Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Shepherdia argentea

Introductory

SPECIES: Shepherdia argentea
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Esser, Lora L. 1995. Shepherdia argentea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ []. ABBREVIATION : SHEARG SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : SHAR COMMON NAMES : silver buffaloberry buffaloberry thorny buffaloberry TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of silver buffaloberry is Shepherdia argentea (Pursh.) Nutt. (Elaeagnaceae) [36,47,71,87]. There are no recognized infrataxa. LIFE FORM : Tree, Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Shepherdia argentea
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Silver buffaloberry occurs from British Columbia east to Manitoba and south to California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Oklahoma [25,44,47,71,87]. Small populations occur in western Minnesota and northwestern Iowa [25,39]. Silver buffaloberry is most commonly found in the northern Great Plains [25,44]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES29 Sagebrush FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub FRES35 Pinyon-juniper FRES37 Mountain meadows FRES38 Plains grasslands FRES39 Prairie STATES : AZ CA CO ID IA KS MN MT NE NV NM ND OK OR SD UT WA WY AB BC MB SK BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 2 Cascade Mountains 3 Southern Pacific Border 4 Sierra Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont 14 Great Plains 15 Black Hills Uplift 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K011 Western ponderosa forest K016 Eastern ponderosa forest K017 Black Hills pine forest K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland K037 Mountain-mahogany-oak scrub K038 Great Basin sagebrush K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe K064 Grama-needlegrass-wheatgrass K066 Wheatgrass-needlegrass K067 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass K069 Bluestem-grama prairie K074 Bluestem prairie K081 Oak savanna K098 Northern floodplain forest SAF COVER TYPES : 63 Cottonwood 217 Aspen 220 Rocky Mountain juniper 235 Cottonwood-willow 236 Bur oak 237 Interior ponderosa pine 239 Pinyon-juniper 247 Jeffrey pine SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : 203 Riparian woodland 210 Bitterbrush 310 Needle-and-thread-blue grama 401 Basin big sagebrush 408 Other sagebrush types 411 Aspen woodland 412 Juniper-pinyon woodland 421 Chokecherry-serviceberry-rose 422 Riparian 601 Bluestem prairie 606 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass 607 Wheatgrass-needlegrass 608 Wheatgrass-grama-needlegrass 612 Sagebrush-grass 615 Wheatgrass-saltgrass-grama 704 Blue grama-western wheatgrass 706 Blue grama-sideoats grama 709 Bluestem-grama 710 Bluestem prairie 714 Grama-bluestem 735 Sideoats grama-sumac-juniper 805 Riparian HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Silver buffaloberry occurs in a variety of habitats including woodland, pinyon (Pinus spp.)-juniper (Juniperus spp.), shortgrass prairie, mixed-grass prairie, shrubland, sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), and riparian [2,4,11,33,39]. Silver buffaloberry occurs in seral communities throughout the Intermountain region. It is a riverine floodplain shrub in narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia), black cottonwood (P. trichocarpa), and willow (Salix spp.) communities of California, Colorado, and Nevada [2,43,74]. In Colorado silver buffaloberry occurs in a narrowleaf cottonwood/strapleaf willow (S. ligulifolia)-silver buffaloberry association [2]. In North Dakota silver buffaloberry is a member of the quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)/water birch (Betula occidentalis) habitat type [29]. In eastern Montana and western North and South Dakota, silver buffaloberry is an important species in woodland and riparian draws dominated by green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) [5,12,28,29,55]. Some common habitat types include green ash, green ash/chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), and green ash/western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis) [5,28,29,37]. In western Montana a silver buffaloberry community type has been described; western snowberry may form dense ecotonal thickets around silver buffaloberry stands [28]. Silver buffaloberry is an important species in native shortgrass and mixed-grass prairies of the northern Great Plains. In North Dakota silver buffaloberry is commonly found in shrub-grassland communities dominated by western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), needlegrass (Stipa spp.), blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) [17,45,75]. Silver buffaloberry occurs in little bluestem-threadleaf sedge (Carex filifolia) and creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis)/little bluestem habitat types [28,29]. In the Black Hills silver buffaloberry occurs in a bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa)/skunkbush sumac (Rhus trilobata) association [34]. In North Dakota silver buffaloberry is the dominant shrub in the little Missouri River Badlands [39]. The following publication lists silver buffaloberry as a community dominant: The vegetation of the Grand River/Cedar River, Sioux, and Ashland Districts of the Custer National Forest: a habitat type classification [28] Species not previously mentioned but commonly associated with silver buffaloberry include plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides), American elm (Ulmus americana), thinleaf alder (Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia), boxelder (Acer negundo), American plum (Prunus americana), hackberry (Celtis occidentalis), red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), Wood's rose (Rosa woodsii), Arkansas rose (R. arkansana), Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata), fringed sage (A. frigida), shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa), rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseous), black greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus), sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratense), plains muhly (Muhlenbergia cuspidata), field horsetail (Equisetum arvense), Canada wildrye (Elymus canadensis), yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis), white sweetclover (M. alba), and starry Solomon-seal (Smilacina stellata) [2,4,6,28,45,73].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Shepherdia argentea
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Silver buffaloberry is a valuable forage species for mule deer, pronghorn, and grizzly bear [11,54,75,86]. It is browsed by mule deer in Montana and constituted 15 percent of mule deer summer diets in 1969 [11]. In North Dakota silver buffaloberry is an important browse species in mule deer winter diets [39]. In the northern Great Basin, deer and elk browse silver buffaloberry [54]. In Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, silver buffaloberry fruits are eaten by sharp-tailed grouse, cedar waxwings, other passerine species, and small mammals [14,41,44,76]. In the northern Great Plains, the fruit of silver buffaloberry provides the best native winter food source for sharp-tailed grouse [15,44]. In Montana sharp-tailed grouse feed primarily on silver buffaloberry buds in the winter [76]. Silver buffaloberry is nearly worthless as livestock forage due to its thornlike twigs [39,41]. In Utah cattle and sheep make limited use of silver buffaloberry [41]. In the northern Great Basin, silver buffaloberry is fair forage for sheep [54]. Forage production under dense, thorny, monotypic stands of silver buffaloberry is low; as stands open up, forage production increases due to invasion by Kentucky bluegrass [28]. PALATABILITY : Palatability ratings for silver buffaloberry are as follows [10,85]: CO MT ND UT WY cattle poor poor poor poor poor sheep poor fair fair fair fair horses poor poor poor poor poor NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Silver buffaloberry nutritional values are rated as follows [10]: UT CO WY MT ND elk fair fair fair ---- ---- mule deer fair ---- good good good white-tailed deer ---- ---- fair fair poor pronghorn fair ---- poor poor fair upland game birds good ---- fair fair good waterfowl fair ---- poor ---- ---- small nongame birds good good fair fair good small mammals good ---- fair fair ---- Energy rating is fair and protein content is poor [31]; however, Erickson [13] stated that the protein content of silver buffaloberry is sufficient to meet maintenance requirements of sheep and cattle during the growing season. Silver buffaloberry fruit gross energy is 4.937 kcal/gram oven-dry matter and crude protein is 8.4 percent of oven-dry matter [14]. COVER VALUE : Silver buffaloberry cover values are rated as follows [10,28]: UT CO WY MT ND elk fair ---- poor good ---- mule deer fair fair good good good white-tailed deer good fair good good good pronghorn fair ---- poor ---- fair upland game birds good ---- good good good waterfowl fair ---- poor ---- ---- small nongame birds good ---- good good good small mammals ---- ---- good fair ---- In the northern Great Plains, silver buffaloberry provides nesting cover for sharp-tailed grouse and many species of passerine