Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Salix lemmonii

Introductory

SPECIES: Salix lemmonii
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Uchytil, Ronald J. 1989. Salix lemmonii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].
ABBREVIATION : SALLEM SYNONYMS : Salix austinae (Bebb) SCS PLANT CODE : SALE COMMON NAMES : Lemmon's willow Lemmon willow TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of Lemmon's willow is Salix lemmonii Bebb. [1]. It is closely related and possibly conspecific with Geyer willow (S. geyeriana) [1]. Brunsfeld and Johnson [1] reported that plants referred to in the past by numerous authorities as S. geyeriana var. meleiana differ from S. geyeriana in a number of respects and more closely match descriptions of S. lemmonii found in Idaho. Hitchcock and Cronquist [11] have stated that although S. geyeriana and S. lemmonii are obviously closely related, they should be retained as distinct species until the necessity to combine them is clearly demonstrated. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Salix lemmonii
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Lemmon's willow is found from the Sierra-Cascade region of California, north to Oregon along the eastern side of the Cascade Mountains, and east to Montana, Nevada, and Colorado [7,11]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES26 Lodgepole pine STATES : CA CO ID MT NV OR WY BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 2 Cascade Mountains 4 Sierra Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K005 Mixed conifer forest K007 Red fir forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K014 Grand fir - Douglas-fir forest K015 Western spruce - fir forest SAF COVER TYPES : 206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir 207 Red fir 210 Interior Douglas-fir 218 Lodgepole pine 243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Lemmon's willow occurs in riparian habitats, usually bordered by coniferous forests of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) or Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii); or zones of mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) [6,12]. Only one published classification scheme listing Lemmon's willow as a dominant was found: Area Classification Authority OR: Deschutes, Ochoco, riparian rzas, cts Kovalchik 1987 Fremont & Winema NFs rzas = riparian zone associations cts = community types

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Salix lemmonii
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Willows (Salix spp.) in general are a preferred food of moose and beaver; Lemmon's willow occurs in riparian habitats which these animals frequent [4,25]. Lemmon's willow also provides browse for deer and elk [12]. Information regarding the importance of Lemmon's willow to livestock is lacking. PALATABILITY : In the West, willows in general are considered to be more palatable to sheep than to cattle, but cattle may make greater use of willows because they tend to frequent riparian areas [24]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : Lemmon's willow provides cover for mammals and songbirds, and provides shade for salmonids [12]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Cuttings of Lemmon's willow can be used to revegetate disturbed riparian areas. Cuttings quickly stabilize disturbed alluvium, allowing other plants to become established. Unrooted willow stem cuttings (slips) should be planted on sites that provide sufficient moisture to start and maintain growth throughout the growing season [26]. Since willows are sensitive to both competition and shading, dense tall grasses will reduce transplant survival [20] and may need to be removed by cutting or by herbicide application [16]. Although harder to plant, rooted stock is recommended for use because it has higher survival rates [20,26]. Prerooting can be accomplished by growing cuttings under greenhouse conditions, allowing roots to grow 0.8 to 1.2 inches (2-3 cm) in length [20]. Slips should be obtained from local native stands. They should be 12 to 20 inches (30-50 cm) long and taken in the spring from dormant 2- to 4-year-old wood greater than 0.4 inch (1 cm) in diameter [20]. A 20-inch (50 cm) cutting should be planted to a depth of 12 inches (30 cm), with 8 inches (20 cm) left aboveground [20]. This deep planting allows for more rooting surface to extract soil moisture, and higher amounts of carbohydrates as stored food reserves [20,26]. If serious streambank erosion has resulted in a nearly vertical cut bank, slope reshaping may be necessary to enhance success of transplants. Reshaping may not be necessary if, through protective measures, existing vegetation is able to stabilize the site [20,26]. Under any method of revegetation, sites should be fenced to protect them from grazing and trampling. OTHER USES AND VALUES : All willows produce salicin, which chemically is closely related to acetylsalicylic acid, commonly known as aspirin. This is probably why Native Americans used various preparations from willows to treat toothache, stomach ache, diarrhea, dysentery, and dandruff [6]. Native Americans also used the stems for basketry and bow making, and the bark for tea and fabric making [4]. Lemmon's willow has been used in landscape plantings for the past 30 years in the Tahoe Basin of California and Nevada [2]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Many Lemmon's willow communities in Oregon have a long history of overuse by cattle. Plants in these disturbed stands experience loss of vigor, as shown by uneven stem age distribution, highlining, clubbing, or dead clumps. If rested for 5 to 6 years, new shoots may grow 5 to 8 feet feet (1.5-2.4 m) tall and be more resistant to damage from browsing [12]. Herbage production in these stands can be doubled if stands are rested for 2 to 3 years.

