Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Simmondsia chinensis


Introductory

SPECIES: Simmondsia chinensis
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Simmondsia chinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : SIMCHI SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : SICH COMMON NAMES : jojoba goat-nut coffee bush quinine plant TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of jojoba is Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneid. [18,23,35]. Some authorities have placed jojoba in the family Buxaceae [23,35] while others place it in its own family, Simmondsiaceae [9,18]. There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Simmondsia chinensis
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : In the United States, jojoba occurs in the Sonoran Desert from west Riverside and San Diego counties, California; east through Imperial County, California, to southern Yavapai and Greenlee counties, Arizona; south to Cochise, Pima, and Yuma counties, Arizona [18,23,35]. Jojoba is also distributed throughout Baja California and Sonora, Mexico, and is found on islands in the Gulf of California [4,5,17,23,35,38]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES30 Desert shrub FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub STATES : AZ CA MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 3 Southern Pacific Border 7 Lower Basin and Range KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K027 Mesquite bosque K033 Chaparral K035 Coastal sagebrush K041 Creosotebush K042 Creosotebush - bursage K043 Paloverde - cactus shrub K044 Creosotebush - tarbush K058 Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe SAF COVER TYPES : 242 Mesquite SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Jojoba is mainly found in desert shrub habitats and lower elevations of chaparral vegetation [37,54]. In interior chaparral associations in Arizona, jojoba occurs with typical chaparral species on dry, open sites with an average shrub cover of 60 to 70 percent [40]. Although it is not listed as a dominant shrub species in available publications, jojoba is important over some parts of its range. Some minor associations in the Sonoran Desert are dominated by jojoba on rocky, upland sites within the paloverde (Cercidium spp.) type [30]. Jojoba is also dominant near Puerto Libertad in Sonora on piedmont and bajada sites [7]. In addition to species already mentioned in DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE, jojoba is associated in desert shrub habitats with saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea), leatherstem (Jatropha spp.), brittle bush (Encelia farinosa), ironwood (Olneya tesota), false-mesquite (Calliandra eriophylla), ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens), littleleaf paloverde (Cercidium microphyllum), catclaw acacia (Acacia greggii), desert hackberry (Celtis pallidum), ratany (Krameria spp.), wolfberry (Lycium spp.), cholla or prickly pear (Opuntia spp.), and yucca (Yucca spp.) [4,7,15,31,44,51]. Jojoba is associated in southern portions of coastal sage scrub vegetation with California buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum), sugar sumac (Rhus ovata), white sage (Salvia apiana), common deerweed (Lotus scoparius), and California sagebrush (Artemisia californica) [1,15,41,47]. Jojoba is also associated with broadleaved riparian species such as Arizona sycamore (Platanus wrightii), blue paloverde (Cercidium floridum), hackberry (Celtis spp.), and honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa) in the Gila River Resource Area in eastern Arizona [34].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Simmondsia chinensis
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Jojoba foliage is important forage for livestock and wildlife [9,15,18,32,46,54] and may provide the best browse available within its range [23]. Jojoba foliage is eaten by mule deer [4,25,31,54,55], desert bighorn sheep [33,49], jackrabbits [19], domestic sheep [4], goats [4], and cattle [4,15,32]. Cattle may browse jojoba severely enough to prevent any fruit development [15], and often consume it faster than it grows [4]. At the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge in Arizona, there were fewer crissal thrashers and brown towhees on grazed versus ungrazed areas due to the fact that heavy browsing had reduced the abundance and vigor of jojoba [48]. Jojoba is one of the four most important forage species for desert bighorn sheep in the Kofa Mountains [33], but is less abundant in areas used by desert bighorn sheep in the Harquahala Mountains, Arizona [24]. Jojoba's evergreen leaves provide important forage for mule deer, especially in the fall and winter [31,32,46]. Average volume and percent occurrence of jojoba in 11 mule deer stomachs during different seasons at the Three Bar Wildlife Area, Tonto National Forest, Arizona follow [31]: Season Average volume (%) Occurrence (%) __________________________________________________________________ Midsummer (fruits) 1 36 (foliage) 5 73 Early fall (foliage) 9 90 Late fall (foliage)* 36 87 (foliage)** 20 94 (foliage)*** 24 90 Midwinter (foliage) 20 90 Late winter (foliage) 23 80 Late spring (fruits) 7 27 (foliage) 12 91 *--following a dry summer **--following a wet summer ***--following a wet summer with early frosts Throughout its range, jojoba nuts are eaten by ground squirrels, desert chipmunks, packrats, pocket gophers, mice, rabbits, birds, desert mule deer, and other mammals [4,7,9,15]. Collared peccary in southern Arizona spent 4 percent of their total July, August, and September feeding time consuming jojoba seeds [10]. PALATABILITY : Jojoba browse is highly palatable to livestock and big game animals [38]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Jojoba provides highly nutritious forage for livestock and wildlife [4,32,38,46]. Near Roosevelt Lake in southern Arizona, jojoba foliage is highest in crude protein and phosphorous in the spring. New growth tends to be higher in nutritional quality than old plant material, except from December to March [46]. Nutritional compostion (%) of jojoba as desert mule deer forage in the Picacho Mountains of Arizona follows [25]: Fiber* Month Dry matter Protein ADF NDF Lignin Cellulose ___________________________________________________________________________ Jan-Feb 45.73 6.99 28.01 50.86 6.12 22.68 Mar-April 51.00 10.07 27.59 48.30 7.43 19.92 May-June 42.59 7.52 29.65 54.73 9.06 19.68 Jul-Aug 57.32 6.25 39.22 58.28 10.80 27.81 Sep-Oct 44.77 10.98 30.61 55.45 7.75 23.27 Nov-Dec 44.71 9.36 27.55 55.15 8.80 19.68 *ADF--acid detergent fiber; NDF--nondetergent fiber The following measurements (in percent) were obtained for jojoba as mule deer forage at the Three Bar Wildlife Area on the Tonto National Forest, Arizona [56]: Crude Dry Month Plant part Protein ADF* Ca P Matter** IVD*** _______________________________________________________________________ May-June Leaf 10 26 .57 .20 39 47 Stem 10 41 .31 .25 -- 47 Fruit 11 40 .79 .20 31 46 Flower 11 24 .40 .46 14 75 July-Sept Leaf 20 24 .85 .16 40 43 Stem 9 38 .72 .21 -- 35 Fruit 12 49 .22 .23 42 44 October Leaf 13 34 .93 .17 41 40 Stem 8 49 .87 .15 -- 30 Nov-Dec Leaf 13 31 1.35 .12 47 36 Stem 8 41 .66 .11 -- 31 Jan Leaf 11 25 .93 .10 44 44 Stem 8 41 .42 .11 -- 35 Feb-April Leaf 11 29 1.53 .28 44 45 Stem 8 40 .73 .32 -- 28 *ADF--acid detergent fiber **Dry matter is given for leaves and stems combined ***IVD--in-vitro digestibility Nutritional composition (%) of jojoba foliage as desert bighorn sheep forage in the Harquahala Mountains of Arizona follows [49]: Fiber* Month Dry matter Protein ADF NDF Lignin Cellulose __________________________________________________________________________ Jan-Feb 23.98 9.00 23.51 32.51 6.77 16.43 Mar-April 49.97 8.38 25.37 48.16 7.75 15.34 May-June 45.25 10.34 27.58 35.57 7.40 20.23 Jul-Aug 53.69 10.30 26.13 35.14 6.94 18.82 Sep-Oct 50.23 9.60 27.76 36.85 8.93 18.27 Nov-Dec 45.24 9.81 28.52 32.68 8.27 18.86 *ADF--acid detergent fiber; NDF--nondetergent fiber COVER VALUE : Jojoba presumably provides good cover for many small mammals and birds. Gambel's quail use jojoba for nesting sites in southern Arizona [16]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : Jojoba seed oil is chemically similar to that of sperm whale oil and can be substituted in many processes [4,6,9,13,18]. Approximately 90 percent of the seed oil harvested is utilized by the cosmetics industry [6]. The oil may also be used in many industrial processes and for the production of pharmaceuticals and commercial products such as lubricants, waxes, candles, and rubber compounds such as varnishes, rubber adhesives, and linoleum [4,6,26,32,35,42]. The seed oil is also a good source of straight-chain alcohols and acids used in detergents, disinfectants, emulsifiers, and bases for creams and ointments [4]. The seed meal by-product may have use as livestock feed if the antinutritional compounds are removed [6,32]. Native Americans and early white settlers in the Southwest used jojoba nuts to make a substitute for coffee. Jojoba was also used by Native Americans for widespread medicinal purposes [4,12,23]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : The jojoba industry