birds [15,17,26]. In Montana the distribution of sharp-tailed grouse increases in areas containing high densities (10-15% canopy cover) of silver buffaloberry [59]. In Montana silver buffaloberry provides thermal and hiding cover for livestock, upland game birds, small mammals, and big game [28]. In North Dakota silver buffaloberry provides bedding sites for mule deer [39]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Silver buffaloberry adapts well to disturbed or degraded sites in the Intermountain region [36,58]. It is used for multiple-row windbreaks, shelterbelts, erosion control, wildlife habitat enhancement, and land reclamation [36,44,77,85]. Nursery-grown stock readily establishes on disturbed sites and once established, silver buffaloberry is a good soil stabilizer [29]. Silver buffaloberry is used for erosion control in riparian areas in the Intermountain region [52]. In the northern Great Plains, silver buffaloberry is not recommended for shelterbelt plantings because of high winds which may uproot plants [21,22]. Silver buffaloberry is an actinorhizal pioneer species that is widely planted for land reclamation in the northern Great Plains [44]. It is used for rehabilitating mine spoils in the northern Great Plains and Utah [4,5,39,85]. Restoration of coal mine spoils increases when trickle irrigation is used for 2 years. In North Dakota this technique increased the survival rate of silver buffaloberry by 257 percent [5]. Dryland techniques for establishment of silver buffaloberry on bentonite and low-salt coal spoils was moderately successful; survival rate of silver buffaloberry at the start of the third year was 7 percent [4]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Plains Indians and pioneers preserved the fruit of silver buffaloberry and made a sauce from the berries that was eaten with bison meat [28,36,39,41,68]. Today the fruit is used to make pies, jams, and jellies [41,39,68]. Silver buffaloberry is planted as an ornamental [36,70]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : In the Black Hills silver buffaloberry has strong browsing resistance, aided by thorny branches and the ability to sprout from the root crown [85]. In Nevada silver buffaloberry decreases with grazing [43]. In the Badlands of North Dakota, three green ash draws exposed to different grazing intensities were selected to determine the effects of browsing on silver buffaloberry height. The mean height of silver buffaloberry on the lightly browsed, moderately browsed, and heavily browsed sites was 8.2 feet (2.49 m), 7.1 feet (2.17 m), and 7.3 feet (2.21 m), respectively. Both shrub- and tree-height silver buffaloberry had highest density and percent cover on moderately browsed sites [8]. Silver buffaloberry fixes nitrogen [77]. Silver buffaloberry is susceptible to leaf spot, white heart rot, and insect parasites [21,44,61]. White heart rot can lead to brittle wood and subsequent breakage of branches by wind and snow [21]. Rodents may harvest planted seeds and girdle young plants [85]. Silver buffaloberry is difficult to transplant from its native habitat [39]. For field transplanting, root cuttings will give best results [52]. At the Woodward Field Station in Oklahoma, 9-year-old silver buffaloberry transplants were 9 feet (2.7 m) tall and similar in spread to plants growing in native ranges, but were less vigorous [40]. In silver buffaloberry stands trails are established by livestock and deer which may open the stands to invasion by weedy species [28].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Shepherdia argentea
A silver buffaloberry sprout emerging from a rhizome. U.S. Forest Service photo by Janet Fryer.
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : 
Silver buffaloberry is a native, deciduous, thicket-forming small tree
or large shrub with spreading to ascending thorny aboverground branches
and belowground rhizomes [47,32,87,85].  It grows from 3.3 to 20 feet 
(1-6 m) tall [25,33,41,54]. Leaves are 0.8 to 2.0 inches (2-5 cm) long 
and 0.28 to 0.4 inch (7-10 mm) wide [25,71].  The drupelike, ovoid fruit 
is 0.16 to 0.24 inch (4-6 mm) long [36,47] and is one seeded [71].  In 
western North Dakota, rooting patterns of 323 silver buffaloberry shrubs 
were examined.  On 12-year-old silver buffaloberry shrubs that were 12 
feet (3.6 m) tall, 97 percent of the total roots were found in the first 
4 feet (1.2 m) of soil.  The longest root was 22 feet (6.6 m) long.  The 
maximum depth of root penetration was 5.8 feet (1.74 m).
Silve buffaloberry fruits. Photo © 2012 Zoya Akulova.
Silver buffaloberry has thin, exfoliating bark with shallow furrows and
flat-topped ridges [71].  

