Photo courtesy of Kitty Kohout, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
R.t. var. alaskanum (Berger) Boivin [44,71]
R.t. Pallas var. albinervium (Michx.) Fern. [44,67]
R.t. var. propinquum (Turcz.), Trautv. & C.A. Mey. [44,71,83]
Information about swamp red currant is sparse, so some information about Ribes spp.
is used in this review. When specific information about swamp red currant is used, it will be identified.
FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
No special status
Swamp red currant is listed as endangered in Connecticut and Ohio and threatened in Pennsylvania . More information on the state-level protected status of plants in the United States is available at Plants Database.
White spruce (Picea glauca)- quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)/swamp red currant cover type 
Prickly rose (Rosa acicularis)-swamp red currant/naked miterwort (Mitella nuda)-tall bluebells (Mertensia paniculata) habitat type in boreal white spruce-balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and black spruce (Picea mariana) forests .
Swamp red currant is a low, straggling shrub [30,42,50,50,67,71,74,82,83], 1.3 to 3.2 feet (0.4-1.0 m)
tall [2,32,50,71]. Stems are reclining [32,67,83] and branches layer
at lower nodes [32,42,50,71,82]. Leaves are alternate, simple, 3- to 5-lobed [2,32,50,74,82], and softly hairy
beneath [2,30,74]. The inflorescence is a 5- to 20-flowered drooping raceme [30,32,50,74,82], saucer-like [30,83],
and 1.2 to 3.5 inches (3-9 cm) long [2,32]. Fruits are berries, 0.2 to 0.4 inch (0.6-1.0 cm) long [32,50,82],
globose [32,74], smooth [13,32,71,74], and many-seeded . Seeds are oval, flattened, 0.08 to 0.12 inch long,
0.08 inch wide and 0.08 inch thick . Swamp red currant probably has a
root crown  similar to other Ribes
spp.; however, information on this subject was unavailable in the literature.
RAUNKIAER  LIFE FORM:
Swamp red currant probably regenerates vegetatively ; however, information specific to swamp red currant was not available in the literature. Swamp red currant regenerates from seed [37,85].
Pollination: Flowers of Ribes spp. are often wind pollinated .
Breeding system: Flowers of swamp red currant are perfect  which makes swamp red current monoecious.
Seed production: Ribes spp. generally produce seeds when 3 to 5 years old 
Seed dispersal: Seeds of Ribes spp. are dispersed almost entirely by mammals and birds during the summer and fall .
Seed banking: The seeds of Ribes spp. remain viable in the soil for "long periods of time" [56,64,72,73].
Germination: Wright  claims that the germination of the seeds of Ribes spp. are stimulated by fire, but provides no data. Seeds normally germinate in the spring following dispersal .
In a study by Nichols , 100 swamp red currant seeds were planted in sterilized soil and placed outdoors in a cold frame for a refrigeration period of 71 to 112 days. Another box of 100 seeds was kept in a greenhouse and germination rates were compared. The number of germinating swamp red currant seeds was greater and quicker without refrigeration :
|Number of seeds germinating||Number of days required for germination|
Seedling establishment/growth: No information is available on this topic.
Asexual regeneration: Heinselman
 states that woody genera regenerate asexually via a
root crown; however,
he does not specifically mention Ribes spp. Swamp red currant does
regenerate by layering
Swamp red currant is found growing in rich, damp, and poorly-drained deciduous and coniferous woods [20,62,67,71,83], margins of bogs [30,32,50,71,74], lakeshores , and stream banks [42,71]. Swamp red currant is a plant indicator for the white spruce/balsam fir forest type in the Lake States .
Elevation: Swamp red currant grows from the lowlands to timberline in Alaska . Further information about elevation is unavailable.
Soil: Swamp red currant grows in well-drained to somewhat poorly-drained moist to wet soil [13,32,39,47,50,74,83]. In the lowlands of northern Wisconsin, it can be found growing in black spruce bogs composed of peat moss, with a pH of 4.5, and in northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis) swamps composed of compacted coarse wood peat . In the white spruce-flood plain habitat of Alaska, swamp red currant grows on well-drained alluvial soils . In mixed-boreal forest types in southwest Quebec, it is more commonly found on clay than till deposits .
Climate varies throughout the range of swamp red currant. In Canada and Alaska, swamp red currant grows
in cool, humid microthermal climates with cold, dry winters and warm, wet summers [21,24]. In southern
Alaska, it grows in maritime climates on ocean-facing slopes . In the Lake States, swamp red currant
grows in a continental climate [31,62].
Swamp red currant is shade-tolerant [26,47] and occurs from pioneer to climax stages across its range [8,9,29,31,45,55,70,81].
In Itasca County, Minnesota, swamp red currant was found growing in the pioneer stage of a highland hardwood burn of unknown intensity. Before the burn, climax hardwoods included balsam fir, basswood (Tilia americana), red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and eastern hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) .
In interior Alaska, swamp red currant occurred in an early postfire successional stage dominated by paper birch (Betula papyrifera), and in a climax community dominated by white spruce. The intensity of the fires is unknown .
