Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Ribes oxyacanthoides


SPECIES: Ribes oxyacanthoides
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Carey, Jennifer H. 1995. Ribes oxyacanthoides. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].

ABBREVIATION : RIBOXY SYNONYMS : Ribes cognatum Greene [14] Ribes hendersonii C. L. Hitchc. [14,21] Ribes irriguum Dougl. [14,21] Ribes setosum Lindl. [11,21,39] SCS PLANT CODE : RIOX RIOXC RIOXH RIOXI RIOXO RIOXS COMMON NAMES : northern gooseberry inland gooseberry Idaho gooseberry Henderson's gooseberry Umatilla gooseberry Missouri gooseberry TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for northern gooseberry is Ribes oxyacanthoides L. [16,31]. It is a member of the gooseberry family (Grossulariaceae). In a 1985 monograph, Sinnott [31] recognized the following five subspecies: R. o. ssp. cognatum (Greene) Sinnott (Umatilla gooseberry) R. o. ssp. hendersonii (C. L. Hitchc.) Sinnott (Henderson's gooseberry) R. o. ssp. irriguum (Dougl.) Sinnott (Idaho gooseberry) R. o. ssp. oxyacanthoides L. (northern gooseberry) R. o. ssp. setosum (Lindl.) Sinnott (inland gooseberry, Missouri gooseberry) Most regional floras consider the five subspecies to be separate species [11,14,21]; the recent taxonomic change by Sinnott is recognized in this writeup. Inland gooseberry and northern gooseberry are the most widespread subspecies and much of the information in this writeup pertains to them. In this writeup, "northern gooseberry" refers to the typical subspecies, and the scientific name is used to refer to the species as a whole. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : See OTHER STATUS OTHER STATUS : Umatilla gooseberry is listed as sensitive in Washington [38] and Montana [22]. Sinnott [31] considers it to be a "likely candidate" for federal concern. Idaho gooseberry is listed as sensitive in Washington [38].


SPECIES: Ribes oxyacanthoides
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Ribes oxyacanthoides occurs across the boreal region of Canada from Hudson Bay to Alaska. It extends south into the United States in the palouse prairie region of eastern Washington and Oregon through the northern Rocky Mountains, the Black Hills, the Upper Missouri Basin, and the Great Lakes States to Michigan. Northern gooseberry occurs from Alaska east throughout northern and western Canada to eastern Ontario, south to northern Michigan, and west to eastern Wyoming and eastern Montana. Inland gooseberry occurs in the northern Rocky Mountains from Montana and Idaho south to northern Utah. In eastern Montana, eastern Wyoming, and the western Dakotas, inland gooseberry intergrades with northern gooseberry. Sinnott [31] identified most herbarium specimens collected from this region as northern gooseberry, but other authors report inland gooseberry in this region [10,11,13,36]. Idaho gooseberry occurs west of the Continental Divide from southeastern British Columbia south to northeastern Oregon and east to western Montana. Henderson's gooseberry occurs in central Idaho, western Montana, and scattered locations in Nevada [31]. Umatilla gooseberry occurs from southeastern British Columbia south to northeastern Oregon, northern Idaho, and northwestern Montana [31,22]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES10 White-red-jack pine FRES11 Spruce-fir FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood FRES19 Aspen-birch FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES23 Fir-spruce FRES26 Lodgepole pine FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES29 Sagebrush FRES38 Plains grasslands STATES : AK ID MI MN MT NE NV ND OR SD UT WA WI WY AB BC MB NT ON SK YT BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 15 Black Hills Uplift 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K011 Western ponderosa forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K093 Great Lakes spruce-fir forest K095 Great Lakes pine forest K098 Northern floodplain forest K101 Elm-ash forest K106 Northern hardwoods SAF COVER TYPES : 1 Jack pine 16 Aspen 63 Cottonwood 201 White spruce 210 Interior Douglas-fir 217 Aspen 218 Lodgepole pine 219 Limber pine 236 Bur oak 237 Interior ponderosa pine SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : 101 Bluebunch wheatgrass 109 Ponderosa pine shrubland 411 Aspen woodland 422 Riparian HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Inland gooseberry and Umatilla gooseberry commonly occur in riparian communities. In Utah, inland gooseberry occurs with quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), alder (Alnus spp.), birch (Betula spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) [39]. Inland gooseberry occurs in a Booth willow (S. boothii)/beaked sedge (Carex rostrata) community type in eastern Idaho and western Wyoming [42]. In the Little Missouri National Grasslands in southwestern North Dakota, inland gooseberry occurs in the understory of a riparian woodland dominated by green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and American elm (Ulmus americana). Associated understory shrubs include western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis), Wood's rose (Rosa woodsii), Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), silver buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), American plum (Prunus americana), raspberry (Rubus spp.), and hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) [36]. Inland gooseberry occurs in a western snowberry community type and a Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum)/littleseed ricegrass (Oryzopsis micrantha) habitat type in the Custer National Forest in southeastern Montana [13]. In the Killdeer Mountains of southwestern North Dakota, inland gooseberry occurs in a paper birch (Betula papyrifera)/beaked hazel (Corylus cornuta) community type. Bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) occurs in the canopy [10]. On drier sites, inland gooseberry occurs with sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) and skunkbush sumac (Rhus trilobata) [31]. Northern gooseberry occurs in openings within the lowland boreal forest region of Canada. Idaho gooseberry is commonly associated with conifers [31].