was started in 1971 when Native American communities in California and Arizona, in collaboration with researchers from federal agencies, collected and processed jojoba seed from wild jojoba plants. Many jojoba shrubs were planted after the sperm whale was placed on the endangered species list, the importation of sperm whale oil was banned, and scientific evidence suggested that jojoba oil could replace sperm whale oil in many applications. Jojoba has been commercially harvested since 1982. At one time, approximately 40,000 acres (16,000 ha) of jojoba were under cultivation. The existing jojoba industry has relied on continuing private-sector investments [6]. For information regarding management and cultivation techniques of jojoba as a crop species refer to [4,6,15,60,62,63] and other references. A list of phytophagous, predaceous, parasitic, and other insects associated with jojoba in natural stands is available in the literature [42]. In San Diego County, California, widespread planting of jojoba has the potential to destroy sensitive vegetation such as coastal mixed chaparral and coastal sage scrub communities [39]. Jojoba was very tolerant of browsing near Roosevelt Lake in southern Arizona. It initiated new twigs from lateral buds to compensate for the loss of apical buds and twigs from herbivory. Heavily browsed plants maintained a ratio of photosynthetic biomass to total biomass as high as unbrowsed plants. However, heavy browsing greatly reduced shrub size and forage yield. Moderate browsing pressure resulted in forage yields similar to those of unbrowsed plants. Although browsing reduced shrub size, browsed plants maintained a water status similar to unbrowsed plants, even under high water stress. This indicated a comparable ability to balance transpirational water loss with water uptake through the roots. Jojoba was tolerant of heavy browsing, but moderate browsing was recommended to maintain greater shrub size and forage production [45,46].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Simmondsia chinensis
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Jojoba is a native, drought-resistant, evergreen shrub that may grow to 10 feet (3 m) or remain as a low mound 8 to 20 inches (20-50 cm) tall [4,15,18,35]. The form varies in different environments [15]; the more erect form is generally found on moist sites, whereas the semiprostrate form is found on desert sites [38]. Several stems arise from the root crown [15] and branching is profuse [15,18,23]. Younger stems are pubescent [18,35]. In full light, lateral branching is prolific near the base. As the plant ages, the lower foliage is shade-pruned and a high canopy develops [15]. The bark is smooth [18]. The leaves are thick and leathery, and are generally 0.8 to 1.6 inches (2-4 cm) long [18,23,35]. They are vertically oriented on the plant to reduce exposure to the sun [29]. Jojoba leaves may be shed during severe drought [4], but generally live two or three seasons depending on moisture and shade conditions [4,15]. Jojoba is considered to be drought-resistant, and plants are physiologically active the entire year [4]. Jojoba is dioecious [5,15,23,35]. Female flowers are axillary and usually solitary [4,15,18,38]. They may, however, occur in fascicles with up to 20 flowers [38]. Male flowers are smaller than female flowers and are grouped in dense clusters [4,15,18,38]. Pollen is wind dispersed [15]. Drought is the strongest factor inhibiting the formation of flower buds [4,15], but cold temperatures may also reduce flowering. There is generally a burst of flowering following winter and spring rainfall [15]. Jojoba fruits are dehiscent capsules that are generally one-seeded but may contain up to three acornlike seeds [5,15,18,23,38]. The seeds are light brown to black and are large, generally 0.6 to 1.2 inches (1.5-3.0 cm) long [5,15,38]. Approximately 50 percent of jojoba seed consists of lipids [4,15,38]. Jojoba may have several taproots that develop by forking below the root crown. The maximum depth of taproots is not known, but taproots have been observed at depths of 33 feet (10 m). Horizontal root growth does not occur except where subsurface strata prevent downward growth. Shallow or subsurface feeder roots and true rhizomes are not developed [4,15]. The life span of jojoba is over 100 years and may exceed 200 years [4,5,15]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Jojoba is wind pollinated [5,7,38]. Honey bees collect large amounts of pollen but apparently do not visit female plants [5]. Plants bearing perfect hermaphroditic flowers are rarely found in certain populations. Apomyxis