Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Rosa acicularis

Introductory

SPECIES: Rosa acicularis
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Crane, M. F. 1990. Rosa acicularis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].
ABBREVIATION : ROSACI SYNONYMS : Rosa sayi Rosa bourgeauiana Rosa engelmanni Rosa pyrifera Rosa butleri SCS PLANT CODE : ROAC ROACA ROACS COMMON NAMES : prickly rose TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of prickly rose is Rosa acicularis Lindl. [41]. Prickly rose hybridizes with smooth wild rose (R. blanda), Nootka rose (R. nutkana), prairie wild rose (R. arkansana), and Wood's rose (R. woodsii) [28,84,87]. Two subspecies of prickly rose are recognized [41]: Rosa acicularis subsp. acicularis Rosa acicularis subsp. sayi LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Rosa acicularis
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Prickly rose is circumpolar in the boreal forest region. It grows from Alaska to Quebec and New England [72]. On the West Coast, its range extends as far south as British Columbia. It is found in Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and northern New Mexico in the Rocky Mountains, and in North and South Dakota in the northern Great Plains [28,32,37,72]. It grows in the Lake States of Minnesota, Michigan, and Wisconsin, with outlying populations as far south as Iowa and northwestern Illinois [68]. Subspecies acicularis is primarily Eurasian but extends into Alaska; subspecies sayi is American [28,69,72,87]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES10 White - red - jack pine FRES11 Spruce - fir FRES18 Maple - beech - birch FRES19 Aspen - birch FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES23 Fir-spruce FRES26 Lodgepole pine STATES : AK CO CT IL IA ME MA MI MN MT NH NM VT WY AB BC MB ON PQ SK YT BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 15 Black Hills Uplift 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K008 Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K015 Western spruce - fir forest K017 Black Hills pine forest K093 Great Lakes spruce - fir forest K095 Great Lakes pine forest K099 Maple - basswood forest SAF COVER TYPES : 1 Jack pine 5 Balsam fir 12 Black spruce 16 Aspen 18 Paper birch 21 Eastern white pine 26 Sugar maple - basswood 107 White spruce 201 White spruce 202 White spruce - paper birch 203 Balsam poplar 204 Black spruce 206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir 210 Interior Douglas-fir 217 Aspen 218 Lodgepole pine 219 Limber pine 227 Western redcedar - western hemlock 237 Interior ponderosa pine 251 White spruce - aspen 252 Paper birch 253 Black spruce - white spruce 254 Black spruce - paper birch SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Prickly rose is a characteristic species of boreal forests under white spruce (Picea glauca) and relatively open black spruce (P. mariana). It is very common in northern hardwood forests composed of paper birch (Betula papyrifera), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), and cottonwood (Populus spp.), and in transitional zones between birch and spruce forest [9]. It is less frequent in closed black spruce forests [9]. At treeline in northern Alaska it is found with willows (Salix spp.), alder (Alnus spp.), highbush cranberry (Viburnum edule), and herbs [79]. In British Columbia it is characteristic of boreal white spruce and black spruce stands and also subboreal spruce (Picea glauca x engelmannii) stands [42,61]. From Alaska south through Alberta into northern Montana, prickly rose is common in quaking aspen parkland and extends into grasslands [3,16,46]. It also grows in balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera), white spruce, and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands in Alberta [13] and in black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) groves in northern Montana [46]. It grows in Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), lodgepole pine, and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands in the northern Rocky Mountains [15,63,70], and with ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and quaking aspen in the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming and the Black Hills of South Dakota [39,40,71]. In southern Wyoming, it is only found with ponderosa pine [2]. Classifications listing prickly rose as an indicator or plant community dominant are presented below: Forest community types of west-central Alberta in relation to selected environmental factors [13] Classification, description, and dynamics of plant communities after fire in the taiga of interior Alaska [25] Ecosystem classification and interpretation of the sub-boreal spruce zone, Prince Rupert Forest Region, British Columbia [61]

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Rosa acicularis