In mixed-boreal forests of eastern Canada, swamp red currant grows in early successional stages. It was found growing in the 1st postfire successional stage, dominated by quaking aspen, paper birch, and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and the 2nd postfire successional stage, dominated by balsam fir and northern white-cedar [8,9].
In boreal black spruce forests of British Columbia, swamp red currant occurs in a mid-seral stage dominated by black and white spruce and meadow horsetail (Equisetum pratense) .
In western Labrador, Simon and Schwab  measured the abundance of swamp red currant on black spruce sites that burned 2, 18, and 40 years ago, as well as 80 and 140-year-old dry and wet nonburned sites. Swamp red currant reached the highest abundance on the oldest, wet sites. These sites were dominated by paper birch, with water that continuously seeped through the soil :
|Age of site (years)||2||18||40||80||140 dry site||140 wet site|
Abundance (mean canopy volume m│)
In northern Michigan, swamp red currant occurred in the American beech (Fagus grandifolia)/sugar maple successional stage 20-25 years following fire of unknown intensity in a quaking aspen forest .
In 5 Chena River stands in the boreal forest of interior Alaska, swamp red currant was present in late stages of succession :
|Cover type||Alaska willow (Salix alaxensis) (0-50 years old)||Balsam poplar (50 years old)||White spruce (120 years old)||White spruce/black spruce (200 years old)||Black spruce/Sphagnum spp. (120 years old)|
Fire regimes: Coniferous forests of interior Alaska are particularly liable to destruction by fire due to long hours of sunshine during the summer, low precipitation, and high air temperatures. Heavy growth of lichens and mosses provide fuel for fires in the summer when very dry. Fires were set by Native Americans in early times to increase the quality of hunting, as a means to communicate, and as smudge fires for relief from mosquitoes. By 1896, gold was discovered by settlers, increasing the population dramatically. Between 1898 and 1940, an average of at least 1 million acres (404,687 ha) was burned each year, mainly due to highway and railroad construction, as well as to increase grass for forage, to kill mosquitoes and to make prospecting easier .
Fires were common in areas of the temperate forests of the northeastern United States where swamp red currant occurs before European settlers arrived. Native Americans used fire for more than 1,000 years to clear land and drive game, maintaining a mosaic of seral stages. Fires may have burned at intervals of 3 years or less on dry forest sites and intervals of 100 years on wetter forested sites where swamp red currant is found. After European settlers arrived, fire was used to clear land to encourage quick growth of grass for livestock. Over time, states attempted to control fire. Since the 1950s, fire has has become relatively rare in spruce-fir forests of the northeastern United States .
The following table provides fire return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where red swamp currant is important. For further information, see the FEIS review of the dominant species listed below.
|Community or ecosystem||Dominant species||Fire return interval range (years)|
|maple-beech||Acer-Fagus spp.||684-1,385 [16,84]|
|sugar maple||Acer saccharum||>1,000|
|sugar maple-basswood||Acer saccharum-Tilia americana||>1,000 |
|birch||Betula spp.||80-230 |
|beech-sugar maple||Fagus spp.-Acer saccharum||>1,000|
|black ash||Fraxinus nigra||<35 to 200 |
|tamarack||Larix laricina||35-200 |
|yellow-poplar||Liriodendron tulipifera||<35 |
|Great Lakes spruce-fir||Picea-Abies spp.||35 to >200|
|northeastern spruce-fir||Picea-Abies spp.||35-200|
|black spruce||Picea mariana||35-200|
|conifer bog*||Picea mariana-Larix laricina||35-200|
|red spruce*||Picea rubens||35-200 |
|jack pine||Pinus banksiana||<35 to 200 [16,22]|
|Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine*||Pinus contorta var. latifolia||25-340 [5,6,77]|
|red pine (Great Lakes region)||Pinus resinosa||3-18 ( x=10) [15,27]|
|red-white pine* (Great Lakes region)||Pinus resinosa-P. strobus||3-200 [16,36,54]|
|eastern white pine-eastern hemlock||Pinus strobus-Tsuga canadensis||35-200 |
|quaking aspen-paper birch||Populus tremuloides-Betula papyrifera||35-200 [22,84]|
|quaking aspen (west of the Great Plains)||Populus tremuloides||7-120 [3,33,58]|
|eastern hemlock-yellow birch||Tsuga canadensis-Betula alleghaniensis||100-240 [76,84]|
|Presence in stands (%)||Average frequency in sample plots within stands (%)||Average cover (%)||Average relative frequency (%)||Average relative dominance (%)||Average importance value (%)||Commonness index (presence x frequency)|
|Quaking aspen-paper birch community||11||1||<1%||<1%||<1%||<1%||12|
|Paper birch community||13||1||<1%||1||<1%||1||16|
The effects of fire and spruce beetles were studied by Holsten and others  in white spruce forests within the Resurrection Creek watershed of the Chugach National Forest, Alaska. In 1980, 30 plots were established to monitor changes in species richness and diversity of understory vegetation as a result of spruce beetle-caused mortality of white spruce. The plots were remeasured annually for the first 5 years and again in 1985 and 1991. In June, 1984, a prescribed burn was conducted on 1,507 acres (610 ha) of the watershed to provide browse habitat for moose. Seventeen of the original 30 plots were within the burn. The burn consumed all overstory and understory vegetation and exposed mineral soil in a few cases. Eleven years following prescribed burning, the frequency and cover of swamp red currant decreased to 0% on the burned and unburned plots. Since this response was observed on both burned and unburned plots, it does not necessarily prove that swamp red currant is negatively affected by fire :
