Rosa woodsii



INTRODUCTORY


 

Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College


AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION:
Hauser, A. Scott 2006. Rosa woodsii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

FEIS ABBREVIATION:
ROSWOO

SYNONYMS:
Rosa ultramontana (S. Wats.) Heller [103]
     =R. w. var. ultramontana 
Rosa woodsii var. granulifera (Rydb.) [150]
     =R. w. var. ultramontana 
Rosa woodsii
var. arizonica (Rydb.) [150]
     =R. w. var. ultramontana
Rosa arizonica
Rydb. [127]
     =R. w. var. ultramontana 
Rosa woodsii
Lindl. var. fendleri (Crepin) Rydb. [150]
     =R. w. var. woodsii
Rosa woodsii var. hypoleuca (Woot. & Standl.) [150]
     =R. w. var. woodsii
Rosa woodsii var macounii (Greene) [150]
     =R. w. var. woodsii
Rosa woodsii var. neomexicana (Cockll.) [150]
     =R. w. var. woodsii
Rosa woodsii var. adenosepala (Woot. & Standl.) [150]
     =R. w. var. woodsii
Rosa fendleri Crepin [127]
     =R. w. var. woodsii
Rosa neomexicana Cockerell [127]
     =R. w. var. woodsii

NRCS PLANT CODE [221]:
ROWO
ROWOG
ROWOG2
ROWOU
ROWOW

COMMON NAMES:
Wood's rose
mountain rose
interior rose
Fendler rose
wild rose
Tehachapi rose

TAXONOMY:
The currently accepted scientific name of Wood's rose is Rosa woodsii Lindl. (Rosaceae) [4,58,66,67,68,90,92,107,110,111,114,123,124,135,136,166,181,203,223,225,234,238]. There are 4 accepted varieties:

Rosa woodsii Lindl. var. glabrata (Parish) Cole [123]
Rosa woodsii Lindl. var. gratissima (Greene) Cole [123,124], Tehachapi rose
Rosa woodsii Lindl. var. ultramontana (S. Wats.) Jepson [107,110,111,123,124,238], interior rose
Rosa woodsii var. woodsii Lindl. [110,111,114,121,123]

Throughout this review Wood's rose refers to the species as a whole. When the review cites literature that distinguishes varieties, R. w. var. glabrata and R. w. var. woodsii will be referred to by their scientific names, and R. w. var. gratissima (Tehachapi rose) and R. w. var. ultramontana (interior rose) will be referred to by their common names.

LIFE FORM:
Shrub

FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
No special status

OTHER STATUS:
Information on state-level protected status of plants in the United States is available at Plants Database.


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Rosa woodsii
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION:
Wood's rose has a contiguous distribution. It occurs from California north to Alaska, east to Ontario, and south to Wisconsin and Texas [4,58,66,67,68,90,92,107,110,111,114,123,124,135, 136,166,181,203,223,225,234,238]. Rosa woodsii var. glabrata is found in California [123]. Tehachapi rose occurs in California and Nevada [123,124]. Interior rose occurs from California north to British Columbia, east to Saskatchewan, and south to New Mexico [107,110,111,123,124,238]. Rosa woodsii var. woodsii occurs from Arizona north to Alaska, east to Ontario, and south Wisconsin and Texas [110,111,114,121,123]. Plants Database provides a distributional map of Wood's rose and its infrataxa.

ECOSYSTEMS [87]:
FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood
FRES19 Aspen-birch
FRES20 Douglas-fir
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES22 Western white pine
FRES23 Fir-spruce
FRES24 Hemlock-Sitka spruce
FRES25 Larch
FRES26 Lodgepole pine
FRES27 Redwood
FRES28 Western hardwoods
FRES29 Sagebrush
FRES31 Shinnery
FRES32 Texas savanna
FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe
FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub
FRES35 Pinyon-juniper
FRES36 Mountain grasslands
FRES37 Mountain meadows
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES39 Prairie
FRES40 Desert grasslands
FRES44 Alpine

STATES/PROVINCES: (key to state/province abbreviations)
UNITED STATES
AK AZ CA CO ID IA KS
MN MT NE NV NM ND OK
OR SD TX UT WA WI WY

CANADA
AB BC MB NT NU ON SK
YK

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [26]:
1 Northern Pacific Border
2 Cascade mountains
3 Southern Pacific Border
4 Sierra mountains
5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
7 Lower Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky mountains
9 Middle Rocky mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

KUCHLER [134] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:
K001 Spruce-cedar-hemlock forest
K002 Cedar-hemlock-Douglas-fir forest
K003 Silver fir-Douglas-fir forest
K004 Fir-hemlock forest
K005 Mixed conifer forest
K006 Redwood forest
K007 Red fir forest
K008 Lodgepole pine-subalpine forest
K009 Pine-cypress forest
K010 Ponderosa shrub forest
K011 Western ponderosa forest
K012 Douglas-fir forest
K013 Cedar-hemlock-pine forest
K014 Grand fir-Douglas-fir forest
K015 Western spruce-fir forest
K016 Eastern ponderosa forest
K017 Black Hills pine forest
K018 Pine-Douglas-fir forest
K019 Arizona pine forest
K020 Spruce-fir-Douglas-fir forest
K021 Southwestern spruce-fir forest
K022 Great Basin pine forest
K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland
K024 Juniper steppe woodland
K025 Alder-ash forest
K026 Oregon oakwoods
K027 Mesquite bosques
K028 Mosaic of K002 and K026
K029 California mixed evergreen forest
K030 California oakwoods
K031 Oak-juniper woodland
K032 Transition between K031 and K037
K033 Chaparral
K034 Montane chaparral
K037 Mountain-mahogany-oak scrub
K038 Great Basin sagebrush
K050 Fescue-wheatgrass
K051 Wheatgrass-bluegrass
K052 Alpine meadows and barren
K053 Grama-galleta steppe
K054 Grama-tobosa prairie
K055 Sagebrush steppe
K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe
K057 Galleta-threeawn shrubsteppe
K058 Grama-tobosa shrubsteppe
K059 Trans-Pecos shrub savanna
K063 Foothills prairie
K064 Grama-needlegrass-wheatgrass
K065 Grama-buffalo grass
K066 Wheatgrass-needlegrass
K067 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass
K068 Wheatgrass-grama-buffalo grass
K069 Bluestem-grama prairie
K070 Sandsage-bluestem prairie
K071 Shinnery
K074 Bluestem prairie
K075 Nebraska Sandhills prairie
K081 Oak savanna
K085 Mesquite-buffalo grass
K086 Juniper-oak savanna
K088 Fayette prairie
K098 Northern floodplain forest
K100 Oak-hickory forest
K106 Northern hardwoods
K107 Northern hardwoods-fir forest

SAF COVER TYPES [80]:
16 Aspen
63 Cottonwood
67 Mohrs (shin) oak
201 White spruce
202 White spruce-paper birch
204 Black spruce
205 Mountain hemlock
206 Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir
207 Red fir
208 Whitebark pine
210 Interior Douglas-fir
211 White fir
212 Western larch
213 Grand fir
215 Western white pine
216 Blue spruce
217 Aspen
218 Lodgepole pine
219 Limber pine
220 Rocky Mountain juniper
221 Red alder
222 Black cottonwood-willow
223 Sitka spruce
224 Western hemlock
225 Western hemlock-Sitka spruce
226 Coastal true fir-hemlock
227 Western redcedar-western hemlock
228 Western redcedar
229 Pacific Douglas-fir
230 Douglas-fir-western hemlock
231 Port-Orford-cedar
232 Redwood
233 Oregon white oak
235 Cottonwood-willow
237 Interior ponderosa pine
238 Western juniper
239 Pinyon-juniper
240 Arizona cypress
241 Western live oak
243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer
244 Pacific ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir
245 Pacific ponderosa pine
246 California black oak
251 White spruce-aspen
253 Black spruce-white spruce
254 Black spruce-paper birch
256 California mixed subalpine

