Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Vaccinium ovalifolium


Introductory

SPECIES: Vaccinium ovalifolium
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Tirmentein, D. 1990. Vaccinium ovalifolium. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : VACOVL SYNONYMS : Vaccinium chamissonis SCS PLANT CODE : VAOV COMMON NAMES : ovalleaf huckleberry ovalleaf blueberry TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of ovalleaf huckleberry is Vaccinium ovalifolium Sm. [38]. Ovalleaf huckleberry readily hybridizes with a number of species, including Alaska huckleberry (V. alaskaense) [47], and forms intermediate to ovalleaf and Alaska huckleberry have been widely reported. Ovalleaf huckleberry-dwarf huckleberry (V. caespitosum) and ovalleaf huckleberry-grouse whortleberry (V. scoparium) hybrids also occur and may have contributed genetic material to blue huckleberry (V. membranaceum) [8,44]. Intermediates between ovalleaf huckleberry and dwarf huckleberry (V. caesoitosum) have been reported in parts of eastern North America [8]. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Vaccinium ovalifolium
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Ovalleaf huckleberry grows from Alaska to the Cascades of Washington and Oregon, eastward to Idaho and Montana [34]. This shrub also occurs across much of the Pacific Rim, from the Aleutians to Japan, and reaches parts of mainland eastern Asia [63]. Disjunct populations are common throughout eastern Canada and the Great Lakes Region [4]. In eastern North America, ovalleaf huckleberry occurs sporadically from northern Quebec, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland, southwestward to northern Michigan [34]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES11 Spruce - fir FRES18 Maple - beech - birch FRES19 Aspen - birch FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES24 Hemlock - Sitka spruce FRES26 Lodgepole pine STATES : AK CA ID MI MT OR WA AB BC NF NS ON PQ BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K001 Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest K002 Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest K003 Silver fir - Douglas-fir forest K004 Fir - hemlock forest K015 Western spruce - fir forest K106 Northern hardwoods SAF COVER TYPES : 005 Balsam fir 201 White spruce 205 Mountain hemlock 206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir 218 Lodgepole pine 223 Sitka spruce 224 Western hemlock 225 Western hemlock - Sitka spruce 226 Coastal true fir - hemlock 227 Western redcedar - western hemlock 228 Western redcedar 229 Pacific Douglas-fir 230 Douglas-fir - western hemlock SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : In the West, ovalleaf huckleberry occurs in coastal montane or interior forests dominated by western redcedar (Thuja plicata), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis), and yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis). Common understory codominants include blue huckleberry (V. membranaceum), Alaska huckleberry (V. alaskaense), Oregon oxalis (Oxalis oregana), western swordfern (Polystichum munitum), and bog Labrador tea (Ledum glandulosum). In the East, ovalleaf huckleberry occurs in montane forests dominated by such species as balsam fir (A. balsamea) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) [49]. Published classifications including ovalleaf huckleberry as an indicator or dominant in habitat types, community types, plant associations, or ecosystem associations are listed below. Old-growth forests of the Canadian Rocky Mountain national parks [1] Structure of coniferous forest communities in western Washington: diversity and ecotype properties [15] Classification of montane forest community types in the Cedar River Drainage of western Washington, U.S.A. [16] Vegetation and soils in the subalpine forests of the southern Washington Cascade Range [19] Natural vegetatin of Oergon and Washington [21] Plant communities in the old-growth forests of north coastal Oregon [33] Forest ecosystems of Mount Rainer National Park [48] Understory associates: Species which commonly occur with ovalleaf huckleberry in western North America include menziesia (Menziesia ferruginea), five leaf bramble (Rubus pedatus), queencup beadlily (Clintonia uniflora), blue huckleberry, beargrass (Xerophyllum tenax), red huckleberry (V. parvifolium), devil's club (Oplopanax horridus), western swordfern (Polystichum munitum), lady fern (Athyrium filix-femina), threeleaf foamflower (Tiarella trifoliata), and Oregon oxalis (Oxalis oregana) [25,33,51,67]. Overall species diversity is low on many drier ovalleaf huckleberry sites [26]. Common eastern understory associates include bunchberry (Cornus canadensis), woodfern (Dryopteris spinulosa), twinflower (Linnaea borealis), yellow beadlily (Clintonia borealis), sedges (Carex spp.), American starflower (Trientalis borealis), Canada beadruby (Maianthemum canadense), and mountain cranberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) [49].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Vaccinium ovalifolium