SPECIES: Ribes oxyacanthoides
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Inland gooseberry berries were 0.3 percent of total annual grizzly bear diet volume in Yellowstone National Park [23]. Mule deer browse inland gooseberry foliage in summer and fall. In southern Montana inland gooseberry was 3 percent by volume of mule deer diet in the fall [40]. Umatilla gooseberry was browsed by elk July through September in the Selway Game Preserve in Idaho [41]. PALATABILITY : Palatability of inland gooseberry foliage is poor for sheep, cattle, and horses [6]. Umatilla gooseberry is not highly palatable to elk [41]. Ribes oxyacanthoides fruit is more or less palatable to humans [15,39]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : The nutritional value (based on dry weight) of inland gooseberry fruit collected when ripe in Yellowstone National Park was 7.2 percent protein, 5.2 percent ether extract, 9.7 percent fiber, 66.7 percent nitrogen-free extract, and 11.2 percent ash. The fruit contained 0.36 percent calcium and 0.29 percent phosphorus [23]. Protein content (dry weight) of inland gooseberry foliage was 7.6 to 12.1 percent on unburned sites and 11.2 to 19.1 percent on recently burned sites in central Montana [19]. COVER VALUE : Cover values for inland gooseberry are as follows [6]: ND WY Pronghorn poor poor Elk ---- poor Mule deer good fair White-tailed deer good fair Small mammals ---- good Small nongame birds ---- good Upland game birds ---- good Waterfowl ---- poor VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Ribes oxyacanthoides is an alternate host for white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) which infests five-needled pines. Because of their association with the rust, Ribes spp. have been a target of various eradiction studies [27]. Efforts to eradicate Ribes spp. have had some success only in the Great Lakes States. Only a few Ribes bushes per acre are sufficient to perpetuate blister rust [12]. Inland gooseberry occurs in riparian woodlands in the Upper Missouri Basin which are in decline from overuse by cattle [37]. Ribes spp. generally decrease in abundance and canopy cover with moderate grazing [4]. However, inland gooseberry showed no statistically significant differences in height between grazed and ungrazed areas and cut and uncut areas during a 6-year study in a riparian woodland in southwestern North Dakota [37]. Umatilla gooseberry, once found along many drainages in the palouse prairie region of southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon, has declined because streambanks in the region have been highly modified by grazing and agriculture. Sinnott [31] located only one population.