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [200]:
101 Bluebunch wheatgrass
102 Idaho fescue
104 Antelope bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
105 Antelope bitterbrush-Idaho fescue
106 Bluegrass scabland
107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass
108 Alpine Idaho fescue
109 Ponderosa pine shrubland
110 Ponderosa pine-grassland
203 Riparian woodland
207 Scrub oak mixed chaparral
209 Montane shrubland
210 Bitterbrush
213 Alpine grassland
216 Montane meadows
301 Bluebunch wheatgrass-blue grama
303 Bluebunch wheatgrass-western wheatgrass
304 Idaho fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass
308 Idaho fescue-tufted hairgrass
309 Idaho fescue-western wheatgrass
310 Needle-and-thread-blue grama
311 Rough fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass
312 Rough fescue-Idaho fescue
314 Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
315 Big sagebrush-Idaho fescue
316 Big sagebrush-rough fescue
317 Bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
318 Bitterbrush-Idaho fescue
319 Bitterbrush-rough fescue
320 Black sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
321 Black sagebrush-Idaho fescue
322 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany-bluebunch wheatgrass
324 Threetip sagebrush-Idaho fescue
401 Basin big sagebrush
402 Mountain big sagebrush
403 Wyoming big sagebrush
404 Threetip sagebrush
405 Black sagebrush
406 Low sagebrush
407 Stiff sagebrush
408 Other sagebrush types
409 Tall forb
410 Alpine rangeland
411 Aspen woodland
412 Juniper-pinyon woodland
413 Gambel oak
415 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany
419 Bittercherry
420 Snowbrush
421 Chokecherry-serviceberry-rose
422 Riparian
502 Grama-galleta
503 Arizona chaparral
504 Juniper-pinyon pine woodland
505 Grama-tobosa shrub
509 Transition between oak-juniper woodland and mahogany-oak association
602 Bluestem-prairie sandreed
603 Prairie sandreed-needlegrass
605 Sandsage prairie
606 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass
607 Wheatgrass-needlegrass
608 Wheatgrass-grama-needlegrass
609 Wheatgrass-grama
610 Wheatgrass
611 Blue grama-buffalo grass
612 Sagebrush-grass
613 Fescue grassland
614 Crested wheatgrass
704 Blue grama-western wheatgrass
715 Grama-buffalo grass
733 Juniper-oak
735 Sideoats grama-sumac-juniper
805 Riparian
ALASKAN RANGELANDS
901 Alder
908 Fescue
920 White spruce-paper birch
921 Willow

HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES:
Wood's rose is described as a dominant species in the following locations and vegetation classifications:

United States
CA:
Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains (codominant with black cottonwood (Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa)) [102]

CO:
East River Valley (monotypic) [138]

ID:
Riparian areas in the eastern part of the state (monotypic) [96]
Riparian reference areas (codominant with white alder (Alnus rhombifolia), black cottonwood, yellow willow (Salix lutea) and monotypic communities) [117]
Teton Creek Mitigation Site (codominant with Douglas hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii)) [117]
Hixon Sharptail (codominant with Douglas hawthorn) [117]
Lower Little Wood River (codominant with narrowleaf willow (S. exigua)) [117]

MT:
Temporarily flooded cold-deciduous shrubland (monotypic) [193]
Lower Yellowstone River (codominant with western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis)) [29]
Riparian/wetlands sites in the northwestern part of the state (monotypic) [30]
Low to mid-elevation riparian sites throughout the state (monotypic) [99]
Pryor Mountains (monotypic) [152]

ND:
Little Missouri River (codominant with green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and western snowberry) [88].

NM:
Pecos and Rio Grande basins (codominant with blue spruce (Picea pungens) and thinleaf alder (A. incana ssp. tenuifolia)) [167]

NV:
Mill Creek (codominant with arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis) and basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata)) [28]
Toiyabe, Santa Rosa, East Humboldt, White Pine, and Schell Creek ranges (codominant with quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)) [148,149]
Ruby and Spring mountains and Toiyabe, Monitor, White Pine, and Grant ranges (codominant with black cottonwood, narrowleaf cottonwood (P. angustifolia), and lanceleaf cottonwood (Populus acuminata)) [148,149]
Jarbridge, Mahogany, and Toiyabe ranges (codominant with Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis)) [148]
Monitor and Toiyabe ranges (codominant with blueberry willow (S. myrtillifolia)) [148]
Independence and Toiyabe ranges (codominant with narrowleaf willow) [148]
East Humboldt, Independence, Jarbridge, and Toiyabe ranges (codominant with willows (Salix ssp.)) [148,149]
White Pine, Grant-Canyon, Schell Creek, Carson, Toiyabe ranges and Jarbridge and Spring mountains (monotypic) [149]
Schell Creek Range (codominant with chokecherry (Prunus virginiana)) [149]
Sweetwater, Santa Rosa, Toiyabe, Monitor, Mahogany, East Humboldt, Jarbridge, Wildhorse, Schell Creek, and White Pine ranges (codominant with yellow willow) [149]
Monitor, Toiyabe, Santa Rosa, and White Pine ranges and Bald and Independence mountains (codominant with narrowleaf willow) [149]
Quinn-Canyon, Grant, and Santa Rosa ranges and Spring Mountains (codominant with arroyo willow) [149]
Great Basin National Park (codominant with Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), chokecherry, and water birch (Betula occidentalis)) [202]

OR:
Trout Creek Mountains (monotypic communities and communities codominant with Pacific willow (S. lucida ssp. lasiandra), gray alder (Alnus incana), yellow willow, quaking aspen, and Kentucky bluegrass) [78]
Catherine Creek (codominant with common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), Kentucky bluegrass, interior ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum), and black cottonwood) [126]

SD:
Black Hills (codominant with oak-sumac (Quercus-Rhus ssp.) associations) [104]
Black Hills and Bear Lodge mountains (codominant with quaking aspen, Kentucky bluegrass, and white clover (Trifolium repens)) [197]

UT:
Abajo and LaSal mountains (codominant with narrowleaf cottonwood) [175]

WY:
Great Plains montane or boreal cold-deciduous forest (codominant with quaking aspen) [193]
Bighorn River riparian zone (codominant with skunkbush sumac (R. trilobata) and western snowberry) [2]
Black Hills (codominant with quaking aspen) [50]

Canada
SK:
Temporarily flooded cold-deciduous shrubland (monotypic) [193]
Matador Research Station (codominant with western snowberry, prickly rose (Rosa acicularis), northern bedstraw (Galium boreale), and green needlegrass (Nassella viridula)) [140]


BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Rosa woodsii
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
This description provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g. [4,58,90,92,110,111,124,135,136,168,169,181,203,223,225,238]).

Wood's rose is a native perennial shrub, usually forming dense thickets [203,211,223,236]. Wood's rose grows to a height of 3 to 10 feet (1-3 m) [4,92,136,223,238] and attains maximum height within 10 years from initiation of growth [95]. Rosa woodsii var. woodsii grows to a height no greater than 3 feet (1 m) [110,111]. The stems of Wood's rose are covered with curved thorns from 3 to 6 mm long [110,211,223]. Wood's rose leaves are alternate [223,238], 0.5 to 5 inches (1.5-13 cm) long, and 0.1 to 1 inch (0.4-2.5 cm) wide [223,238]. Each leaf is composed of 5 to 9 leaflets up to 2 inches (5 cm) long and 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide [110,136,223]. The leaflets of Tehachapi rose and R. w. var. woodsii are generally smaller, from 0.4 to 0.8 inch (1-2 cm) long [110,111,124].

The inflorescence of Wood's rose is few-flowered and may be solitary [90,211,238]. Wood's rose flowers are 5-petaled, 0.5 to 0.75 inch (1.5-2 cm) long [90,223,238]. Wood's rose hips occur in clusters [90,238] and are 0.25 to 0.5 inch (0.75-1.5 cm) long and wide [110,223]. The fruits of Wood's rose are achenes contained within the rose hip [92,110,211]. Each rose hip contains from 15 to 35 achenes [92,110,211] which are approximately 3 to 4 mm long [211,223] and weigh roughly 9.0 mg [161].