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Browse: Ovalleaf huckleberry provides at least some browse for elk, deer, and mountain goats [26]. On the Olympic Peninsula of Washington, it is considered a moderately important elk browse [50]. In many areas, elk feed on the leaves and twigs year-round, but this shrub is generally of greatest importance during winter and summer [59]. In parts of eastern North America, deer browse buds and tender young twigs in early spring, but use is often heaviest in winter [8]. In western Washington, ovalleaf huckleberry is a preferred browse of black-tailed deer, with greatest utilization reported in April, May, and October1w. This food source may be unavailable for winter use wherever foliage is heavily browsed in summer [7]. Livestock use of ovalleaf huckleberry appears limited although domestic sheep and goats feed on this shrub in some locations [14,65]. Fruit: Fruits of ovalleaf huckleberry are eaten by many birds and mammals [26,29]. In Alaska, both leaves and berries are important fall foods of the spruce grouse [17]. The scarlet tanager, thrushes, thrashers, towhees, ptarmigans, ring-necked pheasant, ruffed, blue, and sharp-tailed grouse all consume huckleberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruit [45,65]. Many mammals including chipmunks, black bear, red fox, skunks, squirrels, gray fox, and raccoon also eat Vaccinium berries [45,65]. Ovalleaf huckleberry fruit is an important grizzly bear food in parts of British Columbia [3,46]. PALATABILITY : Palatability of ovalleaf huckleberry browse apparently varies with site [7] and seasonal development. However, overall palatability to big game is generally described as moderate [28]. It is preferred by black-tailed deer in parts of western Washington during the winter months [7] and tender buds and twigs are readily consumed by white-tailed deer during early spring or late winter in parts of the East [8]. Palatability of ovalleaf huckleberry browse to elk in Washington is rated as good [59]. Fruit is preferred by many birds and mammals. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Browse: Huckleberry (Vaccinium spp.) foliage is relatively high in carotene, manganese, and energy content [12,30]. The nutrient content of ovalleaf huckleberry browse varies seasonally. A composite analysis of ovalleaf and red huckleberry (V. parvifolium) browse in western Washington revealed the following values [7]: crude ether crude N-free total Ca K PO4 protein extract fiber extract ash (percent) 7.57 3.56 35.71 46.90 4.38 1.032 0.535 0.434 Fruit: Fruits of Vaccinium spp. are sweet and contain high concentrations of both mono- and di-saccharides [62]. Berries are rich in vitamin C and energy content but contain little fat [36,55]. COVER VALUE : Ovalleaf huckleberry presumably provides cover for a variety of wildlife species. Taller plants, which grow in forest openings, may serve as favorable hiding places for large mammals. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Species within the genus Vaccinium can be propagated from hardwood cuttings or by seed. Ovalleaf huckleberry averages 1,606,200 cleaned seeds per pound (3,538/g). Seedlings grown in the greenhouse can be transplanted 6 to 7 weeks after emergence. Seed collection and storage techniques have been examined in detail [11]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Berries of ovalleaf huckleberry are tart but flavorful [29,35]. Fruit is eaten fresh, cooked, or dried [28,29,63]. Berries also make excellent jelly and wine [28,31]. Fruit of the ovalleaf and Alaska huckleberries are the most commonly gathered wild berries along the Pacific Coast of Alaska [2]. Approximately 8.5 ounces (250 ml) of fruit can be harvested within a 10-minute period [70]. The ovalleaf huckleberry was traditionally an important food source for Native peoples of present-day Alaska and British Columbia [63,70]. Berries were eaten fresh or preserved for winter use [70]. Preserved fruit provided a good source of vitamin C during the winter months. Ovalleaf huckleberry was first cultivated in 1880 [11]. Many species of huckleberries (Vaccinium spp.) have value as ornamentals or as fruit-producers in backyard gardens. However, Schultz [58] reports that ovalleaf huckleberry does not appear well-suited for horticultural breeding purposes. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Chemical control: Huckleberries (Vaccinium spp.) exhibit variable susceptibility to herbicides such as 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, glyphosate, karbutilate, and picloram [6]. Timber harvest: Ovalleaf huckleberry commonly persists on cutover sites [24,42]. On thinned stands in southeastern Alaska, ovalleaf huckleberry seedlings were scattered where trees were spaced at 7.9 by 7.9 foot (2.4 x 2.4 m) intervals [26]. However, where trees were spaced at 16.5 by 16.5 foot (4.9 x 4.9 m) intervals, ovalleaf huckleberry seedlings were much more abundant and produced flowers [26]. Wildlife: Huckleberries are an extremely important food source for grizzly bears [44]. Both black and grizzly bears typically exploit areas with dense concentrations of berries. The habitat value of huckleberry shrubfields to grizzly bears can be increased by permanent or at least seasonal road closures, by coordinating timber harvest dates to have minimal impact on habitat use patterns, and by considering the cumulative effects of habitat modification across a broad area. In general, site preparation should include minimizing soil compaction, using cooler broadcast burns rather than hot slash burns, or by eliminating site preparation entirely wherever possible. Grizzly use can be favored where hiding cover is retained by treating small, irregular patches instead of large contiguous areas, and by leaving stringers of timber within larger cuts [68]. Seasonal trail closures have been implemented in major ovalleaf or blue huckleberry fields in British Columbia's Kokanee Glacier Provincial Park in an attempt to reduce the likelihood of hiker-grizzly encounters [46]. In many areas, bear-human conflicts are much more likely to occur during years of huckleberry crop failure [44,56] as wider-ranging hungry bears encounter recreationists or wildland residents. Damage to crops and beehives, and livestock losses also typically increase during poor huckleberry years [56].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Vaccinium ovalifolium
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Ovalleaf huckleberry is a stout, erect or spreading, diffusely branched deciduous shrub [24,26,35,58], which grows from 1.3 to 12 feet (0.4-4 m) in height [35,47]. Plants often become low and broomy in response to repeated browsing or under arctic and subarctic conditions where snow depth limits height [1,8,31]. Height is also reduced under a dense forest canopy where little light reaches the forest floor; tallest individuals are generally found under openings in the forest canopy [33]. Maximum annual growth rates in Alaska reportedly average 12 inches per year (30 cm) [26]. The slender, yellowish-green, glabrous twigs of ovalleaf huckleberry are conspicuously angled [2,47]. Twigs turn a bright red when exposed to sunlight [58]. Bark of older branches is grayish or grayish-brown [29,35]. The thin, alternate leaves are entire or have inconspicuously serrate margins [14,29,47]. Leaves are oval to elliptical but rounded at the base and tip [26,35,58]. Leaves are glabrous and generally light and glaucous below [8,35]. Pink, urn-shaped flowers are borne singly in the axils of leaves [26,58]. Flowers are generally pollinated by long-tongued bees, such as bumblebees [29]. The floral morphology of ovalleaf huckleberry has been examined in detail [53]. Fruit of the ovalleaf huckleberry is a bluish-purple, dark blue, or black berry with a distinct whitish bloom [11,29]. The relatively large berries are round, spherical, or slightly oblate, and seedy [2,26,47,63]. Each berry contains an average of 26 seeds [76], but individual berries may contain up to 150 seeds [26]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte Geophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Ovalleaf huckleberry is capable of reproducing vegetatively or through seed. Vegetative regeneration appears to be of primary importance in most western huckleberries (Vaccinium spp.) [44]. Vegetative regeneration: Ovalleaf huckleberry commonly sprouts from dormant basal buds after repeated browsing or disturbances which damage the crown [1,8,31]. Layering, which occurs in the absence of disturbance, has also been reported [52]. Ovalleaf huckleberry is rhizomatous and sprouting of these structures is reportedly the primary means by which colonies expand [26]. Germination: Seeds of ovalleaf huckleberry have a short dormant period and exhibit good germination when exposured to 15 days of warm temperatures followed by 15 days of chilling [11,26]. Properly stored seeds exhibit good germination under a regime of 14 hours of light at 82 degrees F (28 degrees C) followed by 10 hours of darkness at temperatures averaging 55 degrees F (13 degrees C). Fresh seeds also germinate successfully under these conditions, or when alternately exposed to temperatures of 71 degrees F (22 degrees C) and 41 degrees F (5 degrees C) [76]. Huckleberry seedlings first emerge in approximately 1 month and continue to emerge for long periods of time in the absence of cold stratification [11]. Ovalleaf huckleberry exhibits 50 