A study on relatively undisturbed sites in North Dakota showed that
silver buffaloberry stems were 1 to 32 years old, with an average age of
7.62 years [39].


RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : 
Phanerophyte

REGENERATION PROCESSES : 
Sexual:  Seed production begins at 4 to 6 years of age, with good seed
crops generally produced every 3 to 4 years [77].  The small, hard seed
shows poor and erratic germination.  The embryo is dormant; cold
stratification at 41 degrees Fahrenheit (5 deg C) for 60 to 90 days will
increase germination [66,68,77].  Seed can be stored under cold, dry
conditions in the laboratory for 11 to 15 years and retain viability
[66].  Silver buffaloberry seed with a moisture content of 13.1 percent
showed 97 percent germination after 3.5 years of storage at 41 degrees
Fahrenheit (5 deg C) [77].  Seed is disseminated primarily by animals
[77].

Vegetative:  Silver buffaloberry sprouts originate from a complex
network of underground stems and rootstocks [28,39,85].  It also sprouts
from the root crown [29].  Shrubs are interconnected for distances of up
to 20 feet (6 m).  In western North Dakota no seedlings were found in
323 silver buffaloberry shrubs examined [39].
    
SITE CHARACTERISTICS : 
Silver buffaloberry occurs in riparian areas such as wet meadows,
floodplains, terraces, and along streams, rivers, lakes, springs, and
ponds [8,32,25,30,39]. 

Silver buffaloberry grows best on moist to semiwet soils with good
drainage [28,70], but will grow in semishaded areas and on dry, exposed
hillsides [28,35,71,85,87].  It grows best on loam and sandy loam soils,
but occurs on clay, clay loam, and gravelly substrates as well
[8,17,28,70].  Silver buffaloberry is tolerant of poorly drained soils
and some flooding, but is intolerant of prolonged flooding and
permanently high water tables [28].

Elevations for silver buffaloberry are as follows:

                         feet               meters       

Arizona                     5,000              1,500      [42]
California            3,300-6,600        1,000-2,000      [36]    
Colorado              3,800-7,500        1,140-2,250      [10]
Montana               3,500-7,000        1,050-2,100      [10]
New Mexico            3,000-7,000          900-2,100      [39]
Nevada                3,500-6,500        1,050-1,950      [70]
Utah                  5,000-7,000        1,500-2,100      [10]
Wyoming               3,500-7,000        1,050-2,100      [10]


SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : 
Silver buffaloberry occurs in seral and climax communities.  It is
generally shade intolerant, but grows in some shaded areas such as
semiwooded draws [29,36,85].  In New Mexico silver buffaloberry is an
obligate riparian species [9].  In North Dakota silver buffaloberry is
a pioneer species that invades grasslands [39]; it also occurs on older
portions of streams [55].  Silver buffaloberry is a highly competitive
species except with taller woody plants such as green ash [28,85].

In the northern Great Plains, silver buffaloberry forms dense, nearly
impenetrable thickets, often exceeding 6.6 feet (2 m) [28].  Where
there is abundant moisture and deep fertile soil, silver buffaloberry
may reach tree height; where conditions are severe, silver buffaloberry
persists as a low or medium shrub [57].

In California silver buffaloberry trees have suffered much crown
dieback as a result of water diversion; many of the damaged shrubs are
now regenerating from sprouts and seeds [73].
   
SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : 
Silver buffaloberry flowering dates are as follows:

California              Apr-May       [89]
Colorado                Apr-Aug       [10]
Great Plains            May-Jun       [25]
Montana                 Apr-Jun       [77]     
Nevada                  Apr-May       [70]
North Dakota            Apr-May       [10]
Utah                    Apr-May       [10]
Wyoming                 May-July      [10]
Saskatchewan            late Apr      [33]

Fruit ripening occurs from July to September in the Great Plains, July
to August in Nevada, June to August in Montana, and in early August in
Saskatchewan [25,70,71,77].  Seed dispersal occurs from June to December
in Montana [77].  

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Shepherdia argentea
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Silver buffaloberry has fair tolerance to fire in the dormant state and sprouts from rhizomes following fire [28,85]. In North Dakota the green ash/chokecherry and boxelder/chokecherry habitat types, in which silver buffaloberry is common, are adapted to fire. When main trunks of most shrubs and trees in these habitat types are damaged by fire, the plants sprout from the root crown [30]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown Small shrub, adventitious-bud root crown