does not occur. Pollination and fertilization must take place to produce fruits with viable seeds [5,38]. Sex ratios in natural populations are generally equal [5]. Irrigated plants produce fruit in about 3 years, but a longer period is required before an appreciable quantity of seeds is produced by plants growing in natural populations [38]. Seed maturation is complete within 6 to 7 months of fertilization [15]. The period of flowering, the amount of fruit developed, and the quantity of seed produced is highly variable from year to year at any given location [7,15,38,50]. During 3 consecutive years at Puerto Libertad, Sonora, seed yield ranged from 0 to 448 seeds per plant [7]. Most capsules split at maturity and release seeds, but they occasionally drop before opening and slowly disintegrate on the ground. A few capsules may remain on the plant for an extended period [38]. Seeds are dispersed by animals and erosion [50]. The seeds remain viable for a long time [7,15,38]; almost 100 percent germination has been obtained from seed stored 10 to 12 years in sealed containers kept at 35 degrees Fahrenheit (1.5 deg C) [38]. The seeds may reside in the soil for many years before conditions are appropriate for germination [50]. However, in natural populations many jojoba seeds may be consumed by desert rodents. Jojoba seeds are high in energy content, large and heavy, and usually fall directly under the parent plant, all of which increase the chance for predation. Pocket gophers carry away large numbers of seeds and deposit them in caves or burrows. Although most of the seeds are consumed, some seedlings have been observed from abandoned gopher burrows [7]. However, jojoba produces cyanogenic glycosides as a defense mechanism [7,59], which may make the seeds inedible to some desert rodents [7]. Following the period of natural dispersal (August) at a site in Puerto Libertad, Sonora, the seedbank was totally depleted within 8 weeks. However, at Santa Rosa, Sonora, only a fraction of the seeds were lost to predation [7]. Seed polymorphism in jojoba is apparently an important adaptive strategy against the heterogeneity and unpredictability of the desert environment. Medium- and large-sized seeds do not have a dormant stage and germinate readily with adequate rainfall. Small seeds, however, have a dormant stage and can survive longer. Small seeds have narrower germination requirements which may allow the individual seeds to germinate only after suitable conditions are present for a longer period of time. Germination rates in one experiment were 80 percent, 67 percent, and 46 percent for large, medium, and small seeds, respectively. Seedling emergence for large- and medium-sized seeds was significantly (p<.01) higher than for small seeds. Seed size also determined seedling size. The following growth parameters were measured for jojoba seedlings 44 days after sowing [21]: Seed size Root-shoot Percent Mean emergence Leaf area (mean weight) ratio emergence time in days (cm) _______________________________________________________________________ Small (436 mg) 0.82:1.00 50.8 24.3 2.74 Medium (760 mg) 1.29:1.00 61.3 18.5 7.14 Large (941 mg) 1.35:1.00 77.1 14.1 12.22 Information on jojoba seed collection, germination, and planting techniques is available in the literature [15,38]. The critical period for jojoba survival is the seedling stage. Many years may pass without suitable conditions for germination, and years when conditions are favorable for seedling establishment are even fewer [15,61]. Most seedling mortality is caused by physical factors (such as dry soil and freezing temperatures) with predation only amounting to a small percentage of deaths [4,7]. Seedlings are very sensitive to harsh summer weather in their first year [7]. In the Tucson Mountains of Arizona, 219 recently germinated seedlings were studied from 1974 to 1984 to measure survival and growth. Seedling mortality was 88 percent, 70 percent, and 50 percent for 1-, 2-, and 3-year-old seedlings, respectively. By the end of third year only four seedlings were living, all of which were growing on "protected" sites [50]. Seedlings may be numerous with favorable precipitation, however. A heavy storm in September 1976 produced 3 inches (760 mm) of rain near Ocotillo, California, where annual precipitations is generally only 4 inches (100 mm). Later that fall jojoba seedling density was 179 seedlings per hectare [61]. More male than female seedlings survive the stress of establishment [4]. Jojoba sprouts from the root crown following damage to stems [8,15]. Thickets may develop as a result of shoot production from deep roots