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Prickly rose is an important food source for grouse, snowshoe hares, and microtine rodents [17]. In Alaska, snowshoe hares browse on prickly rose all year, but use is particularly heavy in summer [82,92]. In Colorado, prickly rose is an important food item for mule deer which eat twigs and foliage in summer and fall [88,89]. In Montana, browsing by mule deer is greatest in fall and winter [97]. White-tailed deer browse on wild roses (Rosa spp.) as do pronghorn, elk, moose, and mountain sheep [49,59]. Black bear and grizzly bear eat prickly rose hips (fruits) in fall [35,48]. Wild rose hips are eaten by songbirds and small mammals; upland gamebirds eat buds as well as hips. Larger fur-bearing mammals such as bears, rabbits, and beaver eat hips, stems, and foliage of roses [49]. PALATABILITY : Prickly rose is a preferred food of snowshoe hares in Alaska [58,92]. It is also one of the preferred foods of mule deer in Colorado [88,89]. In Montana, palatability of prickly rose browse is estimated as good for pronghorn; fair for elk, mule deer, white-tailed deer, cattle, and sheep; and poor for horses [31]. Wild rose hips are probably not as palatable to birds as other fruits and so remain on the shrubs, providing an important winter resource [49]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Hips of prickly rose are high in vitamin A and are a winter source of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) [33,84,90]. Rose hips are highly digestible and moderately high in crude protein. Wild rose is excellent summer browse for big game and livestock, but its protein content decreases once leaves are shed [24]. In Montana the energy and protein values of prickly rose are estimated to be poor [31]. Browse samples from Northwest Territories had an ash content of 4.7 percent [90]. COVER VALUE : Thickets of wild rose provide excellent nesting sites and protective cover for birds, as well as shelter for small mammals [49,74]. In Montana, prickly rose is estimated to provide good thermal and feeding cover for mule deer and white-tailed deer and fair cover for elk, upland game birds, and small birds and mammals [31]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Prickly rose is recommended for revegetation on moist to wet sites in Alaska and Alberta [90]. It is a good choice for erosion control, especially since the prickly stems may discourage overbrowsing [74,90]. It is tolerant of acidic situations, is adapted to a wide range of soil textures and moisture regimes, rapidly covers an area, and is moderately tolerant of crude oil [90]. It has shown good drought tolerance on amended oil sand tailings in Alberta and competes effectively with seeded grasses [90,95]. In Montana, prickly rose's erosion control potential, based on biomass, moderately aggressive growth, and persistence, is rated as medium. Its short-term revegetation potential is low, but long-term revegetation potential is medium [31]. Achenes of prickly rose need both warm and cold stratification for germination; treatment details are described in various papers. Prickly rose can be successfully started from rhizome, softwood, and hardwood cuttings. Cuttings that include both rhizome and stem tissue give the best results [90]. Results of one study showed that over 90 percent of prickly rose rhizome cuttings produced shoots at temperatures of 41, 59, and 77 degrees F (5, 15, and 25 degrees C). The number of days before shoot appearance increased as the temperature decreased [10]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Prickly rose bushes make attractive ornamentals but need careful pruning [84]. In Alaska, prickly rose flowers are a major source of nectar for bees kept by beekeepers [60]. Juice is extracted from the hips by boiling and used to make jellies and syrups. Pulp from the hips, after seeds and skins are removed, is used to make jams, marmalades, and catsup [33,84]. Other juice or fruit is sometimes added for flavoring. Rose hips may be preserved by drying and then ground into a powder that may be added to baked goods [33]. Green hips can be peeled and cooked, and young shoots have been eaten as a potherb. Leaves, flowers, and buds can be used to make tea; teas made from flowers and buds may relieve diarrhea [33,34,51]. Flower petals are also sometimes eaten raw and may be used for perfume [34,33]. Buds and flowers can be the basis for an eyewash [51]. Native Americans made medicinal tea from wild roses which was used as a remedy for diarrhea and stomach maladies. They sometimes smoked the inner bark. Crow Indians used a solution made by boiling rose roots in a compress to reduce swelling. The same solution was drunk for mouth bleeding and gargled as a remedy for tonsillitis and sore throats; vapor from this solution was inhaled for nose bleeding [34]. Evidently, several tribes thought that rose hips would produce itching, although they were sometimes used as emergency food [33,34]. Some tribes believed wild rose could keep bad spirits away [34]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Prickly rose will sprout from the rhizomes if cut [90]. Data from shelterwood and clearcutting in Alaskan white spruce indicates that although prickly rose cover is initially reduced by management practices, it recovers rapidly. On these sites it became a dominant, reaching or exceeding prelogging cover and frequency values, within 2 years. There was less of an initial reduction following shelterwood cuttings than clearcutting [21]. In Colorado prickly rose frequency increases following logging [89]. A mixture of picloram and 2,4-D effectively controlled prickly rose regrowth following conversion of aspen parkland in Saskatchewan to seeded grasses. A mixture of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T was less successful at controlling prickly rose and a mixture of 2,4-D with dicamba was intermediate [8]. Prickly rose is susceptible to leaf rusts, leaf spots, powdery mildew, stem canker, and crown gall [90]. Prickly rose foliage is very sensitive to fumigation by sulfur dioxide [38].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Rosa acicularis
