Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Salix geyeriana

Introductory

SPECIES: Salix geyeriana
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Uchytil, Ronald J. 1991. Salix geyeriana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].
ABBREVIATION : SALGEY SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : SAGE2 COMMON NAMES : Geyer's willow silver willow TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of Geyer's willow is Salix geyeriana Anderss. [15,34]. Hitchcock and Cronquist [27] recognize two varieties of Geyer's willow: var. geyeriana and var. meliana Henry. However, recent research in Idaho has shown that plants designated as var. meliana more closely match descriptions of Lemmon willow (S. lemmonii) than they do Geyer's willow [9]. Proper identification can be difficult when the two species grow near each other. In Idaho, these two species are morphologically and ecologically distinct, but in areas of contact, identification is complicated by hybridization [9]. Geyer's willow may also hybridize with Sitka willow (S. sitchensis) in British Columbia [6]. LIFE FORM : Tree, Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Salix geyeriana
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Geyer's willow occurs from southern British Columbia southward in the mountains to central California, central Arizona, and southern Colorado. It is widespread in the Cascades, Sierra Nevada, and northern and central Rocky Mountains, and is found in scattered mountain ranges in southern Idaho, eastern Oregon, Nevada, northern Utah, southern Colorado, and Arizona [33,34]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES29 Sagebrush FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub FRES35 Pinyon - juniper FRES36 Mountain grasslands FRES37 Mountain meadows STATES : AZ CA CO ID MT NV OR UT WA WY BC BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 4 Sierra Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K011 Western ponderosa forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K015 Western spruce - fir forest K020 Spruce - fir - Douglas-fir forest K021 Southwestern spruce - fir forest K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland K037 Mountain-mahogany - oak scrub K052 Alpine meadows and barren K055 Sagebrush steppe K063 Foothills prairie SAF COVER TYPES : 206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir 210 Interior Douglas-fir 211 White fir 216 Blue spruce 217 Aspen 218 Lodgepole pine 237 Interior ponderosa pine 239 Pinyon - juniper SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Geyer's willow commonly dominates shrubby communities associated with lower, middle, and upper elevation mountain streams and meadows [23,30,44,54]. These communities have an "open and clumpy appearance" or an "open, corridor-like structure". Large patches of Geyer's willow form the overstory, with lesser amounts of shrubby willow species intermixed in the openings. Willow associates include Booth willow (Salix boothii), yellow willow (S. lutea), Bebb willow (S. bebbiana), planeleaf willow (S. planifolia ssp. planifolia), Drummond willow (S. drummondiana), and Lemmon willow [5,30,54]. The undergrowth is often dense, and dominated by sedges (Carex spp.), bluegrasses (Poa spp.), tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia caespitosa), bluejoint reedgrass (Calamagrostis canadensis), or mesic forbs [24,30,44,54]. Published classifications listing Geyer's willow as a dominant part of the vegetation in community types (cts), habitat types (hts), dominance types (dts), site types (sts), or riparian zone associations are presented below: Area Classification Authority e ID, w WY riparian cts Youngblood & others 1985a MT riparian dts Hansen & others 1988 e, c MT riparian cts, hts Hansen & others 1990 w-c MT wetland cts Pierce & Johnson 1986 nw MT riparian hts Boggs & others 1990 sw MT riparian sts, cts, hts Hansen & others 1989 NV riparian cts Manning & Padgett 1989 OR: Deschutes, Ochoco, Fremont & Winema NF's riparian zone assoc. Kovalchik 1987 UT, se ID riparian cts Padgett & others 1989 Unpublished theses and dissertations describing Geyer's willow communities include: Area Classification Author se OR riparian cts Evenden 1989 OR: Malheur NF riparian cts Padgett 1981 Yellowstone NP wetland cts Brichta 1986 Yellowstone NP wetland hts Mattson 1984

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Salix geyeriana