While the root crown of Wood's rose is relatively shallow [95,100,199], root points reach deep into the soil [147,171]. The rooting depth of Wood's rose was studied in the Lubrecht Experimental Forest, 30 miles (48 km) northeast of Missoula, Montana. Two sites were chosen, both of which were dominated by interior ponderosa pine and Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca). Site 1 was also codominated by western larch (Larix occidentalis). Both sites 1 and 2 are modal Gray Wooded soils characterized by a leached A2 horizon overlying a strongly alluviated B2t horizon. At site 1, Wood's rose roots reached a depth of at least 4 feet (1.2 m), but did not reach to 5 feet (1.5 m). At site 2, Wood's rose roots reached a depth of 6 feet (1.8 m) [171]. On the western foothills of the Teton Mountains near Victor, Idaho, Wood's rose shrubs root to a depth of 3 feet (1 m) or greater [147].

In western U.S. arid and semiarid riparian areas, interior rose is intermediately tolerant of seasonal flooding. Intermediately tolerant is defined as "species which are able to survive flooding for periods between 1 to 3 months during the growing season. The root systems of these plants may produce few new roots or will be dormant during the flooded period" [232].

RAUNKIAER [184] LIFE FORM:
Phanerophyte

REGENERATION PROCESSES:
Wood's rose regenerates via seeds and vegetatively from the root crown [95,116,227,236], by root suckering [78], and layering [236].

Pollination: Wood's rose is pollinated by insects [161].

Breeding system: Wood's rose has perfect flowers and a monoecious breeding system [161,203,211].

Seed production: Wood's roses first flower and produce seeds when they are 2 to 5 years old. Good seed crops generally occur every 1 to 2 years [95,199,236]. In North Dakota, 1 Wood's rose stem produced approximately 200 seeds [205].

Seed dispersal: The seeds of Wood's rose are primarily dispersed by birds and mammals [30,95].

In a controlled study, Wood's rose seeds fed to cattle had the highest rate of recovery (86%) and viability (77.4%) of 7 species following digestion and secretion. The other species were common snowberry, purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea), western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), green needlegrass, upright prairie coneflower (Ratibida columnifera), and bird's-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) [69].

Wood's rose seeds are dispersed by water on the North Fork of the Cache La Poudre River and South Boulder Creek, Colorado. Seed catchments were put in place from June to August on the North Fork and from May to August on South Boulder Creek, both of which are dammed. On the North Fork, upstream and downstream from the dam, 2.0% and 1.0%, respectively, of all seeds collected were from the family Rosaceae (including Wood's rose). On South Boulder Creek, upstream and downstream from the dam, 1.0% and 1.0%, respectively, of all seeds collected were from the family Rosaceae [160].

Seed banking: Wood's rose forms a seed bank [95] and seeds remain viable for 16 or more years in the field [122,198].

Germination: Wood's rose seeds require scarification and/or stratification for germination to occur [95]. A germination study by a commercial nursery in Canada found that an alternating warm/cold stratification method produced the best germination rate. Wood's rose seeds were warm stratified at 68 F (20 C) for 60 days, followed by 90 days at 37 F (3 C) which produced a 45% germination rate [145]. In another study an identical warm/cold stratification method was used and produced a germination rate of 49% [161]. Shaw [198] claims that Wood's rose seeds cold, dry stratified at 32 F to 50 F (0-10 C) for 30 to 365 days can produce a germination rate of 70%.

Seedling establishment/growth: Wood's rose seedlings and plants 2 to 3 years old grow "slowly" [81].

Asexual regeneration: Wood's rose sprouts from the root crown [95,116,227,236], produces root suckers [78], and regenerates by layering [236]. Langenheim [138] suggests that Wood's rose spreads by rhizomes, but this is not supported by more recent literature.

SITE CHARACTERISTICS:
Wood's rose prefers south-facing slopes [174]. It occurs on dry slopes [114], streambanks [25,47,78,92,99,124,219,238], open woods [124], hillsides [124], washes [124], waterways [90], irrigation canals [238], marshlands [238], lakeshores [238], hillsides [238], rocky prairie ravines [92,181], open woodlands [92], roadsides [92], and canyons [181].

Within the broader site characteristics, Wood's rose infrataxa have individual preferences. Rosa woodsii var. woodsii occurs in plains and prairie ecotypes [110]. Interior rose occurs primarily in the cordilleran ecotype [110]. Rosa woodsii var. glabrata is found in moist places, generally about springs [168,169]. Tehachapi rose prefers dry slopes [168,169].

Air Pollution: Wood's rose is very sensitive to sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollution. Wood's rose plants located in a narrowleaf cottonwood community in New Mexico and Utah at an elevation of 6,500 to 7,500 feet (2,000-2,300 m) were subjected to 6 different levels of SO2 (see below). The higher rate of injury at 6.0 ppm compared to 10.0 ppm may be due to the number of replications. The following table describes the average percent injury to Wood's rose plants by SO2 pollution. The value in parentheses is the number of replications [108].

SO2 level
0.5 ppm 1.0 ppm 2.0 ppm 4.0 ppm 6.0 ppm 10.0 ppm
% injury No data 0 (6) 1 (3) 15 (5) 90 (2) 60 (1)

Climate: Wood's rose prefers moderate climates; however, it will grow in alpine environments [95]. In the Great Basin and Great Plains of the United States, Wood's rose grows where climatic conditions are characterized by cold winters with moderate snowfall and late spring rainfall. Summers are typically hot and dry, coupled with a high evaporation rate [46,74,104]. Wood's rose is seldom found in areas where there is less than 10 inches (260 mm) of annual rainfall [81,95,218].

Detailed climatic data for Alton and Emery coal fields in southwestern Utah, for the 6-year period when Wood's rose was used to revegetate the sites, can be found in the publication by Ferguson and Frischknecht [82].

Elevation: Wood's rose occurs naturally at elevations ranging from 3,500 to 11,640 feet (1,060-3,550 m) [95,218,236]. Elevation ranges for Wood's rose are presented below:

State Elevational range
Arizona 1,400 to 8,000 feet [41,83]
California Up to 10,000 feet [51,209]
Colorado 3,500 to 9,000 feet [101]
Montana 2,800 to 9,000 feet [30,136]
Nebraska 2,500 to 4,500 feet [217]
New Mexico Up to 8,200 feet [97]
Oregon 3,700 to 8,000 feet [42,78]
South Dakota 2,500 to 7,200 feet [104]
Texas 5,500 to 6,000 feet [181]
Utah 2,800 to 11,000 feet [90,238]
Washington 2,000 to 6,300 feet [63]
Wyoming 4,500 to 11,500 feet [196]

In an elevational gradient study of northern Arizona, interior rose only occurred on south-facing slopes at 7,000 feet (2,130 m), but occurred on both south- and north-facing slopes at 8,000 feet (2,440 m) [83].

Riparian areas: Wood's rose is a facultative upland species, meaning that it usually occurs in nonwetland habitats, but may be found in wetlands (1-33% probability) [100].

Soils: Wood's rose is adapted to a wide range of soil types [81,95,100,218,236]. It generally grows best on moderately fertile, well-drained clay loam, sandy loam, or sandy soil [2,74,95,185,236]. Soil orders in which Wood's rose is normally found included Inceptisols, Entisols, and/or Mollisols [95]. Wood's rose is tolerant of moderately acid to weakly basic soils. Wood's rose prefer soils with a pH of 5.6 to 7.0 [95,236].

A detailed soil analysis of 2 small watersheds in Utah's Wasatch Mountains, where Wood's rose grows, can be found in the publication by Johnston and Doty [120].