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Salix lemmonii
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Lemmon's willow is a deciduous shrub with numerous slender crooked stems arising in a loose basal cluster. It is usually about 3 to 10 feet (1-3 m) tall but may grow up to 16 feet (5 m) tall [6,7,18]. Leaves are alternate, simple, pinnately veined, entire or inconspicuously toothed, green shiny above and pale glaucous below [6,7]. Male and female flowers occur on separate plants in catkins. Staminate catkins are 0.4-0.6 inch (1-1.5 cm) long, on occur on leafy flowering branchlets up to 0.2 inch (5 mm) in length. Pistillate catkins are 0.4 to 1.6 inches (1-4 cm) long, on leafy flowering branchlets up to 0.4 inch (1 cm) long [6,7]. The capsules are pubescent. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Sexual: Lemmon's willow reproduces primarily through the dispersal of thousands of small seeds. Like other willows, it probably relies heavily on insect pollination, especially from bees. After fertilization, a capsule develops which eventually splits open during spring or summer, dispersing the numerous tiny seeds [5]. The production of large quantities of seeds ensures that some will fall on favorable sites. Seeds have a cottony down, which allows them to float long distances in wind or water. Seeds are not dormant and remain viable for only a few days. They germinate rapidly, usually within 12 to 24 hours of dispersal if a moist seedbed is reached [5]. The seeds contain significant amounts of chlorophyll, and photosynthesis generally occurs as soon as the seed is moistened. Vegetative: Lemmon's is unable to produce suckers form lateral roots but will resprout from its root crown or stem base after fire or cutting [1,10,12]. Regeneration may also occur through broken pieces of stems or roots, which are transported and deposited by floodwaters, and later sprout [27]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Lemmon's willow is a riparian species; it grows near streams and rivers on low gradient floodplains. In Idaho, it inhabits relatively dry portions of riparian zones [6]. Soils: In Idaho it is consistently found on well-drained gravelly or sandy soils, while nearby associated willows grow on wet, fine-textured or coarse-textured soils near the water table [6]. In Oregon it is found on deep, fine textured alluvium over subsurface soils of various textures ranging from silt to silty clay loam [12]. Associates: Lemmon's willow is often found with other willows such as Geyer willow, Drummond willow (Salix drummondiana), planeleaf willow (S. planifolia), and wolf willow (S. wolfii). Bog birch (Betula glandulosa) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) are also common [6,12]. Elevation: Lemmon's willow is reported to grow from low-middle to upper elevations. Elevational ranges for California and Oregon are presented below [12,19]: from 5,000 to 10,000 feet (1,524-3,048 m) in CA 4,400 to 6,300 feet (1,341-1,920 m) in OR SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Like many other willows, Lemmon's willow is probably an early seral species. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Lemmon's willow is a deciduous shrub. Its catkins emerge with, or sometimes before the leaves in the spring [7,18]. After fruits ripen, seeds are dispersed from spring to early summer [5]. It flowers from May to June in California [18].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Salix lemmonii
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Lemmon's willow generally sprouts from its root crown or stem base following fire [10,12,27]. Its numerous wind-dispersed seeds are also important in revegetating areas following fire [27]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : survivor species; on-site surviving root crown or caudex off-site colonizer; seed carried by wind; postfire years one and two off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Salix lemmonii
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Most fires kill only aboveground plant parts. However, severe fires can completely remove organic soil layers, leaving willow roots exposed and charred and thus eliminating basal sprouting [12,22,27]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Lemmon's willow generally sprout from the root crown or stem base following fire, although sometimes not until the following year [12,22,27]. It is a prolific seeder, and off-site plants are important seed sources for revegetating burned areas [27]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : "Quick hot" fires may be used to rejuvenate decadent willows and produce abundant browse for big game animals [10]. However, it may take 5 or more years for Lemmon's willow plants to attain stem heights and diameters which are resistant to browsing [12].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Salix lemmonii