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : In the West, all classes of livestock eat willows (Salix spp.), but cattle probably consume more than others because they tend to frequent riparian areas [49]. Geyer's willow is palatable to livestock, but its importance in their diets has been infrequently reported. In southwestern Montana, Geyer's willow made up 11.2 percent of cattle summer browse [14]. Elk and moose eat Geyer's willow, especially in winter. Over a 3-year period near Jackson Hole, Wyoming, the amount of Geyer's willow leaders removed by moose browsing was 39, 47, and 25 percent, respectively [28]. Geyer's willow is also used heavily by moose in Yellowstone National Park [10,39] and in the Uinta Mountains of Utah [44], and moderately in southwestern Montana [14]. In a northwestern Montana study, elk ate moderate amounts of Geyer's willow during the winter [20]. Willows in general are preferred food and building material of beaver [1]. Willow shoots, catkins, buds, and leaves are eaten by ducks and grouse, other birds, and small mammals [2,22]. PALATABILITY : Geyer's willow is relished by livestock [51]. Livestock and wild ungulates apparently prefer Geyer's willow over Drummond willow, Wolf willow (Salix wolfii), and Booth willow [5,39]. Geyer's willow is highly palatable to moose [45], and is highly palatable to elk in northwestern Montana [20]. In Oregon, palatability of Geyer's willow to livestock, big game, and beaver is moderately high [31]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Geyer's willow stems collected in late November near Jackson Hole, Wyoming, had the following nutritional values [28]: (percent composition) crude protein ether extract crude fiber nitrogen free extract 6.84 6.23 27.22 52.69 COVER VALUE : Geyer's willow often occurs in widely spaced clumps, allowing for easy access and movement of livestock and large wildlife species [44]. In Oregon, Geyer's willow communities provide excellent habitat for deer [30]. Geyer's willow communities also provide excellent nesting and foraging habitat for a variety of birds, such as ducks and shorebirds, blackbirds, warblers, vireos, and sparrows [16,19,43]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Geyer's willow is recommended for use in revegetating disturbed riparian areas. It is especially useful for streambank stabilization. It is usually planted as rooted or unrooted stem cuttings. Geyer's willow stems contain predeveloped root primordia. Stem cuttings develop roots along the entire length of the buried portion about 10 to 15 days after planting [47]. Because it roots quickly, it may be planted as unrooted cuttings on sites with sufficient moisture throughout the growing season to start and maintain growth [38,47]. Rooted cuttings have higher survival rates than unrooted cuttings. Procedures and techniques for collecting, preparing, and planting willow cuttings are described by Platts and others [47] and McClusky and others [38]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : All willows produce salacin, which is closely related chemically to aspirin. Native Americans used various preparations from willows to treat tooth ache, stomachache, diarrhea, dysentery, and dandruff [41]. Native Americans also used flexible willow stems for making baskets, bows, arrows, scoops, fish traps, and other items [31]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Geyer's willow communities are open and easily accessible, and produce large amounts of forage. They are often heavily used by stock when nearby uplands become dry [25]. Many Geyer's willow communities have a long history of overgrazing, which has resulted in the replacement of native grasses and sedges with bluegrasses [30]. Overuse also results in soil compaction, streambank sloughing, and damage to willows and other vegetation [24]. Prolonged overbrowsing of Geyer's willow results in poor vigor and decadence, indicated by uneven stem age distribution, a hedged or clubbed appearance, and dead plants [30]. Decadent plants will recover from overbrowsing with 5 to 6 years of rest [30].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Salix geyeriana
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Geyer's willow is larger than many associated shrub willows. It grows as a large deciduous shrub or small tree sometimes up to 20 feet (6 m) tall. It is usually found in somewhat open stands, occurring as well-spaced individuals with numerous, straight, nearly erect stems arising from a tight basal cluster [9]. Male and female flowers occur on separate plants in erect catkins [6,9]. The fruit is a two-valved capsule. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Geyer's willow's primary mode of reproduction is sexual. It produces an abundance of small, light-weight seeds. Like most willows, it probably begins seed production at an early age (between 2 and 10 years) [22]. At maturity, the fruit splits open, releasing the seed. Each seed has a cottony down that aids in dispersal by wind and water [8]. Seeds are dispersed during the growing season and remain viable for only about 1 week [8]. The seeds contain significant amounts of chlorophyll, and photosynthesis generally begins as soon as the seed is moistened. Germination occurs within 24 hours of dispersal if a moist seedbed is reached [8]. Exposed mineral soils are the best seedbed [22]. Germination and/or seedling establishment is generally inhibited by litter [22]. Vegetative reproduction: Geyer's willow sprouts from the root crown or stembase if aboveground stems are broken or destroyed by cutting, flooding, or fire [22]. Detached stem fragments form adventitious roots if they remain moist. Thus portions of stems will root if buried in moist soil. This can occur when