Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Salix boothii


Introductory

SPECIES: Salix boothii
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Esser, Lora L. 1992. Salix boothii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : SALBOO SYNONYMS : Salix myrtillifolia Anderss. Salix pseudocordata (Anderss.) Rydb. SCS PLANT CODE : SABO2 COMMON NAMES : Booth willow TAXONOMY : The currently accepted name of Booth willow is Salix boothii Dorn [1]. There are no varieties, forms, or natural hybrids. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Salix boothii
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : In Canada, Booth willow occurs in southern British Columbia and southern Alberta. It extends south to the mountains of Montana, Wyoming Colorado, Idaho, and Utah and westward through northern Nevada to northeastern California and eastern Oregon [4,5]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES26 Lodgepole pine FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES29 Sagebrush FRES37 Mountain meadows FRES44 Alpine STATES : CA CO ID MT NV OR UT WY AB BC BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K008 Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K015 Western spruce - fir forest K038 Great Basin sagebrush K052 Alpine meadows and barren K055 Sagebrush steppe SAF COVER TYPES : 206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir 210 Interior Douglas-fir 217 Aspen 218 Lodgepole pine 220 Rocky Mountain juniper 222 Black cottonwood - willow 235 Cottonwood - willow 238 Western juniper SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Booth willow dominates or codominates early seral willow communities along riverbanks, streambanks, overflow channels, and seeps [1,12,20,34]. Published classifications describing Booth willow as a dominant or codominant in community types are listed below: Summary flora of riparian shrub communities of the Intermountain region with emphasis on willows [11]. Riparian community type classification of eastern Idaho-western Wyoming [34]. Preliminary riparian community type classification for Nevada [24]. Riparian dominance types of Montana [12]. A Riparian community classification study [33]. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho [28].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Salix boothii
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Livestock: Dense stands of Booth willow can be inaccessible to livestock. Cattle will utilize Booth willow if accessible [24,34]. Wildlife: Booth willow is an important source of browse for deer, elk, moose, and small mammals [1,2,33]. Moose utilize Booth willow stands extensively in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho [2,33,34]. Many avian species nest and feed in Booth willow stands [9,33,34]. PALATABILITY : Booth willow is highly palatable to deer, elk, beaver, and moose in eastern Oregon [19]. Booth willow is less palatable to livestock and ungulates than Geyer willow (Salix geyeriana), a frequent codominant. Palatability of willows (Salix spp.) increases as the season progresses [35]. Palatability of Booth willow to livestock and wildlife in several western states has been rated as follows [2,13,24,34]: MT NV UT WY Cattle Fair ---- ---- Fair Sheep Fair ---- ---- ---- Horses Fair ---- ---- ---- Pronghorn Fair ---- ---- ---- Elk Good Good ---- Good Moose Good ---- ---- ---- Mule deer Fair ---- ---- Fair White-tailed deer Fair ---- ---- Fair Small mammals Good ---- ---- ---- Small nongame birds Good Good Good Good Upland game birds Good ---- ---- ---- Waterfowl Fair ---- ---- ---- NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Booth willow has been rated as fair in energy value and poor in protein value [13]. COVER VALUE : Booth willow provides cover and protection for many birds and mammals. It also provides shade for fish in streams and ponds [1,11,13,24]. The degree to which Booth willow provides environmental protection for wildlife species during one or more seasons has been rated as follows [1,13,34]: MT WY ID Elk Good Good Good Mule deer Good Good Good White-tailed deer Good Good Good Small mammals Good Good Good Small nongame birds Good ---- ---- Upland game birds Good ---- ---- Waterfowl Fair ---- ---- VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Booth willow is useful in stabilizing streambanks and providing erosion control on severely disturbed sites [1,14,24]. It is valuable in revegetating disturbed riparian sites having high water tables and low elevations [24]. Booth willow is capable of colonizing a wide range of riparian sites such as rocky or gravelly sites near the water table to drier benches with deep fine-textured soils [1]. Planting willow stem cuttings has been recognized as a valuable tool for restoring riparian habitats [26]. The use of willow in rehabilitation should be emphasized [13]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : All willows produce salacin, which is closely related chemically to salicylic acid, the active ingredient in aspirin. Native Americans used the leaves of willows to treat mosquito bites, bee stings, and stomach aches and used the stems for implements such as baskets, arrow shafts, scoops, and fish