Wood's rose is a subdominant species (Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) is the dominant species) on south-facing slopes of Cold Canyon in the Wasatch Mountains, Utah. In late spring, the soil moisture level at 3 depths (6, 12, and 18 inches (15, 30, and 45 cm)) was 21.75%, 18.5%, and 14.25%, respectively [174].

SUCCESSIONAL STATUS:
Wood's rose tolerates disturbed sites such as burns [96,99,100,180], is moderately shade tolerant [95,116,199,236], and occurs in several stages of succession. Wood's rose grows more vigorously and produces more fruit when growing in full sunlight [95,199].

Wood's rose is found across the successional spectrum. It is found on secondary successional sites (while the time since disturbance is not clearly stated in the research methods, the authors do note that 4 of the study plots had not been disturbed for as many as 80 years or more) in the Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir/ninebark (Physocarpus malvaceus) association in northern Idaho [45]. Wood's rose occurs in the oak-sumac chaparral "subclimax" association in the Black Hills of South Dakota [104] and occurs in mid- to late seral stands of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) along the Missouri River in southeastern South Dakota [241].

Fire: Along the Bighorn River in Wyoming, Wood's rose is codominant with western snowberry and skunkbush sumac on areas disturbed by fire [2]. Primarily following fire, but also after such disturbances as logging, mining, grazing, and recreation, Wood's rose occurs in the 2nd stage of succession in conifer forests of the White Mountains, New Mexico. The general succession on this study area following a disturbance is divided into 3 stages: (1) forbs, (2) shrubs and trees, and (3) coniferous forests. The shrub and tree stage generally begins 2 to 3 years postfire and can last up to 80 years with little variability in species composition [97]. Eight years following an "intense" wildfire in a Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forest, Wood's rose was a common species on the burn site [188]. Tehachapi rose occurs as an early successional species on burn sites on Hunter Mountain, Death Valley National Monument, California. Following a series of summer lightning fires in 1984, Tehachapi rose re-emerged on burn sites during postfire year 1 [142].

General disturbances: Wood's rose adaptation to disturbed sites is excellent [178]. It is an aggressive pioneer species in abandoned fields, road borrow pits, fence rows, field edges, gullies, and land cuts and fills [233].Along the Bighorn River in Wyoming, Wood's rose is codominant with western snowberry and skunkbush sumac on areas disturbed by fire, beavers, browsing, flooding, and bank erosion [2]. Wood's rose is an early seral species on earthen mounds created by burrowing pocket gophers in the Jackson Hole region of Wyoming [141]. The Wood's rose community type in eastern Idaho riparian areas represents a grazing disclimax [96].

Sometime from 1920 to 1925 a massive subalpine earthflow occurred in the East River Valley near Gothic, Colorado. At this site, dense Wood's rose thickets occur on both stable and unstable shale as well as on well-developed soil in fescue (Festuca ssp.) and sagebrush (Artemisia ssp.) communities. At several locations on the earthflow, Wood's rose has pioneered on bare areas devoid of vegetation [138].

Logging: Forest canopy removal seldom causes an increase or decrease in Wood's rose cover [95].

Clearcutting has little effect on Wood's rose cover. In the San Juan National Forest, southwestern Colorado, Wood's rose is an important quaking aspen understory species. In 1974, stands of quaking aspen were clearcut; at the time, cover of Wood's rose was 0.9%. Five years following clearcutting, Wood's rose cover stood at 0.8%, while cover on adjacent uncut areas remained stable at 0.9% [59].

In the Medicine Bow Mountains of southeastern Wyoming, Wood's rose shrub cover was greater in 30 to 50 year old clearcuts than in mature Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir (Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa) forests. On Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine clearcuts, Wood's rose cover was 0.67% and 0.24% in the mature forest. On Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir clearcuts, Wood's rose cover was 0.24% and 0.01% in the mature forest [196].

At the Little Missouri National Grasslands, North Dakota, approximately 40% of green ash and American elm (Ulmus americana) trees were cut down on twelve 0.2 acre (.08 ha) plots to open up the canopy. On sites where trees were cut, Wood's rose average plant height increased 48% [32].

Riparian areas: In riparian areas of central and eastern Montana, the Wood's rose community type commonly represents a disturbance-induced seral stage of the green ash/chokecherry habitat type or the boxelder (Acer negundo) /chokecherry habitat type [100].

In the eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, Rush Creek was diverted around 1915, which caused substantial dewatering in the natural stream bed. Dewatering of Rush Creek facilitated dominance of Wood's rose in this area. Wood's rose dominance was correlated (r = 0.42) with abundance of woody litter, indicating that Wood's rose dominance occurred in areas where obligate woody riparian species had died [208].

Wood's rose occurs in early to late seral riparian communities of the lower Yellowstone River, Montana [29]. On sites in the lower Yellowstone River Basin, where peachleaf willow (Salix amygdaloides) and narrowleaf willow have begun to thin after roughly 100 years of dominance, Wood's rose and western snowberry gain dominance [31].

Wood's rose dominated sites in riparian/wetland areas of northwestern Montana likely represent a disturbance-induced seral stage of the interior ponderosa pine/red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea) and Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir/ red-osier dogwood habitat types [30].

SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT:
Wood's rose growth starts in early spring [211]. The flowering periods for Wood's rose in several states and the Great Plains are presented below:

State/Region Flowering period
Alaska July [223]
California May to July [51]
Southern California 3rd week of March until 3rd week of May [76]
Texas May to July [181]
Utah May to August [3,90]
Great Plains May to July [92]

In California, interior rose flowers from June to August and Tehachapi rose flowers from April to August [169].

The flowering sequence for Wood's rose was recorded over a 13-year period near Swift Current, Saskatchewan. For the study period, the mean 1st flowering date was 14 June. The earliest and latest date of 1st flowering was 24 May and 30 June, respectively. The mean flowering period in days was 62 and the latest that Wood's rose remained in flower was 9 September [35].

In the northern Great Plains near Woodsworth, North Dakota, Wood's rose earliest and latest 1st bloom were 29 May and 25 June, respectively, during the 1979 to 1984 growing seasons. Wood's rose completed 95% of flowering on average by 5 July and stayed in flower for 21 days [40].


FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Rosa woodsii
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS:
Fire adaptations: Wood's rose establishes after fire primarily by sprouting from the root crown [34,55,56,81,95,164,201,244]. While less frequent, Wood's rose may establish after fire by root sprouting [33,34,55,201] or seed establishment [170,244]. Wood's rose is strongly fire tolerant, except for smoldering fires with heavy volumes of surface fuel which may kill the root crown [96,99,100].

Fire regimes: Many diverse communities provide Wood's rose habitat. In interior ponderosa pine and oak savanna communities, fire may occur as often as every 2 years [176,230]. Conversely, Wood's rose occurs in curlleaf mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius) communities where the fire return interval can be as great as 1,000 years [15,194]. A brief fire description of locales where Wood's rose is most common is provided below.

Coniferous forests: Wood's rose is an important species in Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir forests. In the Jackson Hole region of Wyoming, the fire return interval in Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir forests is 50 to 100 years. Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir forests adjacent to sagebrush steppe have a shorter fire return interval, generally from 20 to 25 years [34].

Wood's rose is a common understory species in interior ponderosa pine forests in Zion National Park, Utah. European settlement activities from 1862 until 1926 caused a dramatic decrease in fire frequency. This pattern has continued from 1926 until present under the National Park Service fire suppression program. The fire scar records suggests that the fire frequency prior to 1862 was from 4 to 7 years. From 1931 to 1984, 315 fires have been reported within the park and along the park boundary. Of those 315 fires, 235 were lightning fires [164].

Deciduous forests: Fire was an important ecological process in the quaking aspen parklands of central Alberta prior to European settlement, with most fires ignited by lightning and Native Americans. In the early 1900s, brush cover in the parklands ranged from approximately 5% to 10%. Presently, without periodic fires, brush cover ranges from 10% in drier regions to 60% to 100% in more mesic areas [19].

