Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Salix fuscescens


Introductory

SPECIES: Salix fuscescens
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Salix fuscescens. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : SALFUS SYNONYMS : Salix arbutifolia Pall. SCS PLANT CODE : SAFU COMMON NAMES : Alaska bog willow TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for Alaska bog willow is Salix fuscescens Anderss. [9]. There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Salix fuscescens
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Alaska bog willow occurs throughout most of the Alaskan boreal forest except in the Aleutian Islands and the along the southeastern coast of Alaska. Outside of Alaska, its range extends from the Yukon Territory to the Hudson Bay [2,12,18] ECOSYSTEMS : FRES11 Spruce - fir STATES : AK MB NT YT BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K094 Conifer bog SAF COVER TYPES : 12 Black spruce SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : NO-ENTRY

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Salix fuscescens
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Willows (Salix spp.) are generally preferred food and building materials for beaver [1]. Willow shoots, catkins, leaves, and buds are eaten by numerous small mammals and birds [6]. Willows are a staple year-round food for moose. Moose browse on twigs in winter and consume leaves and new shoots in summer [6]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Willow stem cuttings are commonly planted for restoration of wildlife habitat, streambank protection, and the reclamation of sites disturbed by mining and construction [10,13]. Alaska bog willow is apparently well adapted for these purposes [11,14]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : All willows produce salacin, which is closely related to aspirin. Native Americans used various preparations of willows to treat toothaches, bee stings, stomach aches, and diarrhea; they used the stems for making baskets, bows, arrows, and fish and muskrat traps [8,12]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Salix fuscescens
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Alaska bog willow is a native, low-growing, much-branched, trailing deciduous shrub 4 to 12 inches (10-30 cm) tall [18]. Male and female flowers occur on separate plants in 0.75 to 1.5 inch (1.9-3.8 cm) long catkins. The fruit is a two-valved capsule [2,13,18]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Like all willows, Alaska bog willow's primary mode of reproduction is sexual. It produces an abundance of small, lightweight seed. It probably begins seed production at an early age (between 2 to 10 years). At maturity the capsular fruits split open to release the minute downy seeds that are dispersed by either wind or water [6,13]. Vegetative reproduction: Willows are prolific sprouters. Alaska bog willow sprouts from from the root crown if aboveground stems are broken or destroyed by cutting or fire [6]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Alaska bog willow commonly occurs in wet tundra, small bogs, swamps, riverbanks, and in open black spruce (Picea mariana) muskegs throughout most of the Alaskan boreal forest [2,18]. Frequent associates include alder (Alder spp.), bog birch (Betula glandulosa), balsam popular (Populus balsamifera), and numerous willows (Salix spp.) [3,7,13]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Obligate Initial Community Species Alaska bog willow is an early seral species. Like other willows it probably becomes abundant after disturbances that open the canopy and expose the mineral soil. It occurs in the early seral stages following fire in black spruce stands [18]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Alaska bog willow flowers in June; the fruits ripen in July [18].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Salix fuscescens
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Information on Alaska bog willows's ability to sprout following fire is lacking. It probably sprouts prolifically immediately after fire. Like most willows, Alaska bog willow's wind-dispersed seed are probably important in colonizing recently burned sites [6]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Small shrub, adventitious-bud root crown Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Salix fuscescens
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Low- to moderate-severity fires generally top-kill willows. Severe fire can kill willows by completely removing soil organic layers and charring the roots [19]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Like most willows, Alaska bog willow probably sprouts vigorously after fire [2,6]. Information regarding postfire establishment for Alaska bog willow is lacking. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Salix fuscescens
REFERENCES : 1. Allen, Arthur W. 1983. Habitat suitability index models: beaver. FWS/OBS-82/10.30 (Revised). Washingtion, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 20 p. [11716] 2. Argus, George W. 1973. The genus Salix in Alaska and the Yukon. Publications in Botany, No. 2. Ottowa, ON: National Museums of Canada, National Museum of Natural Sciences. 279 p. [6167] 3. Calmes, Mary A. 1976. Vegetation pattern of bottomland bogs in the Fairbanks area, Alaska. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska. 104 p. Thesis. [14785] 4. Everitt, James H.; Pettit, Russ D.; Alaniz, Mario A. 1987. Remote sensing of broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae) and spiny aster (Aster spinosus). Weed Science. 35: 295-302. [903] 5. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 6. Haeussler, S.; Coates, D.; Mather, J. 1990. Autecology of common plants in British Columbia: A literature review. Economic and Regional Development Agreement FRDA Rep. 158. Victoria, BC: Forestry Canada, Pacific Forestry Centre; British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Research Branch. 272 p. [18033] 7. Hanson, Herbert C. 1953. Vegetation types in northwestern Alaska and comparisons with communities in other arctic regions. Ecology. 34(1): 111-140. [9781] 8. Holloway, Patricia S.; Alexander, Ginny. 1990. Ethnobotany of the Fort Yukon region, Alaska. Economic Botany. 44(2): 214-225. [13625] 9. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403] 10. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 11. McKendrick, Jay D. 1987. Plant succession on disturbed sites, North Slope, Alaska, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research. 19(4): 554-565. [6077] 12. Mozingo, Hugh N. 1987. Shrubs of the Great Basin: A natural history. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. 342 p. [1702] 13. Senft, Dennis. 1983. Fire freshens rangeland. Agricultural Research. 32(3): 10-11. [2106] 14. Platts, William S.; Armour, Carl; Booth, Gordon D.; [and others]. 1987. Methods for evaluating riparian habitats with applications to management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-221. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 177 p. [6171] 15. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 16. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 17. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 18. Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. Agric. Handb. 410. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 265 p. [6884] 19. Zasada, J. 1986. Natural regeneration of trees and tall shrubs on forest sites in interior Alaska. In: Van Cleve, K.; Chapin, F. S., III; Flanagan, P. W.; [and others], eds. Forest ecosystems in the Alaska taiga: A synthesis of structure and function. New York: Springer-Verlag: 44-73. [2291]


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