traps. [1,15]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Winter willow (Salix spp.) browsing by ungulates limits seed production by (1) removing flower buds developed the previous fall; (2) stimulating the plants to increase production of vegetative growth, thereby allocating resources needed for reproductive growth to vegetative growth; and (3) limiting the size of plants, which limits the number of seeds produced. In Yellowstone National Park, ungulate browsing has almost eliminated willow seed production and, therefore, almost eliminated willow populations. Protection from browsing for at least 3 years is essential for the establishment of Booth willow [18]. Overgrazing by livestock can threaten riparian ecosystems unless management practices favor their protection [24]. Soil surfaces may be churned by livestock when moist, resulting in soil compaction, streambank sloughing, and damage to vegetation [13].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Salix boothii
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Booth willow is a native, multibranched, rounded shrub typically between 9 and 18 feet (3 and 6 m) tall [1,34]. On well-drained soils in Oregon, Booth willow is broadly rounded and has many stems, but in bogs it is dwarfed and has few stems [20]. At 10 years of age, Booth willow reaches a height of approximately 8 feet (2.5 m). Stems reach senescence between the ages of 15 and 20 years [20]. Male and female flowers occur on separate plants in 0.5- to 1.5-inch-long (1-1.5 cm), erect catkins [12]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Sexual reproduction: Booth willow is dioecious. The fruit is contained in a dehiscent capsule that releases many seeds. Seeds are dispersed by wind or water. Optimum seed production occurs between 2 and 10 years [1,14]. The seeds of Booth willow are short-lived and require newly deposited or recently scoured sand or gravel bars for germination [16]. Germination is inhibited on sites with a continuous cover of tree litter or those with indirect sunlight [3,14]. Seed germination occurs over a broad temperature range, 41 to 77 degrees Fahrenheit (5-25 deg C). This appears to be a compensatory mechanism because of the short seed life [3]. Vegetative reproduction: Booth willow sprouts readily from the root crown or basal stem. Booth willow will sprout vigorously following cutting regardless of cutting season, but vigor is more pronounced if cutting occurs during the dormant season [3,14]. Booth willow is highly tolerant of frost and flooding. One adaptation under these conditions is the formation of a soft, spongy tissue called aerenchyma. This tissue enlarges the lenticels in the stems and permits more efficient gas exchange and regeneration of roots. Growth is severely limited when water levels are maintained at or above the root crown. Adventitious rooting will occur above the flooded soil [20]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : High moisture requirements limit Booth willow to riparian and lacustrine areas, and in bottomlands with a high water table, such as wet meadows, fens, bogs, and swamps [1]. Booth willow is best represented in riparian communities within the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) zone and sagebrush/grass valley habitats. It is also found in Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanii) dominated streambottoms in the upper Douglas-fir zone [1,34]. Booth willow is a transitional species between low-middle and middle elevations and between middle and middle-high elevations [1]. It can be found intermittently in the lower subalpine zone [24,33]. Booth willow is shade intolerant and grows best in full sunlight [1,14]. Elevational range: The elevational range for Booth willow in several states is as follows [1,24,34]: Utah: 5,300 to 10,300 feet (1,615-3,140 m) Idaho: 7,400 to 8,800 feet (2,255-2,685 m) Wyoming: 5,900 to 7,800 feet (1,800-2,380 m) Nevada: 5,800 to 8,300 feet (1,770-2,532 m) Soils: Booth willow is usually found on moist sandy or gravelly soils but is adapted to a wide variety of soil textures [12,24]. The general soil pH range for willows is 5.5 to 7.5. Booth willow will tolerate moderately alkaline soils but does poorly in strongly acidic or alkaline conditions [14]. Growth of Booth willow is severely reduced when water levels are maintained at or above the root crown for extended periods. Plant associates: Booth willow is commonly associated with the following species: Geyer willow, Drummond willow (Salix drummondiana), thinleaf alder (Alnus tenuifolia), redosier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), water birch (Betula occidentalis), beaked sedge (Carex rostrata), water sedge (C. aquatilis), bluejoint reedgrass (Calamagrostis canadensis), mountain big sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata ssp. vaseyana), bearberry honeysuckle (Lonicera involucrata), wood's rose (Rosa woodsii), false-Solomons-seal (Smilacina stellata), field horsetail (Equisetum arvense), bluegrass (Poa spp.), and sweet scented bedstraw (Gallium triflorum) [1,2,12,24,34]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Obligate Initial Community Species Booth willow is found in early to mid seral plant communities. It is a pioneer species on recent alluvial deposits and on recently disturbed sites [34]. In Montana, the successional trend on former beaver ponds or stream channels is from open water to beaked sedge or water sedge communities to eventual codominance by Booth willow and other willow species. If the stand dries out, Booth willow will be replaced by species better adapted to more xeric conditions [12]. Booth willow has low shade tolerance and therefore loses dominance on sites that are heavily forested or succeeded by more shade-tolerant species [14]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Booth willow flowers in late spring or midsummer, from May to June. The fruit ripens soon after plant flowering, followed by seed dispersal in late July and early August [14,35].