several feet away from the root crown [15]. Jojoba may also be propagated from softwood cuttings taken in late spring or early summer [15,38]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Within its natural range jojoba is found from sea level on the California coast to lower mountain slopes, pediments, and upper bajada sites in Arizona [4,15,38]. In the Sonoran Desert jojoba is generally restricted to sites between 2,000 and 4,000 feet (600-1200 m) elevation and is lacking over many of the plains and valleys [4,5,15]. Slopes are usually over 3 percent and often over 30 percent. Jojoba usually is more abundant on north-facing slopes than south-facing slopes in southern Arizona [4], and is significantly (p<.05) more abundant on north-facing pediments than south-facing pediments or arroyo habitats at Punta Cirio, Sonora [28,53]. Jojoba is mostly limited to well-drained, coarse desert soils such as sandy alluviums and coarse mixtures of gravels and clays. These mixtures may be derived from igneous materials such as granite and other volcanics [4,15]. Soils are usually neutral to alkaline, high in phosphorous, and subject to annual drying [15]. Calcium carbonate content may also be high, especially in areas adjacent to mountain ranges with an appreciable content of limestone or calcareous sandstone [4]. Jojoba can tolerate high levels of salinity, but its flowering capabilities may be reduced on such sites [13]. Jojoba is climatically adapted to both mesic coastal climates and continental inland deserts [38]. Growth in natural stands is linked to winter-spring rains. Jojoba is scattered in areas where annual precipitation is less than 4 inches (100 mm) [4,5,15]. In those areas, it may be restricted to sites with perennial runoff such as arroyo margins [15]. Optimal growth occurs in areas that receive more than 12 to 14 inches (300-350 mm) of rain annually [4,15]. Jojoba reaches greatest dominance and forms pure stands on rocky slopes and valleys of the mountains north and east of Phoenix, Arizona, where annual rainfall is 15 to 18 inches (380-450 mm). Populations on good sites may have over 200 jojoba plants per acre [15]. Jojoba can tolerate extreme daily temperature fluctuations. Temperatures of 109 to 114 degrees Fahrenheit (43-46 deg C) often occur at sites where jojoba is found. Mature jojoba can tolerate temperatures as low as 15 degrees Fahrenheit (-9 deg C), but leaf damage may occur. Seedlings are damaged or killed at temperatures of 15 to 26 degrees Fahrenheit (-9 to -3 deg C) [4,15]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Little information is available on the successional status of jojoba. Gentry [15] stated that jojoba is apparently unable to tolerate closed communities such as arroyo thickets, extensive creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) stands, and chaparral. It is normally found growing in full sunlight. Jojoba seedling establishment is associated with nurse plants over at least part of its range [50]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Seasonal growth and development of jojoba is generally a response to winter-spring rains. Flowers appear mostly in February and March [15], but flowering may occur anytime from December to July [23,35,38]. In the Tucson, Arizona, area jojoba has flowered as early as the first week in January. Flowering usually begins in late January with peak bloom in February. The flowering period is usually complete by late February to mid-March. Populations in the area have been observed to bloom at different times of the year in response to heavy precipitation [5]. Viable seed may develop regardless of the flowering date [38]. Deep soil moisture early in the year or previous fall is required for maximum seed development. Summer rains may help fill out maturing seeds and prolong their ripening. Seed fall is early in the season if conditions are dry and hot, but may be late and prolonged. Seed fall continues over 6 to 7 weeks. Baja California populations generally mature seed 1 to 2 months earlier than California and Arizona populations [15]. Most vegetative growth of jojoba occurs in the spring [7].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Simmondsia chinensis