REFERENCES : 1. Argus, George W. 1973. The genus Salix in Alaska and the Yukon. Publications in Botany, No. 2. Ottawa, ON: National Museums of Canada, National Museum of Natural Sciences. 279 p. [6167] 2. Barry, W. James. 1988. Some uses of riparian species in the landscape and for revegetation. In: Rieger, John P.; Williams, Bradford K., eds. Proceedings of the second native plant revegetation symposium; 1987 April 15-18; San Diego, CA. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin - Arboretum, Society of Ecological Restoration & Management: 164-168. [4111] 3. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 4. Boyd, Raymond J.; Cooperrider, Allen Y.; Lent, Peter C.; Bailey, James A. 1986. Ungulates. In: Cooperrider, Allen Y.; Boyd, Raymond J.; Stuart, Hanson R., eds. Inventory and monitoring of wildlife habitat. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Service Center: 519-564. [10856] 5. Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Salix L. willow. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 746-750. [5412] 6. Brunsfeld, Steven J.; Johnson, Frederic D. 1985. Field guide to the willows of east-central Idaho. Bulletin Number 39. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho; College of Forestry, Wildlife and Range Sciences; Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station. 82 p. [6175] 7. Dorn, Robert D. 1977. Willows of the Rocky Mountain States. Rhodora. 79: 390-429. [6000] 8. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 9. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 10. Haeussler, S.; Coates, D. 1986. Autecological characteristics of selected species that compete with conifers in British Columbia: a literature review. Land Management Report No. 33. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Forests, Information Services Branch. 180 p. [1055] 11. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1964. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 2: Salicaceae to Saxifragaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 597 p. [1166] 12. Kovalchik, Bernard L. 1987. Riparian zone associations: Deschutes, Ochoco, Fremont, and Winema National Forests. R6 ECOL TP-279-87. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 171 p. [9632] 13. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 14. Lanner, Ronald M. 1983. Trees of the Great Basin: A natural history. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. 215 p. [1401] 15. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 16. Monsen, Stephen B. 1983. Plants for revegetation of riparian sites within the Intermountain region. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Shaw, Nancy, compilers. Managing Intermountain rangelands--improvement of range and wildlife habitats: Proceedings of symposia; 1981 September 15-17; Twin Falls, ID; 1982 June 22-24; Elko, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-157. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 83-89. [9652] 17. Mozingo, Hugh N. 1987. Shrubs of the Great Basin: A natural history. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. 342 p. [1702] 18. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155] 19. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924] 20. Platts, William S.; Armour, Carl; Booth, Gordon D.; [and others]. 1987. Methods for evaluating riparian habitats with applications to management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-221. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 177 p. [6171] 21. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 22. Rowe, J. S.; Scotter, G. W. 1973. Fire in the boreal forest. Quaternary Research. 3: 444-464. [72] 23. Stickney, Peter F. 1980. Data base for post-fire succession, first 6 to 9 years, in Montana larch-fir forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-62. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 133 p. [6583] 24. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1937. Range plant handbook. Washington, DC. 532 p. [2387] 25. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240] 26. Ward, Don; Thompson, Robert; Kelly, Dennis. 1986. Willow planting guide. R-4 Hydrograph No. 54. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Range and Watershed Management. 12 p. [2936] 27. Zasada, J. 1986. Natural regeneration of trees and tall shrubs on forest sites in interior Alaska. In: Van Cleve, K.; Chapin, F. S., III; Flanagan, P. W.; [and others], eds. Forest ecosystems in the Alaska taiga: A synthesis of structure and function. New York: Springer-Verlag: 44-73. [2291]


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