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Prickly rose plants are quite variable in morphological details including pubescence, glandularity, and fruit shape [87]. Prickly rose is a deciduous shrub about 4 feet (1.2 m) in height with many fine roots in the top 8 inches (20 cm) of soil. Deep roots may extend to 55 inches (140 cm) [73]. The main stems are usually covered with slender, straight bristles or prickles. The alternate leaves are pinnately compound with five to nine leaflets and conspicuous stipules [28,72]. The pink or rose-colored flowers have numerous stamens and are borne singly on lateral branches. The globose, fleshy, red or orange-red hip has 10 to 30 achenes. Each achene is 0.15 to 0.2 inch (3.8-5 mm) long with stiff hairs along one side [28,37,72]. Information about subspecies (varieties) is summarized below [72,87]: Subspecies (variety) acicularis is octoploid (2n = 56). It has glandular pedicels and narrow sepals (less than 0.1 inch or 3 mm). Its leaves have five leaflets. Subspecies sayi (variety bourgeauiana) is hexaploid (2n = 42). Its pedicels are glabrous and the sepals are wider than 0.1 inch (3 mm). There are five to nine leaflets in each leaf. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Prickly rose regenerates vegetatively by means of widespread rhizomes. A single clone with 8 to 11 aboveground stems linked by a horizontal rhizome can cover 11.95 to 23.92 square yards (10-20 sq m). Results of an Alaskan study found rhizomes between 8 and 12 inches (20-30 cm) deep. This was sufficient for the rhizomes to be in the mineral soil below deep organic horizons [10]. Since rhizomes sprout after fire and other types of disturbance, prickly rose clones may live for hundreds of years [17]. Prickly rose flowers and sets seed frequently in open communities and infrequently under a canopy [46]. Seed is dispersed by small mammals, song birds, and grouse [1]. Seeds exhibit deep dormancy and require warm stratification for the initial stages of germination, followed by cold stratification for germination to continue [10,17,54,90]. While most seeds germinate following snowmelt the second spring after seed set, germination of one seed crop may spread over several years [17]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Prickly rose is a characteristic species of boreal forests under white spruce and relatively open black spruce. It is very common in northern hardwood forests composed of paper birch (Betula papyrifera), aspen (Populus tremuloides), and cottonwood (Populus spp.), and in transitional zones between birch and spruce forest. It is less frequent in closed black spruce forests [9]. In the northern Great Plains and Alberta, it is found on wooded hillsides, along streambanks, and on rocky bluffs and ledges [28,72,90]. Near the Great Lakes, prickly rose is found on sandy and gravelly shores, and sandy woodlands with jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and oak (Quercus spp.). It also grows on rocky ridges and shores, in moist thickets, in swamps, and in openings in conifer forests [87]. Prickly rose grows on active floodplains [26,54,76,81,90]. In Alaska, prickly rose is common with aspen in old burns and is found in thickets, alongside roads, and in bogs [84]. Soil relationships: In interior Alaska and on the Saskatchewan and MacKenzie river deltas, prickly rose does best on soils based on alluvium that may be seasonally flooded. However, it does not do well on peats or in basins with restricted drainage [18,20,57]. From British Columbia to Manitoba prickly rose does well on a variety of soil textures and soil moisture regimes and it has good drought tolerance [14,64,90]. In Alberta, prickly rose does not seem to grow on the poorest sites, although in Alaska it grows on gravels that are low in nutrients and susceptible to rapid freezing and thawing [14,90]. In British Columbia subboreal spruce stands, prickly rose is characteristic of mesic and mesotrophic sites on both fine and coarse textured soils [42,61]. A Minnesota report describes it as growing on sites that range from poor and dry to moderate [5]. Elevation: Elevational ranges in some western regions are [14,19]: Minimum Maximum feet meters feet meters Alberta 1,650 500 6,550 2,000 Colorado 4,500 1,372 10,900 3,322 Montana 3,300 1,006 9,000 2,743 Wyoming 5,000 1,524 10,900 3,322 SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Prickly rose is moderately shade tolerant [90]. In Minnesota forests, this is evident from reported frequencies of 71 to 100 percent in the open and 1 to 40 