Wood's rose may occur as a dominant species in riparian cottonwood (Populus ssp.) woodlands in southern Alberta river valleys. Dendrochronological analyses of riparian cottonwoods in the Oldman River area show up to 4 fire scars per century. Fires are most likely to occur in "decrepit" woodlands during dry periods [89].

Pinyon-Juniper (Pinus-Juniperus spp.) woodlands: Gruell [94] used fire scar evidence to produce a fire history for the Walker River Watershed Project, California. The watershed is an area of 392,750 acres (158,900 ha) encompassing the Sweetwater Mountains, Pine Grove Hills, and the west slope of the Bodie Hills. Sampling of 6 Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) and 3 Colorado pinyon (P. edulis) trees produced a 208-year fire chronology in the Little Frying Pan Study Area for the years 1687 to 1895. A total of 51 fires scars representing at least 27 fire years were found on the 9 trees, suggesting a fire return interval of 8 years. Fires during this period were started by both lightning and Native Americans. In the 1850s, European settlers migrated into the areas, forced Native Americans off their land, and effectively ended human-caused fires. Expansive grazing by cattle and domestic sheep promoted by Europeans caused a substantial reduction in fine fuels which also inhibited fire. Fire is largely suppressed in the Walker River Watershed Project presently. Since 1960, 266 wildfires have been suppressed in the area [94].

Shrub-steppe: Wood's rose is found around the Columbia Plateau of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. The fire return interval for this habitat is approximately 25 years [57].

The following table provides fire return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where Wood's rose is important. For further information, see the FEIS review of the dominant species listed below.

Community or ecosystem Dominant species Fire return interval range (years)
silver fir-Douglas-fir Abies amabilis-Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii >200
grand fir Abies grandis 35-200 [11]
bluestem prairie Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium <10 [133,176]
Nebraska sandhills prairie Andropogon gerardii var. paucipilus-Schizachyrium scoparium <10 [176]
silver sagebrush steppe Artemisia cana 5-45 [106,183,243]
sagebrush steppe Artemisia tridentata/Pseudoroegneria spicata 20-70 [176]
basin big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. tridentata 12-43 [192]
mountain big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. vaseyana 15-40 [13,37,162]
Wyoming big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. wyomingensis 10-70 ( x=40) [224,245]
coastal sagebrush Artemisia californica <35 to <100 [176]
birch Betula spp. 80-230 [212]
desert grasslands Bouteloua eriopoda and/or Pleuraphis mutica 10 to <100 [155,176]
plains grasslands Bouteloua spp. <35 [176,243]
blue grama-needle-and-thread grass-western wheatgrass Bouteloua gracilis-Hesperostipa comata-Pascopyrum smithii <35 [176,189,243]
blue grama-buffalo grass Bouteloua gracilis-Buchloe dactyloides <35 [176,243]
blue grama-tobosa prairie Bouteloua gracilis-Pleuraphis mutica <35 to <100 [176]
cheatgrass Bromus tectorum <10 [177,239]
California montane chaparral Ceanothus and/or Arctostaphylos spp. 50-100 [176]
curlleaf mountain-mahogany* Cercocarpus ledifolius 13-1,000 [15,194]
mountain-mahogany-Gambel oak scrub Cercocarpus ledifolius-Quercus gambelii <35 to <100
Arizona cypress Cupressus arizonica <35 to 200 [176]
green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica <35 to >300 [73,230]
juniper-oak savanna Juniperus ashei-Quercus virginiana <35 
Ashe juniper Juniperus ashei <35
western juniper Juniperus occidentalis 20-70
Rocky Mountain juniper Juniperus scopulorum <35
tamarack Larix laricina 35-200 [176]
western larch Larix occidentalis 25-350 [12,22,62]
wheatgrass plains grasslands Pascopyrum smithii <5-47+ [176,183,243]
Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa 35 to >200 [11]
black spruce Picea mariana 35-200 [71]
blue spruce* Picea pungens 35-200 [11]
pine-cypress forest Pinus-Cupressus spp. 9-63 [8,215,226]
pinyon-juniper Pinus-Juniperus spp. <35 [176]
whitebark pine* Pinus albicaulis 50-200 [1,9]
Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine* Pinus contorta var. latifolia 25-340 [21,22,216]
Sierra lodgepole pine* Pinus contorta var. murrayana 35-200
Jeffrey pine Pinus jeffreyi 5-30
western white pine* Pinus monticola 50-200
Pacific ponderosa pine* Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa 1-47 [11]
interior ponderosa pine* Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum 2-30 [11,20,139]
Arizona pine Pinus ponderosa var. arizonica 2-15 [20,52,195]
eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides <35 to 200 [176]
quaking aspen-paper birch Populus tremuloides-Betula papyrifera 35-200 [71,230]
quaking aspen (west of the Great Plains) Populus tremuloides 7-120 [11,93,159]
mesquite Prosopis glandulosa <35 to <100 [155,176]
mesquite-buffalo grass Prosopis glandulosa-Buchloe dactyloides <35
Texas savanna Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa <10 [176]
mountain grasslands Pseudoroegneria spicata 3-40 ( x=10) [10,11]
Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir* Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca 25-100 [11,13,14]
coastal Douglas-fir* Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii 40-240 [11,165,187]
California oakwoods Quercus spp. <35 [11]
oak-hickory Quercus-Carya spp. <35 [230]
oak-juniper woodland (Southwest) Quercus-Juniperus spp. <35 to <200 [176]
Oregon white oak Quercus garryana <35 [11]
bear oak Quercus ilicifolia <35 [230]
California black oak Quercus kelloggii 5-30 [176]
bur oak Quercus macrocarpa <10 [230]
oak savanna Quercus macrocarpa/Andropogon gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 2-14 [176,230]
shinnery Quercus mohriana <35 [176]
live oak Quercus virginiana 10 to<100 [230]
little bluestem-grama prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Bouteloua spp. <35 [176]
redwood Sequoia sempervirens 5-200 [11,84,210]
western redcedar-western hemlock Thuja plicata-Tsuga heterophylla >200
western hemlock-Sitka spruce Tsuga heterophylla-Picea sitchensis >200 [11]
*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species review

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [206]:
Tall shrub, adventitious bud/root crown
Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
Initial off-site colonizer (off-site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer (on-site or off-site seed sources)

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Rosa woodsii
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT:
Wood's rose is top-killed by fire [242]. Wood's rose has a shallow root crown which can be damaged by fires of moderate to high intensity [95,100,199].

DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT:
No additional information is available on this topic.

PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE:
Wood's rose primarily recovers from fire by sprouting from the root crown [33,55,56,81,95,164,201,244] In some ecotypes, Wood's rose can spread by root sprouting following fire [33,34,55,201]. Reproduction from seed by Wood's rose rarely occurs after a burn. When seed reproduction does occur on burn sites, the rate of growth is slow compared to that of "other" species [170,244]. Wood's rose seeds are dispersed onto burn sites by birds and mammals [30,95] and/or water [160]. Wood's rose utilizes a seed bank [95], but as of this review (2006), there is no information on seed tolerance of fire.

While Wood's rose is described as a fire-tolerant shrub [96,99,100,180], the effect of fire on Wood's rose growth is mixed. During postfire year 1, research has shown Wood's rose cover to increase [91], decrease [154,228], and remain unchanged [5]. Beyond postfire year 1, further research found Wood's rose cover and/or production to increase [5,23,24,91,154], decrease [6,7,23,24], and remain unchanged [23] depending upon fire intensity severity. In one study, Wood's rose density increased during postfire years 1 and 2, but plant height decreased over the same time period [91].

DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE:
The frequency of Wood's rose increased nearly 3-fold 2 years following a spring burn on the western snowberry-dominated University of Alberta Ranch. Wood's rose frequency remained constant at 4.0% on unburned plots during the study period, 1970 to 1972. On burned plots, Wood's rose frequency was also 4.0% during postfire months 3 and 15, but increased to 11.0% at postfire month 27. The cover of Wood's rose was not reported in the study [5].