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Shepherdia argentea
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Silver buffaloberry is probably killed by severe fires. In the northern Great Plains, silver buffaloberry abundance was greatly reduced by "hot" fires in early August [37]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Silver buffaloberry sprouts from the root crown and rhizomes following fire [24,28,85]. Varying responses to fire have been reported. In northern mixed-grass prairies, silver buffaloberry percent cover decreased after spring and summer fires [45]. A 5 acre (2 ha) fire occurred in a plains cottonwood forest in Dinosaur Park, Alberta, in August 1989. In July 1990, average percent canopy cover of silver buffaloberry on burned and unburned sites was 0.0 and 0.3, respectively [53]. In North Dakota an October 1976 fire burned mixed-prairie and wooded draw plant communities. Average densities (stems/sq m) of silver buffaloberry within wooded draw transects in the summers of 1977 and 1978 were as follows [88]: 1977 1978 lower draw-burned 0.5 1.2 upper draw-burned 1.5 1.9 unburned --- 0.6 DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Uses of fire specifically for managing silver buffaloberry are not described in the literature. In the northern Great Plains prescribed fire may be useful for opening up shrub thickets or triggering sprout reproduction of remnant shrubs in failing stands [65].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Shepherdia argentea
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Wooded draws of the northern high plains: characteristics, value and restoration (North and South Dakota). Restoration & Management Notes. 4(2): 74-75. [4226] 6. Boldt, Charles E.; Uresk, Daniel W.; Severson, Kieth E. 1979. Riparian woodlands in jeopardy on Northern High Plains. In: Johnson, R. Roy; McCormick, J. Frank, technical coordinators. Strategies for protection & management of floodplain wetlands & other riparian ecosystems: Proc. of the symposium; 1978 December 11-13; Callaway Gardens, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-12. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 184-189. [4359] 7. Bormann, Bernard T. 1988. A masterful scheme: Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Arboretum Bulletin. 51(2): 10-14. [6796] 8. Butler, Jack Lee. 1983. Grazing and topographic influences on selected green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) communities in the North Dakota Badlands. Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University. 130 p. Thesis. [184] 9. Dick-Peddie, William A.; Hubbard, John P. 1977. Classification of riparian vegetation. In: Johnson, R. Roy; Jones, Dale A., technical coordinators. Importance, preservation and management of riparian habitat: a symposium: Proceedings; 1977 July 9; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-43. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 85-90. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA 22151; PB-274 582. [5338] 10. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 11. Dusek, Gary L. 1975. Range relations of mule deer and cattle in prairie habitat. Journal of Wildlife Management. 39(3): 605-616. [5938] 12. Dusek, Gary L.; Wood, Alan K.; Mackie, Richard J. 1988. Habitat use by white-tailed deer in prairie-agricultural habitat in Montana. Prairie Naturalist. 20(3): 135-142. [6801] 13. Erickson, D. O.; Barder, W. T.; Wanapat, S.; Williamson, R. L. 1981. Nutritional composition of common shrubs in North Dakota. Proceedings, North Dakota Academy of Science. 35: 4. [6454] 14. Evans, Keith E.; Dietz, Donald R. 1974. Nutritional energetics of sharp-tailed grouse during winter. Journal of Wildlife Management. 38(4): 622-629. [14152] 15. Evans, Keith E.; Probasco, George E. 1977. Wildlife of the prairies and plains. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-29. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 18 p. [14118] 16. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 17. Faanes, Craig A. 1987. Breeding birds and vegetation structure in western North Dakota wooded draws. Prairie Naturalist. 19(4): 209-220. [9764] 18. Farnsworth, Raymond B. 1975. Nitrogen fixation in shrubs. In: Stutz, Howard C., ed. Wildland shrubs: Proceedings--symposium and workshop; 1975 November 5-7; Provo, UT. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University: 32-71. [909] 19. Fessenden, R. J. 1979. Use of actinorhizal plants for land reclamation and amenity planting in the U.S.A. and Canada. In: Gordon, J. C.; Wheeler, C. T.; Perry, D. A., eds. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the management of temperate forests: Proceedings of a workshop; 1979 April 2-5; Corvallis, OR. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Forest Research Laboratory: 403-419. [4308] 20. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 21. George, Ernest J. 1953. Thirty-one-year results in growing shelterbelts on the Northern Great Plains. Circular No. 924. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 57 p. [4567] 22. George, Ernest J. 1953. Tree and shrub species for the Northern Great Plains. Circular No. 912. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 46 p. [4566] 23. Girard, Michele M.; Goetz, Harold; Bjugstad, Ardell J. 1989. Native woodland habitat types of southwestern North Dakota. Res. Pap. RM-281. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 36 p. [6319] 24. Girard, Michele M.; Goetz, Harold; Bjugstad, Ardell J. 1987. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 19(3): 189-198. [2763] 25. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603] 26. Grosz, Kevin Lee. 1988. Sharp-tailed grouse nesting and brood rearing habitat in grazed and nongrazed treatments in southcentral North Dakota. Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University. 72 p. M.S. thesis. [5491] 27. Hansen, Paul L.; Chadde, Steve W.; Pfister, Robert D. 1988. Riparian dominance types of Montana. Misc. Publ. No. 49. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station. 411 p. [5660] 28. Hansen, Paul L.; Hoffman, George R. 1988. The vegetation of the Grand River/Cedar River, Sioux, and Ashland Districts of the Custer National Forest: a habitat type classification. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-157. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 68 p. [771] 29. Hansen, Paul L.; Hoffman, George R.; Bjugstad, Ardell J. 1984. The vegetation of Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota: a habitat type classification. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-113. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 35 p. [1077] 30. Hansen, Paul; Boggs, Keith; Pfister, Robert; Joy, John. 1990. 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