percent under a canopy [5]. Around Lake Michigan, it is a seral dominant during succession on lake dunes [96]. In northern Montana rough fescue (Festuca scabrella) grasslands, patches of prickly rose, serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), and snowberry (Symphoricarpos spp.) appear to originate when rodents throw up bare soil on which the shrubs may establish [46]. Along the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, it invades on patches of mineral soil exposed by disturbance and pioneers on gravel bars along rivers or after fire [90]. Along rivers in British Columbia and Alaska, it first establishes with pioneering willows and replaces them after they are overtopped by cottonwoods on exposed gravel and silt bars [26,76,78,81]. Following disturbance on black spruce sites, prickly rose may appear as sprouts on the freshly disturbed or burned site. It can spread rapidly by stem and root shoots and reaches greatest density during the tall shrub-sapling stage or under seral aspen. It decreases as the canopy closes [22,25,82]. In white spruce stands, prickly rose sprouts following disturbance, becoming a seral dominant under various mixtures of aspen, birch, lodgepole pine, and white spruce. Finally, it is an understory dominant in the climax stand [22,54,61]. In British Columbia's interior cedar-hemlock transitional subzone, it is found in seral shrub communities with aspen, paper birch, and lodgepole pine [29]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : In New England, prickly rose blooms in mid-June [69]. In northwest Illinois, the normal bloom period is during the last 2 weeks in May, and fruit is set by July [66]. In Alaska, prickly rose blooms in June and July, and hips turn red in August [84].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Rosa acicularis
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Wild roses are moderately fire resistant [36]. Prickly rose can sprout from the base of fire-killed aerial stems or from rhizomes [55,56]. Because rhizomes are located in mineral soil, prickly rose is well adapted for sprouting after fire [10]. Although prickly rose recovery following fire is primarily vegetative, roses germinate from on-site and off-site seeds as well [1,36]. Prickly rose seeds are fire resistant, and germination may be stimulated by fire [55,56,85]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community) Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Rosa acicularis
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire usually kills aboveground parts of prickly rose. Severe fires that remove organic soil horizons kill shallow rhizomes or portions of rhizomes, leaving alive only those rhizome portions growing in mineral soil. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Prickly rose sprouts following fire and may also establish seedlings [1,25,77,85,90]. Rowe [66] has observed that depth of sprouting buds is site-specific in sprouting species and may vary in different regions of the continent. Prickly rose recovery from fire appears to vary by region and site. In Alaska, prickly rose rhizomes grow in mineral soil, and the plant is found on nearly all recently burned sites [10,45]. The severity and timing of the fire and site factors appear to be very important to prickly rose response in western Canada and the Rocky Mountains [30,65,67]. In northeastern broadleaf forests, prickly rose is not as fire tolerant as other associated shrubs. It recovers well after light fires but is infrequent following more severe fires [93]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : Alaska and northwest Canada: In Alaskan black and white spruce stands, prickly rose's habit of rooting in mineral soil allows it to survive fires that consume all or most of the deep organic layers and to flourish in early succession [11,25]. Following early summer wildfires in black spruce stands ranging in age from 50 to 125 years and in aspen woodlands, prickly rose responded rapidly and vigorously, greatly increasing its cover over prefire values [82,91]. After fires which do not burn to mineral soil in Alaskan spruce forests, it sprouts but may not be as vigorous [80]. In Alaska's taiga, repeated fires at lower elevations may lead to meadows dominated by bluejoint reedgrass (Calamagrostis canadensis), sedges (Carex spp.), and prickly rose [77]. In northern British Columbia, frequent fires or repeated burning can convert white spruce and aspen forests on valley slopes to shrub communities which include prickly rose as a dominant [54]. Western Canada and Rocky Mountain States: In the sub-boreal spruce zone of British Columbia prickly rose increases in abundance following fire on moist sites but decreases on drier sites [30]. Prickly rose was a dominant in some British Columbia and Alberta subalpine fir and Engelmann spruce stands 8 years after fire [7]. It sprouted promptly on moist sites in a dry Douglas-fir stand in Montana following a wildfire [15]. On Montana rough fescue grassland, prickly rose did not regain its prefire dominance until the second year following a fall fire [67]. In spring following a fall grassland fire in Saskatchewan, substantial patches of prickly