The cover (3-year average) of Wood's rose significantly (p<0.01) decreased following a high-intensity fire in an Idaho interior ponderosa pine forest, but remained relatively unchanged on low-intensity burn sites. Fireline intensity ranged from 30 to 3,034 Kcal/m-s (781 Kcal/m-s average) on high-intensity sites and from 25 to 194 Kcal/m-s (127 Kcal/m-s average) on low-intensity sites. The average cover of Wood's rose during a 3-year postfire period was 0.8% on unburned sites, 0.7% on low-intensity burn sites, and 0.2% on high intensity burn sites [6,7].  

Prescription burning in a quaking aspen community in western Wyoming reduced production (kg/ha) of Wood's rose on lightly and heavily burned sites, but produced no change on moderately burned sites at postfire year 3. The area, Bridger-Teton National Forest, was burned on 29 August 1974, and the following conditions existed at the time of burning: 77 F (25 C) air temperature, winds gusting at 8 to 20 mph (13-32 kph), 18% relative humidity, and fuel moisture in the quaking aspen groves ranged from 10% to 45%. A site was considered lightly burned if approximately 0% to 20% of the litter and duff was consumed, moderately burned if approximately 21% to 80% was consumed, and heavily burned if approximately 81% to 100% was consumed. Prior to burning and on moderately burned sites in postfire year 3, Wood's rose production was 53kg/ha. On lightly and heavily burned sites in postfire year 3, production was 30 kg/ha and 16 kg/ha, respectively [23].

The researchers returned to the site during postfire year 12 and found that Wood's rose production was greater on moderately burned sites than before burning, but that production on lightly and heavily burned sites was still less than the prefire level of 53 kg/ha. Production of Wood's rose on lightly, moderately, and heavily burned sites in postfire year 12 were 34 kg/ha, 85 kg/ha, and 51 kg/ha, respectively [24].

Following two April 1992 fires in cottonwood woodlands along the Oldman River in southern Alberta, Wood's rose, Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), chokecherry, and western snowberry had created a sparse understory by postfire month 5. By postfire year 5, a dense understory was present dominated by either 6.5 to 10 foot (2-3 m) tall chokecherry and Saskatoon serviceberry stands, or 3 foot (1 m) tall Wood's rose and western snowberry bushes [89].

Prescription burning in an interior ponderosa pine forest reduced Wood's rose production in postfire year 1. The burn was conducted on 2 consecutive days in October, 1982, on the Fort Valley Experimental Forest near Flagstaff, Arizona. The average daily temperature during the 2 days of burning was 64 F (18 C) and 57 F (14 C), respectively. The total heat yield of the fire on sites occupied by Wood's rose was 42,082 kJ/m. In November, 1983, Wood's rose production had decreased from a preburn level of 53.47 kg/ha to 13.50 kg/ha [228].

A spring fire in an quaking aspen-conifer forests covering 40 acres (16 ha) in the West Boulder River Valley, Montana, caused a substantial increase in Wood's rose density during postfire years 1 and 2, but a decrease in plant height. At the time of the fire relative humidity ranged from 10% to 30%, fuel moisture ranged from 5% to 10%, winds were at 15 miles/hr (24 km/hr), and the temperature ranged from 65 F to 85 F (18-29 C). Using a point-center-quarter measurement system, Wood's rose density/acre prior to the fire was 2,863. Wood's rose density/acre increased in postfire years 1 and 2 to 15,094 and 31,282, respectively. Prior to the fire, the average height of Wood's rose plants was 28.0 inches (71 cm). Following the fire, average Wood's rose height was 11 inches (28 cm) at the end of postfire growing season 1 and 16 inches (41 cm) at the end of postfire growing season 2 [91].

In the Wasatch Mountain Range, Utah, 4 Gambel oak communities were studied 1, 2, 9, and 18 years following fires. Wood's rose is common in all 4 communities and was reduced by burning in postfire year 1, but increased in postfire years 2, 9, and 18. The following table describes Wood's rose cover (%) on burned and unburned sites [154]:

  Burned Unburned
Postfire year 1 7.0 10.3
Postfire year 2 17.1 9.4
Postfire year 9 6.5 4.8
Postfire year 18 10.9 6.2

The Research Project Summary Vegetation response to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests of western Montana provides information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species including Wood's rose.

FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Browsing: Ungulates and cattle browse Wood's rose heavily following fire. In 2000, a moderate- to high-severity wildfire burned approximately 80% of the Boulder Creek Basin in Wyoming. In postfire years 2 and 3, the percent of available Wood's rose that ungulates (moose, elk, mule deer, and white-tailed deer) and cattle browsed (x s x ) was 84% 7% and 73% 4%, respectively [72].

Burning season: Research indicates that the response of Wood's rose to spring and summer fires is similar [132].

Forest Fuel: Wood's rose is an important species in Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir forests. In Montana Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir forests, the available fuel averages 13 tons/acre [33].

Invasive species: If fire is chosen as a management tool for Wood's rose, managers should be cognizant of potential negative effects on associated or surrounding vegetation. For instance, Wood's rose grows in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming [137]. In the past several decades the area has been infested by the drought-deciduous salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima) which is fire tolerant and may expand after disturbances such as fire and severely reduce native plant coverage [144].

Wildlife: At the Woodsworth Study Area, North Dakota, Johnson [118] found that burning Wood's rose and other shrub species may displace birds such as eastern kingbird, willow flycatcher, yellow warbler, common yellowthroat, clay-colored sparrow, and brown-headed cowbird, all of which thrive in woody vegetation that has been long protected from fire.


MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Rosa woodsii
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE:
Wood's rose provides forage for small and large mammals, birds, and ungulates. The forage production from dense thickets of Wood's rose communities is relatively low since they are nearly impenetrable. The leaves of Wood's rose are considered fair to fairly good livestock forage, particularly for domestic sheep [30,96,100,116]. Wood's rose is a particularly important source of food for livestock and wildlife during spring and summer [64]. Wood's rose production on average is from 1 to 2 lbs/acre [128].

Small mammals/birds: Wood's rose has good food value for upland game birds, nongame birds, and small mammals, but poor food value for waterfowl [30,131]. Wood's rose hips are an important source of winter food for sharp-tailed grouse in South Dakota [77]. In northeastern Montana, Wood's rose is a food source for sharp-tailed grouse. Of 85 adult and juvenile birds collected in the study, Wood's rose hips occurred in 15% of their stomachs in 1976 and in 55% of their stomachs in 1979. Next to juniper (Juniperus ssp.) cones, Wood's rose was the most important food source in 1979 [163]. In another study, sharp-tailed grouse consumed on average 63.3 grams (dry weight ) of Wood's rose hips during the winter in southeastern Montana [182].

Wood's rose is an important source of food for prairie porcupines in northern Montana. In a study conducted in 1980 and 1981, 14.1% of available Wood's rose shrubs were browsed, making it the 5th most important food for porcupine, exceeded by only American elm, eastern cottonwood, skunkbush sumac, and chokecherry [105].

Large mammals: Wood's rose is a forage species for grizzly bears throughout their range [240]. Wood's rose hips are a food source for grizzly bear in the Bitterroot Mountains of Idaho and Montana and the Bob Marshall Wilderness of Montana [60,146].

Ungulates: Wood's rose is a seasonally important browse species for big game animals throughout the western U.S. [30,100,131].

Mule deer browse Wood's rose throughout the growing season (particularly on north-facing slopes) in the eastern foothills of the Cottonwood Mountains in Malheur County, Oregon [49]. Mule deer feed on R. w. var. woodsii in late spring and early summer on the Kaibab Plateau north of the Grand Canyon, Arizona [115]. Wood's rose is an intermediately preferred shrub for mule deer during the winter in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage near Missoula, Montana. Wood's rose hips are an extremely important source of winter food for mule deer in Cache County, Utah. Welch and Andrus [237] found that from 6 December 1974 to 3 January 1975, mule deer consumed 92% of available Wood's rose hips on the study site. Mule deer in the Sheeprock Mountains of Utah exhibit little preference for Wood's rose when browsing on sites grazed and ungrazed by cattle. On 2 study sites, mule deer diet composition (% dry weight s x) of Wood's rose was 51 and 52 on grazed sites and 21 and 72 on ungrazed sites during late summer, 1983 [16].