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Jojoba readily sprouts from the root crown and/or following fire in desert shrub and coastal sage scrub communities [8,15,44,58]. Fire may cause jojoba to take on a thicket or clonal form where shoots develop from deep sections of the main roots [15]. Seeds may survive fire in the seedbank if the fire is not too severe, but it is not known if they germinate well on bare mineral soil. Establishment may be limited after severe fire by lack of nurse plants. Fires in the Sonoran Desert are generally rare due to widely spaced shrubs and sparse cover of grasses and perennial forbs. However, in an exceptionally wet year annual cover may be dense enough to carry fire [8,20]. These fires tend to occur at the desert shrub-desert grassland ecotone [20]. Postfire recovery in interior chaparral and coastal sage scrub communities is rapid due to the fact that most species, including jojoba, sprout from the root crown following damage. In coastal sage scrub the recovery process may take as little as 10 years [40,41]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Small shrub, adventitious-bud root crown

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Simmondsia chinensis
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Jojoba is probably top-killed by light to moderately severe fire. Even severe fire may not kill jojoba roots, which can sprout. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Jojoba was "substantially" reduced both in density and cover within 9 months following a controlled fire in June 1981 in Bulldog Canyon near Phoenix, Arizona. The prefire vegetation was classified as a littleleaf paloverde-cactus-shrub association. Jojoba showed some resistance to top-kill, and many plants sprouted vigorously after the fire. Nine months after the fire, 60 percent of jojoba plants were sprouting and 40 percent were present as adults (not top-killed by fire). On an adjacent site burned by a wildfire, all jojoba were present as sprouts in postfire years 1 and 2 [8]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Simmondsia chinensis
REFERENCES : 1. Axelrod, Daniel I. 1978. The origin of coastal sage vegetation, Alta and Baja California. American Journal of Botany. 65(10): 1117-1131. [5563] 2. Bahre, Conrad J.; Bradbury, David E. 1980. Manufacture of mescal in Sonora, Mexico. Economic Botany. 34(4): 391-400. [2978] 3. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 4. Brooks, William H. 1978. Jojoba--a North American desert shrub; its ecology, possible commercialization, & potential as an introd. into other arid regions. Journal of Arid Environments. 1: 227-236. [5162] 5. Buchmann, Stephen L. 1987. Floral biology of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), an anemophilous plant. Desert Plants. 8(3): 111-124. [5245] 6. Carlson, Kenneth D.; Knapp, Steven A.; Thompson, Anson E.; [and others]. 1992. Nature's abundant variety: new oilseed crops on the horizon. In: Yearbook of agriculture. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture: 124-133. [23001] 7. Castellanos, A. E.; Molina, F. E. 1990. Differential survivorship and establishment in Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba). Journal of Arid Environments. 19: 65-76. [14982] 8. Cave, George Harold, III. 1982. Ecological effects of fire in the upper Sonoran Desert. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University. 124 p. Thesis. [12295] 9. Conrad, C. Eugene. 1987. Common shrubs of chaparral and associated ecosystems of southern California. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-99. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 86 p. [4209] 10. Eddy, Thomas A. 1961. Foods and feeding patterns of the collared peccary in southern Arizona. Journal of Wildlife Management. 25: 248-257. [9888] 11. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 12. Felger, Richard S.; Moser, Mary Beck. 1974. Seri Indian pharmacopoeia. Economic Botany. 28: 414-436. [2767] 13. Francois, L. E. 1986. Salinity effects on four arid zone plants. Journal of Arid Environments. 11: 103-109. [3016] 14. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 15. Gentry, Howard Scott. 1958. The natural history of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and its cultural aspects. Economic Botany. 12(3): 261-295. [4917] 16. Goodwin, John G., Jr.; Hungerford, C. Roger. 1977. Habitat use by native Gambel's and scaled quail and released masked bobwhite quail in southern Arizona. Res. Pap. RM-197. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 8 p. [14970] 17. Hastings, James R.; Turner, Raymond M.; Warren, Douglas K. 1972. An atlas of some plant distributions in the Sonoran Desert. Technical Reports on the Meteorology and Climatology of Arid Regions No. 21. Tuscon, AZ: University of Arizona, Institute of Atmospheric Physics. 255 p. [10534] 18. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992] 19. Hoagland, Donald B. 1992. Feeding ecology of an insular population of the black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus) in the Gulf of California. Southwestern Naturalist. 