to 60 percent germination under favorable conditions and up to 93 percent germination has been observed under optimal laboratory conditions [26]. A minimum of only 2 percent full light is required for germination and seedlings can develop beneath a forest canopy. Seeds germinate on a variety of substrates including decaying wood, humus, moss, and mineral soil. Ovalleaf huckleberry typically produces seed annually, but large amounts of seed are generally produced only in relatively open areas such as in clearings or at forest margins [26]. Seeds are readily dispersed by a wide variety of birds and mammals [29]. Seedbanking: Seedbanking does not appear to be an important regenerative strategy in ovalleaf huckleberry. Although seeds can remain viable for up to 12 years in storage, longevity under natural conditions is believed to be limited [26]. In montane balsam fir (Abies balsamea)-paper birch (Betula papyrifera) forests of Quebec, an average of 6.25 ovalleaf huckleberry seeds per square meter was found within the top 1.2 inches (3 cm) of soil, but none of the seeds were viable [49]. Seedling morphology and establishment: Seedling morphology of species within the section Myrtillus is poorly known. In the ovalleaf huckleberry, transition from immature to mature foliage can be either abrupt or gradual [76]. Seedlings which develop gradually may be easily confused with seedlings of the closely related Alaska huckleberry [76]. Evidence suggests that ovalleaf huckleberry is a "seedling banker." Seedlings are capable of surviving in the forest understory until disturbance creates conditions favorable for development. Large numbers of slow-growing seedlings are commonly observed. Growth is typically slow beneath a forest canopy, and seedlings often remain in the cotyledon stage for more than two growing seasons. Best seedling survival occurs in open old growth stands and in clearcuts. Survival is often poor in immature forests [26]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Ovalleaf huckleberry grows in cool, moist, submontane to subalpine forests, on open slopes, and at the edges of bogs, meadows, and swamps [14,29,32,35,78]. It often occurs on elevated microsites in poorly drained areas [26]. Ovalleaf huckleberry is commonly absent from major valley bottoms but does occur on subhydric, colluvial, and morainal sites in smaller valley bottoms [1,26]. Soil: Most huckleberries (Vaccinium spp.) require acidic conditions and can grow on infertile soils which have relatively small amounts of many essential elements [40]. Ovalleaf huckleberry thrives on soils low in nitrogen [78]. Ovalleaf huckleberry grows well on well-drained, nutrient-poor to nutrient-rich soils with a pH of 4.0 to 5.0 [26,51,65]. Soils are derived from a wide variety of parent materials [26]. Climate: Sites range from dry to moist, but ovalleaf huckleberry is generally most abundant on moderately moist sites [24,26,61]. Along the coast of British Columbia, this shrub is associated with a cool mesothermal climatic regime [78]. Elevation: Ovalleaf huckleberry grows from sea level to timberline [26] with elevation ranging from 0 to 5,500 feet (0-1,678 m) [14]. In many parts of the Northwest, it is particularly common at middle elevations [47,58]. Elevational range by geographic location is as follows [58,61]: from 0 to 4,500 feet (0-1,364 m) Cascades 2,000 to 5,000 feet (606-1,515 m) w OR SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Ovalleaf huckleberry is shade tolerant and can persist in undisturbed forests dominated by species such as western hemlock or white spruce (Picea glauca) [26,72]. It is a common constituent of climax old growth Douglas-fir-western hemlock, Pacific silver fir, and moist western hemlock forests of the Pacific Northwest [21,33,60,70], and of western hemlock-western redcedar-Sitka spruce forests of southeastern Alaska [75]. Seedlings grow in open, old growth stands or in clearcuts, but often do poorly in dense, immature forests [26]. Ovalleaf huckleberry commonly appears soon after disturbance in parts of western Washington [7] and elsewhere. Sprouts were observed on mudflow surfaces in scorch and blowdown areas soon after the eruption of Mount Saint Helens [73,74]. Ovalleaf huckleberry is also one of the first "forest species" to colonize bog margins in parts of southeastern Alaska [51]. This shrub often persists on cutover sites throughout its range and frequently forms a "nearly continuous layer" on newly harvested sites [24,26,42]. Ovalleaf huckleberry is prevalent in young stands which develop in avalanche zones in parts of the northwestern Cascades of Washington. Plants pioneer these sites through layering and sprouting after aboveground portions of the parent plants are damaged. The ability to sprout gives species such as ovalleaf huckleberry a competitive advantage during early succession in these shrub communities. Stem numbers of ovalleaf huckleberry reportedly reach a minimum 60 to 150 years after the initial disturbance. Advance regeneration subsequently develops and replaces initial pioneers, producing a subsequent increase in stem density [52]. Establishment of ovalleaf huckleberry may be slow where parent plants were absent prior to disturbance. Clement [71] observed ovalleaf huckleberry in mature climax forests and in young seral stands on floodplain gravel bars along the west coat of Vancouver Island. However, it was absent in early seral stands. No parent plants were present prior to disturbance and establishment on the newly exposed gravel bars proceeded slowly from offsite seed. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : In coastal Alaska, bud burst of ovalleaf huckleberry begins in May. Growth proceeds rapidly, and most vegetative elongation is completed by mid-June. Stem diameters continue to increase until mid-July, and leaf senescence usually occurs by September. Along the coast of central British Columbia, leaf senescence can begin in early September, although some leaves remain on the shrubs until the end of October [26]. Ovalleaf huckleberry flowers before leaves reach one-half of their full size [35]. Flowering and fruiting by geographic area has been documented as follows [11,26,49,70]: location flowering fruiting coastal AK April-May mid-July-August BC coast ---- late June BC ---- June-August w OR May-July ---- PQ May July-August Pacific Northwest May-July ----

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Vaccinium ovalifolium
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Plants presumably sprout from the stem base or underground rhizomes [26,31] after aboveground vegetation is destroyed by fire. Limited seedling establishment may occasionally occur from offsite seed dispersed by birds and mammals. However, seedling establishment is of limited importance in most western huckleberries (Vaccinium spp.) [44]. Fire may occur infrequently on some moist sites occupied by ovalleaf huckleberry. Martin [44] notes that "the role of fire in establishing populations of western species [of huckleberry] or in maintaining new ones, is not well-documented." POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown Geophyte, growing points deep in soil Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Vaccinium ovalifolium
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Basal portions of the stem sometimes survive after aboveground vegetation is damaged by fire. Underground rhizomes [26] are presumably afforded some protection by overlying soil and may survive fires which consume the crown. As with many other species of huckleberry (Vaccinium spp.), plants are most likely to be killed by hot, duff-consuming fires [44]. Seeds of most huckleberries are susceptible to heat and onsite seed is typically eliminated by fire [44]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Vegetative response: Ovalleaf huckleberry often sprouts from the stem base [31] after aboveground vegetation is consumed by fire. Rhizome sprouting may occur after fires remove or damage all aboveground vegetation, including the stem base [26]. In related species of Vaccinium, sprouting is much less likely after hot, duff-consuming fires [44]. Seedling establishment: Limited postfire seedling establishment may occur on some sites. Seedbanking does not appear to be an important regenerative strategy in ovalleaf huckleberry [26]. Seeds of most huckleberries appear to be of short viability and are readily killed by heat [44]. Birds and mammals may transport some seed from offsite [29]. Rate of postfire recovery: The postfire recovery rate of ovalleaf huckleberry appears variable. In many areas recovery is very slow [79]. Ovalleaf huckleberry was absent during the first growing season after a moderate fire in southwestern British Columbia, and plants had not regained preburn vigor by the third growing season [26]. However, in parts of the Cascades, this shrub may be common on recently burned sites [50]. Recovery has been documented as follows on two burned sites in coastal British Columbia [42]: 1969 1970 1971 (preburn) (postburn) (postburn) % frequency 10.0 10.0 1.7 % cover 0.1 0.2 0.1 1968 1969 1970 1971 (preburn) (postburn) (postburn) (postburn) % frequency 47.0 8.0 23.9 20.5 % cover 2.8 0.1 0.5 0.2 DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Wildlife: Evidence suggests that fire suppression may be having an adverse impact on bear habitat in some areas [64,68]. Once productive seral berry fields are being invaded by conifers. Since plants beneath a forest canopy generally produce few berries, fruit production has been steadily declining [47]. Logging treatments which include severe soil scarification or slash burns may also reduce berry production. Even where timber