|Burned plots (n=17)||Unburned plots (n=13)|
Viereck and Dyrness  studied the development of vegetation following the 1971 Wickersham Dome Fire near Fairbanks, Alaska, which burned 15,570 acres (6,300 ha) of predominantly black spruce forest. Data were collected for 3 years following the fire. Swamp red currant was present in quaking aspen stands 1 and 3 years following a "heavy burn," which was defined as >90-95% of the area blackened; lesser vegetation and tree crowns were consumed. The largest percent cover and frequency of red swamp currant occurred 3 years following the burn. No data were reported for swamp red currant on control plots :
The effects of fire severity on the early development of understory vegetation in boreal mixedwood stands was studied on the 1999 Black River Fire in southeastern Manitoba. Before the burn, stands consisted of quaking aspen and a mixture of balsam fir, white spruce, black spruce and (or) jack pine and the stands had not burned for 70 years. Understory vegetation recovery was studied on four 12 to 25 acre (5-10 ha) plots from 1999-2002. Three fire severity classes were assigned: (1) scorched, litter not burned or partially burned; (2) lightly burned, with or without very limited duff consumption; and (3) severely burned, forest floor completely consumed, and organic matter in soil horizon may be partially consumed. Swamp red currant was most prevalent in the scorched plots, where seed and crowns were probably least damaged. According to Wang and Kemball , scorching alone would probably not be sufficient to stimulate germination of swamp red currant. The mean percent cover and frequency over the 4 postfire years for swamp red currant was as follows :
|Scorched||Lightly burned||Severely burned|
Palatability/nutritional value: The browse value of Ribes spp. is typically poor to fair for livestock [18,79]. Ribes spp. have considerable nutritional value for songbirds, rodents, small and large nongame mammals and hoofed browsers [57,79]. In studies in Alaska, the fruits of swamp red currant were eaten by black bears  and moose  during summer months.
No information is available on this topic.
VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES:
Ribes spp. can be propagated by hardwood cuttings taken during dormancy in the late fall, winter, or early spring. The cuttings can be planted immediately in a greenhouse or stored in moist sand or peat in a cool place until spring .
Ribes triste var. alaskanum and Ribes triste var. propinquum are cultivated garden varieties [71,83].
The fruits of swamp red currant can be eaten raw [38,82] and are utilized by the Eskimo of the Northern Bering Sea and Arctic regions of Alaska . Jams and jellies can be made from the fruits [38,82,83].
Swamp red currant can be used to address urinary and gynecological problems .
OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Silviculture: Very dense understories of balsam fir and northern white-cedar suppress the growth of Ribes species .
Following clearcutting and shelterwood cutting in white spruce floodplain habitat on Willow Island in the Tanana River near Fairbanks, Alaska, the percent cover and percent frequency of swamp red currant either returned to precut amounts or increased :
|Treatment||Control||Postclearcut||Postshelterwood cut (14 m spacing)||Postshelterwood cut (9 m spacing)|
|Year||Year 1||Year 2||Year 1||Year 2||Year 1||Year 2|
Yarie and Mead  developed biomass equations from foliar cover and height estimates of plant species to provide an efficient means for determining vegetative biomass on inventory plots in the Tanana River basin of interior Alaska. Equations are available in :
Disease: Swamp red currant is an alternate host for the white pine blister rust fungus [59,79].
Herbicide: The effectiveness of vegetation control treatments were measured 11 years following a wildfire in boreal white and black spruce habitat in the Dawson Creek Forest District of British Columbia to reduce dense mixed hardwood, shrub, and grass communities. Treatments included: (1) discing; (2) discing and glyphosate treatment; (3) no discing and glyphosate treatment and (4) an untreated control. Vegetation was measured 14 years following the treatments. Swamp red currant showed no growth following any of the treatments and had 0.5% cover in the untreated control with a modal height of 0.33 feet (0.10 m) .
To control vegetation competing with white spruce, glyphosate was applied to one 328 x 328 ft. (100 x 100 m) plot at the Tsiloh River in the Fort James Forest District of British Columbia. Ten years later, vegetation was measured. Swamp red currant was found growing in the plot treated with glyphosate and was not present in the control plot .
Wildlife: The density of swamp red currant decreases moderately in deer yards, a place where deer herd during the winter months, of northern white-cedar swamps of northern Wisconsin .
Hummingbirds utilize the flowers of swamp red currant .
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