stem fragments are transported by floodwaters and deposited on fresh alluvium [3,22]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Geyer's willow grows in wet meadows and marshes, next to seeps and springs, and along the borders of low gradient streams and beaver ponds. It is often somewhat removed from a stream's edge, occurring in broad, low gradient valley bottoms. It is also frequently associated with abandoned and sediment-filled beaver ponds [54]. These riparian sites usually occur in broad montane and subalpine valleys. Adjacent uplands are dominated by Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), blue spruce (P. pungens), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), aspen (Populus tremuloides), or big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) [24,44,54]. Water relations: Geyer's willow occupies sites that range from wet to relatively dry, but it rarely grows on sites where the water table is deeper than 39 inches (1 m) [44]. Soils: Geyer's willow is usually found on deep, fine-textured mineral soils of alluvial origin. Near the surface they are often mottled and have an accumulation of organic material [44,54]. Shallow organic soils overlying alluvium may develop on wet, marshy, sedge-dominated sites [44]. Associates: On very wet sites, Geyer's willow usually has understories dominated by beaked sedge (Carex rostrata), water sedge (C. aquatilis), and/or fowl bluegrass (Poa palustris). On some of the drier sites Geyer's willow occupies, mesic forbs and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) are common. Other common understory associates include wooly sedge (Carex lanuginosa), Sitka sedge (C. sitchensis), widefruit sedge (C. eurycarpa), smallwing sedge (C. microptera), Baltic rush (Juncus balticus), bluejoint reedgrass, and tufted hairgrass [24,30,44,54]. Associated willows are identified in the Habitat Types and Plant Communities slot. Elevation: Geyer's willow is found in the mountains at moderately low to upper elevations. In Utah, Geyer's willow grows at a variety of elevations, but it is most common at lower elevations in broad valleys [44]. In Oregon, it is generally found at low to middle elevations [30], and in Montana at middle to upper elevations [23]. Elevational ranges for Geyer's willow are presented below: from 5,000 to 7,000 feet (1,525-2,134 m) in Arizona [29] from 5,000 to 10,500 feet (1,524-3,200 m) in California [42] from 4,000 to 8,000 feet (1,219-2,438 m) in east central Idaho [9] from 3,700 to 7,800 feet (1,128-2,377 m) in southwestern Montana [24] from 6,500 to 8,500 feet (1,981-2,591 m) in Nevada [36] from 3,100 to 5,900 feet (945-1,798 m) in southwestern Oregon [30] SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Geyer's willow communities usually occur in broad, open valleys and meadows with fairly constant water supplies. Communities on these sites are relatively stable and maintained by seasonal flooding and high water tables [9,44]. Geyer's willow will not grow and reproduce in shade. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Flowering dates for some western states are as follows: location month reference CA May-June [42] CO May-July [13] UT June-July [13] WY May-August [13] Geyer's willow began dispersing seeds on July 1 in east-central Oregon [43].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Salix geyeriana
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Geyer's willow sprouts from the root crown following top-kill by fire [31]. Its abundant wind-dispersed seed may be important in colonizing burned areas [31]. Fire is probably relatively infrequent in the meadow and streamside habitats Geyer's willow occupies. In fact, riparian areas frequently act as fire breaks. However, under dry conditions, riparian habitats can burn severely [12]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : survivor species; on-site surviving rootcrown or caudex off-site colonizer; seed carried by wind; postfire years 1 and 2 off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Salix geyeriana
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Plants on organic soils may be killed by severe fires which burn deep into the soil, char the roots, and prevent sprouting [55]. Less severe fires only top-kill willows. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Top-killed Geyer's willow plants sprout following fire. Quick, hot fires generally result in numerous sprouts per plant. Slow burning fires result in fewer sprouts because these fires often burn down into the roots, reducing Geyer's willow's sprouting ability [5]. There is no specific documentation of Geyer's willow seedling establishment following fire. However seedling establishment by other willows has been observed following fire on moist, mineral soils [52]. Geyer's willow seeds are dispersed in the summer, remain viable for only about 1 week, and require moist mineral soil for germination. Therefore, the degree of seedling establishment following fire depends on the season of burn, on the weather, and on the amount of mineral soil exposed [53]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Prescribed fire can be used to rejuvenate decadent Geyer's willow [5]. Following fire, 5 or more years are required before stems reach browse-resistant size [30]. Geyer's willow often occurs in wet, poorly drained marshes or swamps. These sites are difficult to burn until they become dry in the late summer or fall [30].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Salix geyeriana