harvest favors berry production, lack of cover in early years can limit bear use. Wildfires often create diverse habitat mosaics which incorporate elements of hiding cover and favor bear use [68]. Prescribed fire: Prescribed fire has long been used to increase yields in commerical low sweet blueberry (V. angustifolium) fields of the East by naturally pruning decadent shoots [47,77]. Flower buds generally tend to be more numerous on new shoots and periodic removal of old shoots can increase fruit yield as well as enhance overall vigor [47]. Spring burns, conducted when the soil is moist, tend to be most effective in promoting fruit production [77]. In the Great Lakes Region, where disjunct populations of ovalleaf huckleberry occur, Krautz [77] recommends burning huckleberry (Vaccinium spp.) stands with 4 to 5 years fuel accumulation during the early afternoon on warm, clear, sunny days with average windspeeds of 5 to 10 miles per hour (6-8 km/hour). Fast-moving fire fronts which burn aboveground parts but leave underground regenerative structures intact generally produce best results. Therefore, when increased huckleberry fruit production is a primary management objective, head fires are preferable to backing fires. Supportive ignition (repeated ignitions) is generally required when burning huckleberry stands in the East. In the Great Lakes Region, areas to be burned should be rotated over a 4- to 5-year interval to maintain adequate berry production for recreationists and wildlife [77]. Minore [47] has considered the effects of prescribed fire on the blue huckleberry (V. membranaceum) in the Northwest [see VACMEM], but little is known about the specific effects of prescribed fire on fruit production in ovalleaf huckleberry. Berry production: Berry production in most western huckleberries is generally reduced for at least 5 years after fire [44]. On some sites, berry production may be significantly reduced for 20 to 30 years or more [44]. Reduced initial berry production is probable after fires in ovalleaf huckleberry fields of western North America. Abundance is often reduced after fires used for site preparation in British Columbia [79].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Vaccinium ovalifolium
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Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 6. Bovey, Rodney W. 1977. Response of selected woody plants in the United States to herbicides. Agric. Handb. 493. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 101 p. [8899] 7. Brown, Ellsworth R. 1961. The black-tailed deer of western Washington. Biological Bulletin No. 13. [Place of publication unknown]: Washington State Game Commission. 124 p. [8843] 8. Camp, W. H. 1942. A survey of the American species of Vaccinium, subgenus Euvaccinium. Brittonia. 4: 205-247. [6950] 9. Camp, W. H. 1942. On the structure of populations in the genus Vaccinium. Brittonia. 4(2): 189-204. [9512] 10. Camp, W. H. 1945. The North American blueberries with notes on other groups of Vacciniaceae. Brittonia. 5(3): 203-275. [9515] 11. Crossley, John A. 1974. Vaccinium L. Blueberry. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 840-843. [7774] 12. Dahlgreen, Matthew Craig. 1984. Observations on the ecology of Vaccinium membranaceum Dougl. on the southeast slope of the Washington Cascades. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. 120 p. Thesis. [2131] 13. Daubenmire, R. 1969. Ecologic plant geography of the Pacific Northwest. Madrono. 20: 111-128. [740] 14. Dayton, William A. 1931. Important western browse plants. Misc. Publ. 101. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 214 p. [768] 15. del Moral, Roger; Fleming, Richard S. 1979. Structure of coniferous forest communities in western Washington: diversity and ecotype properties. Vegetatio. 41(3): 143-154. [7495] 16. del Moral, Roger; Long, James N. 1977. Classification of montane forest community types in the Cedar River drainage of western Washington, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 7: 217-225. [8778] 17. Ellison, Laurence. 1966. Seasonal foods and chemical analysis of winter diet of Alaskan spruce grouse. Journal of Wildlife Management. 30(4): 729-735. [9735] 18. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 19. Franklin, Jerry Forest. 1966. Vegetation and soils in the subalpine forests of the southern Washington Cascade Range. Pullman, WA: Washington State University. 132 p. Thesis. [10392] 20. Franklin, Jerry F. 1983. Ecology of noble fir. In: Oliver, Chadwick Dearing; Kenady, Reid M., eds. Proceedings of the biology and management of true fir in the Pacific Northwest symposium; 1981 February 24-26; Seattle-Tacoma, WA. Contribution No. 45. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, College of Forest Resources: 59-69. [7783] 21. 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