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Salix boothii
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Booth willow is a fire-tolerant shrub. It sprouts readily from the root and root crown following top-kill by fire, especially in wetter stands [13,22]. It produces numerous, minute seeds that are dispersed by wind, and are important in colonizing recently burned areas [14]. Slow-moving fires are more damaging to the roots and root crown of Booth willow than are quick, hot fires; therefore the latter result in more sprouts [13]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Small shrub, adventitious-bud root crown Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community) Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Salix boothii
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Light to moderate fires top-kill Booth willow. Severe fires can kill willows completely by removing soil organic layers and charring the roots [14]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Booth willow is a fire-tolerant shrub that has a short postfire regeneration period [19]. Its seeds need a nutrient-rich mineral seedbed to germinate. The chance of Booth willow establishing after a fire lessens as available mineral soil seedbeds become occupied by faster growing herbaceous species and mosses [3]. Fire severity affects the mode of willow postfire recovery. Following light-severity fires most willows recover quickly, sending up new shoots from undamaged root crowns. Few, if any , seedlings establish following this type of fire because the partially consumed organic soil layers comprise an unfavorable seedbed. Following severe fire, however, the primary mode of recovery is seedling establishment. Severe fires that burn into organic soils kill willows, but expose mineral soils which provide excellent seedbeds [35]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Prescribed burning of Booth willow stands is an effective method of rejuvenating decadent clumps and stimulating sprouting [25]. Fires increase the amount of browse available for herbivores because browse species such as willow proliferate in early postfire succession [14].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Salix boothii
REFERENCES : 1. Brunsfeld, Steven J.; Johnson, Frederic D. 1985. Field guide to the willows of east-central Idaho. Bulletin Number 39. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho; College of Forestry, Wildlife and Range Sciences; Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station. 82 p. [6175] 2. Chadde, Steve; Kay, Charles. 1988. Willows and moose: a study of grazing pressure, Slough Creek exclosure, Montana, 1961-1986. Number 24. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Range Experiment Station. 5 p. [6916] 3. Densmore, Roseann; Zasada, John. 1983. Seed dispersal and dormancy patterns in northern willows: ecological and evolutionary significance. Canadian Journal of Botany. 61: 3207-3216. [5027] 4. Dorn, Robert D. 1975. A systematic study of Salix section Cordatae in North America. Canadian Journal of Botany. 53: 1491-1522. [5339] 5. Dorn, Robert D. 1977. Willows of the Rocky Mountain States. Rhodora. 79: 390-429. [6000] 6. Dorn, Robert D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 276 p. [819] 7. Dorn, Robert D. 1988. Vascular plants of Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 340 p. [6129] 8. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 9. Finch, Deborah M. 1987. Bird-habitat relationships in subalpine riparian shrublands of the central Rocky Mountains. In: Troendle, Charles A.; Kaufmann, Merrill R.; Hamre, R. H.; Winokur, Robert P., technical coordinators. Management of subalpine forests: building on 50 years of research: Proceedings of a technical conference; 1987 July 6-9; Silver Creek, CO. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-149. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 167-172. [3475] 10. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 11. Goodrich, Sherel. 1992. Summary flora of riparian shrub communities of the Intermountain region with emphasis on willows. In: Clary, Warren P.; McArthur, E. Durant; Bedunah, Don; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on ecology and management of riparian shrub communities; 1991 May 29-31; Sun Valley, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-289. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 62-67. [19097] 12. Hansen, Paul L.; Chadde, Steve W.; Pfister, Robert D. 1988. Riparian dominance types of Montana. Misc. Publ. No. 49. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station. 411 p. [5660] 13. Hansen, Paul; Pfister, Robert; Joy, John; [and others]. 1989. Classification and management of riparian sites in southwestern Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Riparian Association. 292 p. Draft Version 2. [8900] 14. Haeussler, S.; Coates, D.; Mather, J. 1990. Autecology of common plants in British Columbia: A literature review. Economic and Regional Development Agreement FRDA Rep. 158. Victoria, BC: Forestry Canada, Pacific Forestry Centre; British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Research Branch. 272 p. [18033] 15. Holloway, Patricia S.; Alexander, Ginny. 1990. Ethnobotany of the Fort Yukon region, Alaska. Economic Botany. 44(2): 214-225. [13625] 16. Hudak, Howard G.; Ketcheson, Gary L. 1992. Willow community types as influenced by valley bottom and stream types. In: Clary, Warren P.; McArthur, E. Durant; Bedunah, Don; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on ecology and management of riparian shrub communities; 1991 May 29-31; Sun Valley, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-289. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 16-17. [19089] 17. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954] 18. Kay, Charles E.; Chadde, Steve. 1992. Reduction of willow seed production by ungulate browsing in Yellowstone National Park. In: Clary, Warren P.; McArthur, E. Durant; Bedunah, Don; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on ecology and management of riparian shrub communities; 1991 May 29-31; Sun Valley, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-289. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 92-99. [19102] 19. Kovalchik, Bernard L.; Hopkins, William E.; Brunsfeld, Steven J. 1988. Major indicator shrubs and herbs in riparian zones on National Forests of central Oregon. R6-ECOL-TP-005-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 159 p. [8995] 20. Kovalchik, Bernard L. 1992. Growth and yield of willows in central Oregon compared to reports in world literature. In: Clary, Warren P.; McArthur, E. Durant; Bedunah, Don; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on ecology and management of riparian shrub communities; 1991 May 29-31; Sun Valley, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-289. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 83-88. [19100] 21. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 22. Lutz, H. J. 1956. Ecological effects of forest fires in the interior of Alaska. Tech. Bull. No. 1133. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 121 p. [7653] 23. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 24. Manning, Mary E.; Padgett, Wayne G. 1989. Preliminary riparian community type classification for Nevada. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 135 p. Preliminary draft. [11531] 25. Manning, M. E.; Padgett, W. G. 1992. Distribution of willows on forest lands of Nevada and eastern California. In: Clary, Warren P.; McArthur, E. Durant; Bedunah, Don; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on ecology and management of riparian shrub communities; 1991 May 29-31; Sun Valley, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-289. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 11-15. [19088] 26. McCluskey, D. Cal; Brown, Jack; Bornholdt, Dave; [and others]. 1983. Willow planting for riparian habitat improvement. Tech. Note 363. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 21 p. [6408] 27. Myers, Lewis H. 1987. Montana BLM riparian inventory and monitoring. Riparian Tech. Bull. No. 1. Billings, MT: U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Montana State Office. 38 p. [3891] 28. Padgett, Wayne G.; Youngblood, Andrew P.; Winward, Alma H. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. R4-Ecol-89-01. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 191 p. [11360] 29. Platts, William S.; Armour, Carl; Booth, Gordon D.; [and others]. 1987. Methods for evaluating riparian habitats with applications to management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-221. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 177 p. [6171] 30. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 31. Schopmeyer, C. S., tech. coord. 1974. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 883 p. [2088] 32. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 33. Young, Richard P., compiler. 1980. A riparian community classification study. Cooperative project between Utah State University and the U.S. Forest Service, Region IV. Final Report. Logan, UT: Utah State University, Department of Range Science. 77 p. [11734] 34. Youngblood, Andrew P.; Padgett, Wayne G.; Winward, Alma H. 1985. Riparian community type classification of eastern Idaho - western Wyoming. R4-Ecol-85-01. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 78 p. [2686] 35. Zasada, J. C.; Viereck, L. A. 1975. The effect of temperature and stratification on germination on selected members of Salicaceae in interior Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 5(2): 333-337. [6989]


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