REFERENCES : 1. Allen, Arthur W. 1983. Habitat suitability index models: beaver. FWS/OBS-82/10.30 (Revised). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 20 p. [11716] 2. Argus, George W. 1957. The willows of Wyoming. University of Wyoming Publications. 21(1). Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Publications in Science. 63 p. [4962] 3. Argus, George W. 1973. The genus Salix in Alaska and the Yukon. Publications in Botany, No. 2. Ottawa, ON: National Museums of Canada, National Museum of Natural Sciences. 279 p. [6167] 4. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 5. Boggs, Keith; Hansen, Paul; Pfister, Robert; Joy, John. 1990. Classification and management of riparian and wetland sites in northwestern Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, Montana Riparian Association. 217 p. Draft Version 1. [8447] 6. Brayshaw, T. Christopher. 1976. Catkin bearing plants of British Columbia. Occas. Pap. No. 18. Victoria, BC: The British Columbia Provincial Museum. 176 p. [6170] 7. Brichta, Paul Harold. 1986. Environmental relationships among wetland community types of the northern range, Yellowstone National Park. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 74 p. Thesis. [6727] 8. Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Salix L. willow. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 746-750. [5412] 9. Brunsfeld, Steven J.; Johnson, Frederic D. 1985. Field guide to the willows of east-central Idaho. Bulletin Number 39. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho; College of Forestry, Wildlife and Range Sciences; Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station. 82 p. [6175] 10. Chadde, Steve; Kay, Charles. 1988. Willows and moose: a study of grazing pressure, Slough Creek exclosure, Montana, 1961-1986. Number 24. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Range Experiment Station. 5 p. [6916] 11. Conroy, Scott D.; Svejcar, Tony J. 1991. Willow planting success as influenced by site factors and cattle grazing in northeastern California. Journal of Range Management. 44(1): 59-63. [14929] 12. Crane, Marilyn F. 1982. Fire ecology of Rocky Mountain Region forest habitat types. Final Report Contract No. 43-83X9-1-884. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Region 1. 272 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [5292] 13. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 14. Dorn, Robert D. 1970. Moose and cattle food habits in southwestern Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management. 34(3): 559-564. [6173] 15. Dorn, Robert D. 1977. Willows of the Rocky Mountain States. Rhodora. 79: 390-429. [6000] 16. Douglas, David C.; Ratti, John T. 1984. Avian habitat associations in riparian zones of the Centennial Mountains and surrounding areas, Idaho. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Department of Zoology, Wildlife Biology. 125 p. [14928] 17. Evenden, Angela G. 1989. Ecology and distribution of riparian vegetation in the Trout Creek Mountains of southeastern Oregon. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 156 p. Dissertation. [10231] 18. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 19. Finch, Deborah M. 1987. Bird-habitat relationships in subalpine riparian shrublands of the central Rocky Mountains. In: Troendle, Charles A.; Kaufmann, Merrill R.; Hamre, R. H.; Winokur, Robert P., technical coordinators. Management of subalpine forests: building on 50 years of research: Proceedings of a technical conference; 1987 July 6-9; Silver Creek, CO. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-149. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 167-172. [3475] 20. Gaffney, William S. 1941. The effects of winter elk browsing, south fork of the Flathead River, Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management. 5(4): 427-453. [5028] 21. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 22. Haeussler, S.; Coates, D. 1986. Autecological characteristics of selected species that compete with conifers in British Columbia: a literature review. Land Management Report No. 33. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Forests, Information Services Branch. 180 p. [1055] 23. Hansen, Paul L.; Chadde, Steve W.; Pfister, Robert D. 1988. Riparian dominance types of Montana. Misc. Publ. No. 49. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station. 411 p. [5660] 24. Hansen, Paul; Pfister, Robert; Joy, John; [and others]. 1989. Classification and management of riparian sites in southwestern Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Riparian Association. 