Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council
fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No.
14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. 
40. Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. 1951. American
wildlife and plants. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 500 p.
41. Matlack, G. R.; Good, R. E. 1989. Plant-scale pattern among herbs and
shrubs of a fire-dominated coastal plain forest. Vegetatio. 82: 95-103.
42. Miller, Melanie. 1976. Shrub sprouting response to fire in a
Douglas-fir/western larch ecosystem. Missoula, MT: University of
Montana. 124 p. Thesis. 
43. Minore, Don. 1975. Observations on the rhizomes and roots of Vaccinium
membranaceum. Res. Note PNW-261. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of
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