37(3): 280-286. [19693] 20. Humphrey, Robert R. 1974. Fire in the deserts and desert grassland of North America. In: Kozlowski, T. T.; Ahlgren, C. E., eds. Fire and ecosystems. New York: Academic Press: 365-400. [14952] 21. Ismail, A. M. 1988. The ecological and agronomic role of seed polymorphism in Simmondsia chinensis. Journal of Arid Environments. 14: 35-42. [3696] 22. Jones, Qurntin; Barclay, A. S. 1972. Industrial raw materials from shrubs. In: McKell, Cyrus M.; Blaisdell, James P.; Goodin, Joe R., tech. eds. Wildland shrubs--their biology and utilization: An international symposium: Proceedings; 1971 July; Logan, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-1. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 101-108. [22754] 23. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563] 24. Krausman, Paul R.; Leopold, Bruce D. 1986. Habitat components for desert bighorn sheep in the Harquahala Mountains, Arizona. Journal of Wildlife Management. 50(3): 504-508. [2960] 25. Krausman, Paul R.; Ordway, Leonard L.; Whiting, Frank M.; Brown, William H. 1990. Nutritional compostition of desert mule deer forage in the Picacho Mountains, Arizona. Desert Plants. 10(1): 32-34. [7259] 26. Krochmal, A.; Paur, S.; Duisberg, P. 1954. Useful native plants in the American Southwestern deserts. Economic Botany. 8: 3-20. [2766] 27. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 28. Leitner, Lawrence A. 1987. Plant communities of a large arroyo at Punta Cirio, Sonora. Southwestern Naturalist. 32(1): 21-28. [1439] 29. Levin, Geoffrey A. 1988. How plants survive in the desert. Environment Southwest. Summer: 20-25. [9239] 30. Lowe, Charles H. 1964. Arizona's natural environment: Landscapes and habitats. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press. 136 p. [20736] 31. McCulloch, Clay Y. 1973. Part I: Seasonal diets of mule and white-tailed deer. In: Deer nutrition in Arizona chaparral and desert habitats. Special Report No. 3. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Game and Fish Department: 1-37. [9894] 32. Medina, Alvin L.; Betancourt, Jorge Sepulveda. 1987. Strategies for enhanced production of beef and jojoba on northern Baja California rangelands. In: Aldon, Earl F.; Gonzales Vicente, Carlos E.; Moir, William H., technical coordinators. Strategies for classification and management of native vegetation for food production in arid zones: Proceedings; 1987 October 12-16; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-150. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 190-195. [2735] 33. Miller, Gary D.; Gaud, William S. 1989. Composition and variability of desert bighorn sheep diets. Journal of Wildlife Management. 53(3): 597-606. [14429] 34. Minckley, W. L.; Clark, Thomas O. 1981. Vegetation of the Gila River Resource Area, eastern Arizona. Desert Plants. 3(3): 124-140. [10863] 35. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924] 35. Nabhan, Gary. 1979. Developing new crops is old idea in Arizona. Progressive Agriculture in Arizona. 30(3): 12-15. [11976] 37. Nichol, A. A. [revisions by Phillips, W. S.]. 1952. The natural vegetation of Arizona. Tech. Bull. 68 [revision]. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station: 189-230. [3928] 38. Nord, Eamor C.; Kadish, Amram. 1974. Simmondsia chinensis (Link) C. K. Schneid. jojoba. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 774-776. [7754] 39. Oberbauer, Thomas; Evans, Michael. 1982. The challenge of vegetation management at the local level. In: Conrad, C. Eugene; Oechel, Walter C., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the symposium on dynamics and management of Mediterranean-type ecosystems; 1981 June 22-26; San Diego, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-58. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 523-527. [6057] 40. Pase, Charles P.; Brown, David E. 1982. Interior chaparral. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 95-99. [1826] 41. Pase, Charles P.; Brown, David E. 1982. California coastalscrub. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 86-90. [1825] 42. Pinto, J. D.; Frommer, S. I.; Manweiler, S. A. 1987. The insects of jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, in natural stands and plantations in southwestern North America. Southwestern Entomologist. 12(4): 287-298. [3447] 43. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 44. Thomas, Renee L.; Anderson, Roger C. 1993. Influence of topography on stand composition in a midwestern ravine forest. American Midland Naturalist. 