292 p. Draft Version 2. [8900] 25. Hansen, Paul; Boggs, Keith; Pfister, Robert; Joy, John. 1990. Classification and management of riparian and wetland sites in central and eastern Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, Montana Riparian Association. 279 p. [12477] 26. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851] 27. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1964. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 2: Salicaceae to Saxifragaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 597 p. [1166] 28. Houston, Douglas B. 1968. The Shiras Moose in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Tech. Bull. No. 1. [Place of publication unknown]: The Grand Teton Natural History Association. 110 p. [7824] 29. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563] 30. Kovalchik, Bernard L. 1987. Riparian zone associations: Deschutes, Ochoco, Fremont, and Winema National Forests. R6 ECOL TP-279-87. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 171 p. [9632] 31. Kovalchik, Bernard L.; Hopkins, William E.; Brunsfeld, Steven J. 1988. Major indicator shrubs and herbs in riparian zones on National Forests of central Oregon. R6-ECOL-TP-005-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 159 p. [8995] 32. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 33. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1976. Atlas of United States trees. Volume 3. Minor western hardwoods. Misc. Publ. 1314. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 13 p. 290 maps. [10430] 34. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952] 35. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 36. Manning, Mary E.; Padgett, Wayne G. 1989. Preliminary riparian community type classification for Nevada. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 135 p. Preliminary draft. [11531] 37. Mattson, David John. 1984. Classification and environmental relationships of wetland vegetation in central Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 409 p. Thesis. [7348] 38. McCluskey, D. Cal; Brown, Jack; Bornholdt, Dave; [and others]. 1983. Willow planting for riparian habitat improvement. Tech. Note 363. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 21 p. [6408] 39. McMillan, John F. 1953. Some feeding habits of moose in Yellowstone Park. Ecology. 34: 102-110. [7422] 40. Medin, Dean E.; Clary, Warren P. 1990. Bird populations in and adjacent to a beaver pond ecosystem in Idaho. Res. Pap. INT-432. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 6 p. [13036] 41. Mozingo, Hugh N. 1987. Shrubs of the Great Basin: A natural history. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. 342 p. [1702] 42. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155] 43. Padgett, Wayne George. 1981. Ecology of riparian plant communities in southern Malheur National Forest. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 143 p. Thesis. [14933] 44. Padgett, Wayne G.; Youngblood, Andrew P.; Winward, Alma H. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. R4-Ecol-89-01. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 191 p. [11360] 45. Peek, J. M. 1974. A review of moose food habits studies in North America. Le Naturaliste Canadien. 101: 195-215. [7420] 46. Pierce, John; Johnson, Janet. 1986. Wetland community type classification for west-central Montana. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Region, Ecosystem Management Program. 158 p. [Review draft]. [7436] 47. Platts, William S.; Armour, Carl; Booth, Gordon D.; [and others]. 1987. Methods for evaluating riparian habitats with applications to management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-221. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 177 p. [6171] 48. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 49. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1937. Range plant handbook. Washington, DC. 532 p. [2387] 50. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 51. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240] 52. Viereck, Leslie A. 1982. Effects of fire and firelines on active layer thickness and soil temperatures in interior Alaska. In: Proceedings, 4th Canadian permafrost conference; 1981 March 2-6; Calgary, AB. The Roger J.E. Brown Memorial Volume. Ottawa, ON: National Research Council of Canada: 123-135. [7303] 53. Viereck, Leslie A.; Schandelmeier, Linda A. 1980. Effects of fire in Alaska and adjacent Canada--a literature review. BLM-Alaska Tech. Rep. 6. Anchorage, AK: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Mangement, Alaska State Office. 124 p. [7075] 54. Youngblood, Andrew P.; Padgett, Wayne G.; Winward, Alma H. 1985. Riparian community type classification of northern Utah and adjacent Idaho. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ecology and Classification Program. 104 p. [Preliminary draft]. [3054] 55. Zasada, J. 1986. Natural regeneration of trees and tall shrubs on forest sites in interior Alaska. In: Van Cleve, K.; Chapin, F. S., III; Flanagan, P. W.; [and others], eds. Forest ecosystems in the Alaska taiga: A synthesis of structure and function. New York: Springer-Verlag: 44-73. [2291]


FEIS Home Page