rose showed no sign of sprouting and were apparently killed [65]. Annual spring burning over a 24-year period severely reduced the frequency and cover of prickly rose in Alberta aspen parkland [4]. Great Lakes Region: In the Great Lakes region, prickly rose is less frequent on severely burned sites than on lightly burned sites although its degree of dominance is similar for burned and unburned sites [1]. Results from a study of both spring and summer wildfires in Minnesota mixed conifer-hardwood stands showed reduced frequency for prickly rose. Most postfire plants were sprouts, but some plants apparently started from seed [43]. However, in another Minnesota study the biomass of individual prickly rose plants increased after a mid-May wildfire, nearly doubling from the second to the fifth postfire sampling date [53]. Thirty-three years after another Minnesota wildfire, prickly rose is still of some importance in mixed stands containing aspen, birch and jack pine, although it appears to be a remnant of early postfire succession [52]. In Ontario jack pine stands, prickly rose is a stable species that is present before and after prescribed fires [50]. For information on prescribed fire and postfire responses of many plant species, including prickly rose, see these Research Project Summaries: FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Clearcutting followed by slashburning was sufficiently severe to sharply reduce prickly rose survivors in Alaskan white spruce stands. Since at least some rhizomes in mineral soil survived, it was able to recover, although more slowly than following clearcutting alone [21]. Prickly rose sprouts after fire in black spruce, but it is not competitive with black spruce [12].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Rosa acicularis
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Minnesota Forestry Notes. 117: 1-2. [10316] 6. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 7. Bissett, J.; Parkinson, D. 1980. Long-term effects of fire on the composition and activity of the soil microflora of a subalpine, coniferous forest. Canadian Journal of Botany. 58: 1704-1721. [7490] 8. Bowes, Garry. 1981. Improving aspen poplar and prickly rose-covered rangeland with herbicide and fertilizer. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 61: 401-405. [12464] 9. Brown, Jerry; West, George, C. 1970. Tundra biome research in Alaska: The structure and function of cold-dominated ecosystems. U.S. IBP-Tundra Biome Report 70-1. Hanover, NH: International Biological Program, U.S. Tundra Biome. 148 p. [10400] 10. Calmes, Mary A.; Zasada, John C. 1982. Some reproductive traits of four shrub species in the black spruce forest type of Alaska. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 96(1): 35-40. [6361] 11. Chapin, F. Stuart, III; Van Cleve, Keith. 1981. Plant nutrient absorption and retention under differing fire regimes. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; [and others], technical coordinators. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 301-321. [4397] 12. Chrosciewicz, Z. 1976. Burning for black spruce regeneration on a lowland cutover site in southeastern Manitoba. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 6(2): 179-186. [7280] 13. Corns, I. G. W. 1983. Forest community types of west-central Alberta in relation to selected environmental factors. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 13: 995-1010. [691] 14. Corns, I. G. W.; Annas, R. M. 1986. 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The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 20. Dyrness, C. T.; Grigal, D. F. 1979. Vegetation-soil relationships along a spruce forest transect in interior Alaska. Canadian Journal of Botany. 57: 2644-2656. [12488] 21. Dyrness, C. T.; Viereck, L. A.; Foote, M. J.; Zasada, J. C. 1988. The effect on vegetation and soil temperature of logging flood-plain white spruce. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-392. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 45 p. [7471] 22. Dyrness, C. T.; Viereck, L. A.; Van Cleve, K. 1986. Fire in taiga communities of interior Alaska. In: Forest ecosystems in the Alaskan taiga. New York: Springer-Verlag: 74-86. [3881] 23. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 24. Ferguson, Robert B. 1983. Use of rosaceous shrubs for wildland plantings in the Intermountain West. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Shaw, Nancy, compilers. Managing Intermountain rangelands--improvement of range and wildlife habitats; Proceedings of symposia; 1981 September 15-17; Twin Falls, ID; 1982 June 22-24; Elko, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-157. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 136-149. [915] 25. Foote, M. Joan. 1983. Classification, description, and dynamics of plant communities after fire in the taiga of interior Alaska. Res. Pap. PNW-307. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 108 p. [7080] 26. Fyles, J. W.; Bell, M. A. 1986. Vegetation colonizing river gravel bars in the Rocky Mountains of southeastern British Columbia. Northwest Science. 60(1): 8-14. [5981] 27. 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