In South Dakota's Black Hills, R. w. var. woodsii is a valuable browse species for white-tailed deer in summer. From October to June, R. w. var. woodsii constitutes 3.6% to 4.6% of white-tailed deer diets. In summer, however, white-tailed deer diets are made up of 24.8% of R. w. var. woodsii [109]. In the Black Hills of northeastern Wyoming, Wood's rose is described as an important summer and winter forage species for white-tailed deer [173].

Wood's rose is a source of food for moose from December to June on the north slope of the Gallatin Mountain Range in southwestern Montana [204].

Palatability/nutritional value: Livestock and big game find the leaves of Wood's rose palatable from spring to fall [218]. The palatability of R. w. var. woodsii in the Black Hills of South Dakota is "medium" from October to March and "high" from April to September [109]. Wood's rose palatability for cattle and domestic sheep is fair, but poor for horses [30,100].

The palatability of Wood's rose in several western states has been rated as follows [65]:

  Colorado Montana North Dakota Utah Wyoming
Cattle Fair Fair Fair Poor Fair
Sheep Good Fair Fair Fair Fair
Horse Poor Poor Poor Poor Fair
Pronghorn ---* --- --- Fair Good
Elk --- Poor --- Good Good
Mule deer --- Fair --- Good Good
White-tailed deer Good Good --- --- Fair
Small mammals --- Good --- Good Good
Small nongame birds --- Good --- Good Good
Upland game birds --- Good Good Good Good
Waterfowl --- --- Poor --- Poor
*--- = no data

Wood's rose leaves and stems provide sufficient protein for domestic sheep and cattle throughout the growing season [75]. Crude protein content of Wood's rose leaves ranges from 5.7% in fall to 16.4% in spring, and stems range from 5.4% protein in winter to 12.0% in spring [61,236].

Wood's rose hips are an excellent source of digestible energy given their low lignin and crude fiber content accompanied by a high content of nitrogen-free extract [237]. Wood's rose hips, in a "weathered" stage, contain 26.6% cellulose and 1.7% digestible protein in the rough fescue (Festuca altaica) association of southwestern Alberta [27]. Wood's rose hips collected in South Dakota in the fall had a gross energy value (Kcal/g) of 4.928 and a crude protein value of 5.0% [77]. Wood's rose hips are also one of the best natural sources of vitamin C [124,218].

The structural content, crude protein and in vitro digestibility of Wood's rose stems in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, during November to March 1976-1977 and 1977-1978 are expressed as a range in the table below [112]:

% of dry matter
Cell-wall constituents Acid detergent fiber Lignin Crude protein In vitro dry matter
49-52 36-43 12-16 4.6-4.9 35-38

The nutritive and chemical composition of Wood's rose in a "weathered" phase in a plains rough fescue (F. hallii) association of the Porcupine Hills of southwestern Alberta are presented below. In a "weathered" state, Wood's rose does not meet the protein (7.5%-11.7%) required for cattle, but does meet the phosphorus (0.15%-0.28%) requirement [119].

Protein (%) Crude fat (%) Crude fiber (%) Ash (%) Calcium (%) Phosphorus (%) Carotene (mg/kg)
6.60 3.10 30.30 4.45 0.52 0.16 34.35

Wood's rose year-roundleaf and stem crude protein (%) in the Black Hills of South Dakota is presented in the table below [64]:

  Spring Summer Fall Winter
Leaves 16.4 9.8 5.7 ---
Stems 12.0 4.9 5.6 5.4

Wood's rose year-round leaf and stem gross energy content (cal./g) in the Black Hills of South Dakota is presented in the table below [64]:

  Spring Summer Fall Winter
Leaves 4,542 4,792 4,557 ---
Stems 4,476 4,581 4,693 4,637

Cover value: Wood's rose provides good cover for birds, small mammals, fish, and ungulates.

Fish: Thick communities of gray alder-Wood's rose provide valuable cover for fish in riparian areas of the Trout Creek Mountains, Oregon [78].

Nongame birds: Wood's rose is an essential cover species for a variety of nongame birds in the Great Plains and the western U.S. Wood's rose provides cover for numerous nesting bird and small mammal species along Wet Creek, Idaho [48]. Many birds use Wood's rose as cover in green ash-black cottonwood woodlands of the Little Missouri National Grasslands, North Dakota [113]. Interior rose provides limited cover for the Mexican spotted owl in interior ponderosa pine-Gambel oak forests near Flagstaff, Arizona [85]. In Montana and Washington riparian sites, Wood's rose provides fair cover for small nongame birds [100,131].

At Mono Lake, California, McCreedy and Heath [153] found 9 willow flycatcher nesting sites, all constructed in Wood's rose shrubs. Monotypic stands of Wood's rose approximately 30 to 300 feet (10-80 m) wide dominated the site. Five of 6 mated male territories ranging from 0.94 to 3.24 acres (0.38-1.31 ha) identified in the study occurred in monotypic Wood's rose stands.

Small mammals: Wood's rose is an essential cover species for a variety of small mammals in the Great Plains and the western U.S. Wood's rose is a cover species for deer mice in the Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area in southwestern Montana [70]. Pocket gophers in the Jackson Hole region of Wyoming use Wood's rose thickets for protection from predators [141]. In a riparian habitat at Deer Creek, Nevada, Wood's rose provides cover for shrew, chipmunk, squirrel, gopher, mouse, woodrat, and vole species [156,157]. Wood's rose provides cover for black-tailed prairie dogs in Billings County, North Dakota [207]. Wood's rose-western snowberry communities provide cover for coyotes in winter and summer in the hardwood draws of southeastern Montana [213,214]. Wood's rose is a cover species for river otters in the Flathead River Valley of northwestern Montana [231]. In Montana and Washington riparian sites, Wood's rose provides fair cover for small mammals [100,131].

Ungulates: Wood's rose is listed as a poor hiding/escaping, thermal, and fawning cover species for white-tailed deer in the Black Hills of northeastern Wyoming [173]. It is listed as a fair cover species for elk and a good cover species for mule and white-tailed deer in Montana and Washington riparian/wetland sites [30,100,131].

Upland game birds: Wood's rose is an essential cover species for a variety of upland game birds in the Great Plains and the western U.S. Wood's rose is a good source of cover for ruffed grouse along the Snake River riparian corridor within Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming [36]. Wood's rose provides nesting cover for sharp-tailed grouse in the Brown's Bench area of south-central Idaho and near Weiser, Idaho [129,191]. Merriam's wild turkeys utilize Wood's rose thickets for cover in the central Black Hills of Pennington County, South Dakota [190]. Wood's rose-western snowberry communities provide habitat for ring-necked pheasants year round and sharp-tailed grouse during fall in the hardwood draws of southeastern Montana [213,214]. In Montana and Washington riparian sites, Wood's rose provides fair cover for upland game birds [100,131].

Waterfowl: Mallard nesting sites in Wood's rose stands are common throughout the Missouri Coteau and Drift Plain biogeographic provinces of central North Dakota [54]. In the prairie potholes region of central North Dakota, Wood's rose provides important nesting cover for mallards, gadwalls, and blue-winged teal in pastures [143].

In Montana and Washington riparian sites, Wood's rose provides good cover for waterfowl [100,131].