130(1): 1-12. [1742] 45. Roundy, Bruce A.; Dobrenz, Albert K. 1989. Herbivory and plant water status of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schn.] in the Sonoran Desert in Arizona. Journal of Arid Environments. 16: 283-291. [7865] 46. Roundy, Bruce A.; Ruyle, George B.; Dobrenz, Albert K.; [and others]. 1987. Growth, nutrient, and water status of jojoba (Simmonsia chinensis) in relation to livestock grazing. In: Provenza, Frederick D.; Flinders, Jerran T.; McArthur, E. Durant, compilers. Proceedings--symposium on plant-herbivore interactions; 1985 August 7-9; Snowbird, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-222. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 146-153. [7409] 47. Schmida, Avi; Barbour, Mitchel. 1982. A comparison of two types of Mediterranean scrub in Israel and California. In: Conrad, C. Eugene; Oechel, Walter C., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the symposium on dynamics and management of Mediterranean-type ecosystems; 1981 June 22-26; San Diego, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-58. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 100-106. [6014] 48. Scott, Norman J., Jr. 1979. The impact of grazing on wildlife, Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, Yuma County, Arizona. Final Report. Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 70 p. [23476] 49. Seegmiller, Rick F.; Krausman, Paul R.; Brown, William H.; Whiting, Frank M. 1990. Nutritional composition of desert bighorn sheep forage in the Harquahala Mountains, Arizona. Desert Plants. 10(2): 87-90. [11943] 50. Sherbrooke, Wade C. 1989. Seedling survival and growth of a Sonoran Desert shrub, jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), during the first 10 years. Southwestern Naturalist. 34(3): 421-424. [9284] 51. Simpson, B. B.; Solbrig, O. T. 1977. Introduction. In: Simpson, B. B., ed. Mesquite: Its biology in two desert ecosystems. US/IBP Synthesis 4. Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc: 1-25. [5188] 52. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 53. Stromberg, Juliet C.; Krischan, Thomas M. 1983. Vegetation structure at Punta Cirio, Sonora, Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist. 28(2): 211-214. [4335] 54. Swank, Wendell G. 1958. The mule deer in Arizona chaparral. Wildlife Bulletin No. 3. Phoenix, AZ: State of Arizona, Game and Fish Department. 109 p. [12327] 55. Urness, P. J.; McCulloch, C. Y. 1973. Part III: Nutritional value of seasonal deer diets. In: Special Report 3. Deer nutrition in Arizona chaparral and desert habitats. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Game and Fish Department: 53-68. [12223] 56. Urness, Philip J. 1973. Part II: Chemical analyses and in vitro digestibility of seasonal deer forages. In: Deer nutrition in Arizona chaparral and desert habitats. Special Report 3. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Game and Fish Department: 39-52. [93] 57. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 58. Westman, W. E.; O'Leary, J. F.; Malanson, G. P. 1981. The effects of fire intensity, aspect and substrate on post-fire growth of Californian coastal sage scrub. In: Margaris, N. S.; Mooney, H. A., eds. Components of productivity of Mediterranean climate regions--basic and applied aspects. The Hague, Netherlands: Dr W. Junk Pulishers: 151-179. [13593] 59. Wisdom, Charles S.; Gonzalez-Coloma, Azucena; Rundel, Philip W. 1987. Phytochemical constituents in a Sonoran Desert plant community. In: Provenza, Frederick D.; Flinders, Jerran T.; McArthur, E. Durant, compilers. Proceedings--symposium on plant-herbivore interactions; 1985 August 7-9; Snowbird, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-222. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 84-87. [7401] 60. Wisniak, Jaime; Zabicky, Jacob, eds, eds. 1985. Jojoba: proceedings of the sixth International Conference on jojoba and its uses; 1984 October 21-26; Beer-Sheva, Israel. Avila Beach, CA: Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev: 453 p. [25157] 61. Zedler, Paul H. 1981. Vegetation change in chaparral and desert communities in San Diego County, California. In: West, D. C.; Shugart, H. H.; Botkin, D. B., eds. Forest succession: Concepts and application. New York: Springer-Verlag: 406-430. [4241] 62. Gilbert, Henry. 1985. Quick bibliography series, jojoba: 1979 - 1985. Beltsville, MD: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library. 19 p. [25156] 63. Gilbert, Henry. 1989. Quick bibliography series, jojoba: January 1982 - March 1989. Beltsville, MD: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library. 25 p. [25155]


FEIS Home Page