The cover value of Wood's rose in several western states has been rated as follows [65]:

  Colorado Montana North Dakota Utah Wyoming
Pronghorn ---* --- --- Fair Poor
Elk --- --- --- Fair Poor
Mule deer --- --- --- Fair Fair
White-tailed deer Fair Good --- --- ---
Small mammals Good Fair --- --- ---
Small nongame birds Good Fair --- Good Good
Upland game birds --- Fair Good Good Good
Waterfowl --- Good Poor --- Poor
*--- = no data

VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES:
Wood's rose is an excellent species for revegetation of disturbed sites [116]. It is also an excellent soil stabilizing species [30,151,179] and a valuable species for revegetating disturbed sites along streambanks and seeps [100].

Studies where Wood's rose was used successfully in revegetation trials:

Interior rose transplants successfully revegetated untreated land contaminated with acid spoils from the Leviathan mine in Alpine County, California. Two plots were utilized, one where interior rose plants were planted on unseeded bare ground and another where they were planted with a grass seed mixture of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), smooth brome (Bromus inermis), crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum), intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium), and Kentucky bluegrass. At the time of transplanting, the interior rose plants were 1 year old. Three years following transplanting, interior rose had a survival rate of 100% on both seeded and unseeded plots. The cover of interior rose on seeded and unseeded plots was 81.5% and 67.5%, respectively [79].

At the Alton coal field in southwestern Utah, Wood's rose transplants had a 100% survival rate 6 years after planting. In year 6, the mean height and crown diameter of Wood's rose on the site were 30 inches (76 cm) and 34 inches (86 cm), respectively [82].

Spring planting of 1-year old Wood's rose bare-rooted plants on road cuts in northwestern Montana was more successful than fall planting. Four years following planting, spring-planted Wood's rose had a survival rate of 93% compared to 62% for fall-planted Wood's rose [116]. Wood's rose transplants successfully revegetated road cuts in the Coram Experimental Forest, Montana. Wood's rose cuttings were transplanted on 6 sites and at the end of the 1st growing season the success rate was from 92% to 99% [86].

An analysis of desirable conditions (temperature, soil factors, and precipitation) for the successful use of Wood's rose for rehabilitating roadsides in the northern Rocky Mountains is presented in the report by Meier and Weaver [158].

Studies where Wood's rose was unsuccessful or partially successful in revegetation trials:

Wood's rose seed revegetation trials were relatively unsuccessful on an abandoned oil drill pad site in the Uintah Mountains of Utah. The site was sown with an average of 21.5 seeds/m during the last week of September, 1984. One half of the site was fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and the other half was unfertilized. One and 3 years following seeding, Wood's rose standing biomass (g/m s dry weight) on unfertilized sites was 0.030.005 and 0.320.026, respectively, and on fertilized sites 0.030.005 and 0.060.0, respectively [44].

Wood's rose bareroot stocks were used with partial success to rehabilitate a depleted sagebrush steppe riparian system in the Cottonwood Mountains of Malheur County, Oregon. The bareroot stocks of Wood's rose were planted in March 1987 on north-facing and south-facing slopes and on the flats. Survival rate and shrub height was greatest for Wood's rose on the flats, where after 4 years 27% of the plants survived and averaged 19 inches (48 cm) tall. Survival rate on north- and south-facing slopes was 13% in year 4 and average height was 7 inches (18 cm) and 18 inches (45 cm) tall, respectively. Wood's rose development on north-facing slopes was particularly inhibited by moderate to heavy browsing by deer throughout the growing season [49].

There is 1 Wood's rose cultivar ('common') available [220].

OTHER USES:
Native Americans used roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and hips for food and therapeutic materials. Wood's rose and Tehachapi rose hips are one of the best natural sources of vitamin C, and can be dried for use in flavoring teas, jellies, fruitcakes, and puddings [100,124,218].

The Mescalero Apache and Navajo ate the hips of R. w. var. woodsii [43]. The Ramah Navajo used Wood's rose shrubs for food, basketry, and in ceremonies [222].The Kawaisu Native Americans of south-central California had several uses for interior rose. The rose hips were a food source and the stems were used as rims for twined basketry [247].

OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Grazing: Wood's rose is strongly grazing tolerant, but can be dwarfed and thinned by intense browsing [96]. Research on the effects of Wood's rose browsing are mixed.

In the following studies, browsing caused a decrease in Wood's rose:

Short-term, intense livestock browsing (5 AUM/ha) caused significant (p<0.05) decrease in Wood's rose/prickly rose density and height postfire years 5 and 6 in the quaking aspen parklands of Alberta. Following a 1979 fire, cattle were placed on burn sites in an attempt to control woody species. In postfire years 5 and 6, Wood's rose/prickly rose density (stems/m) decreased to 7.8, down from 24.7 in postfire year 2. The height of Wood's rose/prickly rose during postfire years 5 and 6 was 12.6 inches (32 cm) on early-browsed (soon after emergence of suckers regenerating forest species) sites, 11 inches (28 cm) on late-browsed (just prior to leaf fall) sites, and 26 inches (67 cm) on ungrazed sites [18].

Summer livestock grazing in Cache County, Utah, caused a substantial decrease in Wood's rose hips per plant. On sites grazed, Wood's rose plants averaged 2.5 hips/plant, but averaged 15 hips/plant on ungrazed sites [237].

In the following, the exclusion of cattle browsing facilitated an increase in Wood's rose:

The exclusion of livestock browsing of Wood's rose caused a significant (researchers consider p<0.10 significant in this study) decrease in cover in Red Butte Canyon and a small increase in cover in Emigration Canyon in the mountain brush zone of Utah. At Red Butte Canyon, cattle browsing was excluded in 1905 and exclusion occurred in 1957 at Emigration Canyon. From 1935 to 1983, Wood's rose cover decreased from 2.9% to 0.2% in Red Butte Canyon and increased from 0.8% to 1.3% in Emigration Canyon [17].

At Pole Canyon in the Wasatch Mountain Range of Utah, the exclusion of cattle led to an increase in Wood's rose. In 1949, the last year that cattle grazing was allowed, Wood's rose frequency was 2.3%. By 1958, Wood's rose frequency more than doubled to 5.3% [172].

The following citations indicate that cattle browsing may facilitate an increase in Wood's rose:

In Montana riparian areas dominated by eastern cottonwood/red-osier dogwood, Wood's rose will increase under "moderate" grazing, corresponding with a decrease in red-osier dogwood, chokecherry, western snowberry, Saskatoon serviceberry, and various currant (Ribes ssp.) Prolonged "moderate" to "heavy" grazing may lead to the dominance of Wood's rose [98].

Fall cattle grazing in the Wallowa Mountains of Oregon facilitated an increase in standing biomass of Wood's rose/common snowberry combined at the end of the 2nd year of grazing. The riparian area was stocked at a rate of 1.3 to 1.7 ha/AUM. In year 2, standing biomass on grazed sites was 3,987 kg/ha and 3,213 kg/ha on ungrazed sites [125].

In the Little Missouri Badlands of southwestern North Dakota, Wood's rose responded more favorably to "moderate" grazing than "light" grazing. The cover and density for Wood's rose on moderately grazed sites was 9.77% and 19.70 stems/ha, respectively. The cover and density of Wood's rose on lightly grazed sites was 2.30% and 0.50 stems/ha, respectively [39].

Herbicides: Sites infested with spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) in Missoula County, Montana, were treated with picloram, clopyralid, and 2,4-D. Wood's rose occurred on 2 of the 4 sites treated and was not affected (positively or negatively) by the herbicides [186].

A quaking aspen-balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera ssp. balsamifera) forest in a northeastern Saskatchewan was treated with 2,4-D, 2,4-D + picloram, and glyphosate at several concentrations. Wood's rose was significantly (p<0.05) damaged by the herbicide treatments [229].

Host species: Wood's rose is a host to the fungus Cronartium comandrae in the Wood River District, Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming. C. comandrae causes comandra blister rust disease in hard pines across much of Canada and the United States [246].

Invasive Species: Wood's rose is not negatively affected by leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). In the Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota, Wood's rose occurrence is 17% greater on sites infested by leafy spurge than in areas not infested [38].


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