SPECIES: Ribes oxyacanthoides
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Ribes oxyacanthoides is a native, deciduous shrub that grows to 1.5 to 5 feet (0.5-1.5 m) in height. The branches are erect to sprawling and covered with prickles. The nodes have several 0.2- to 0.5-inch (0.5-1.3 cm) long stout spines. Flowers occur singly or in clusters of two to three. The berry is 0.3 to 0.6 inch (0.7-1.6 cm) in diameter and contains numerous seeds. Henderson's gooseberry differs in that it is a low, intricately branched shrub growing only 1 to 1.6 feet (0.3-0.5 m) in height [31]. The root systems of Ribes spp. consist of shallow roots radiating from a central root crown [26]. Some Ribes spp. reportedly have rhizomes [5,25]. No information concerning the root systems of Ribes oxyacanthoides was found in the literature. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Ribes oxyacanthoides regenerates by seed. Ribes spp. first begin producing seeds when 3 to 5 years old. Some seeds are dispersed by animals, but many berries fall to the ground beneath the parent plant [25,28]. Scarification and stratification enhance germination of Ribes spp. Idaho gooseberry seeds stored at 32 to 41 degrees Fahrenheit (0-5 deg C) for 90 days had 79 percent germination in sand moistened with nutrient solution [28]. Mineral soil is the best seedbed for Ribes spp. [25]. Ribes spp. seeds have longterm viability [28]. They accumulate in the organic mantle and mineral soil over time [25]. The ability of Ribes oxyacanthoides to regenerate vegetatively by rhizomes or by sprouting is not documented in the literature. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Northern gooseberry occurs on rocky and sandy shores, stony banks, talus slopes and outcrops [31] and in clearings, moist woods, and thickets [12,32]. It generally occurs at low elevations within the boreal forest region [14,31]. Inland gooseberry, Umatilla gooseberry, and Idaho gooseberry occur along drainages, ravines, and canyons, and on adjacent hillsides [7,11,14,21]. These three subspecies occupy different elevational ranges where they are sympatric. Umatilla gooseberry occurs below 2,950 feet (900 m) elevation. Idaho gooseberry occurs at elevations from 2,950 to 4,900 feet (900-1,500 m) [31]. Inland gooseberry occurs from 7,000 to 9,000 feet (2,130-2,750 m) elevation in Utah [39], 3,200 to 9,500 feet (980-2,900 m) in Montana and 3,400 to 10,500 feet (1,000-3,200 m) in Wyoming [6]. Henderson's gooseberry occurs on rocky sites above treeline including limestone cliffs and talus slopes [14,21,31]. It occurs in a dry boulder field at 7,924 feet (2,416 m) elevation in the Pioneer Mountains of south-central Idaho [24]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Ribes oxyacanthoides is probably moderately shade tolerant; it occurs in open woods and forests. It probably becomes established in early seral communities and remains present in mid-seral communities. Inland gooseberry is most abundant in the shrubland stage of riparian community succession. Successional stages are as follows: sandbar, young cottonwoods, mature cottonwoods with shrub understory, shrubland, and grassland [4]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Flowering and fruiting dates follow [31]: flowering fruiting Umatilla gooseberry April-May May-July Idaho gooseberry May-June June-July inland gooseberry May-June June-August northern gooseberry May-June June-August Henderson's gooseberry June-July July-August Ribes spp. seeds germinate in the spring [28].


SPECIES: Ribes oxyacanthoides
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Ribes oxyacanthoides commonly occurs in forest habitats such as quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and jack pine (P. banksiana) that are characterized by long fire-free intervals punctuated by severe stand-replacing fires [5]. The ability of Ribes oxyacanthoides to regenerate after fire from long-lived seed stored in soil or from off-site sources makes this species fairly resilient to stand-replacing fire. This species may be able to sprout after low-severity fire. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community) Secondary colonizer - off-site seed


SPECIES: Ribes oxyacanthoides
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire that burns the organic soil probably kills Ribes oxyacanthoides. Noste and Bushey [26] report that fire that removes the organic soil layer will likely kill the shallow root systems of most Ribes spp. The ability of R. oxyacanthoides to sprout after top-kill by fire is not described in the literature. Ribes oxycanthoides seeds contained in the organic mantle are probably killed by severe fire, but seeds buried in the mineral soil probably survive. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Northern and inland gooseberry have been observed on burned sites 3 months after low-severity spring fire [1,19]. Whether they were present as seedlings or sprouts was not reported. As with other Ribes spp., R. oxyacanthoides may sprout from the root crown after low-severity fire, and it probably colonizes burned sites via long-lived seed and/or seed carried on-site by animals. Northern gooseberry frequency and cover increased after spring fire in a western snowberry shrub community in central Alberta. Three months after a May 1971 fire, northern gooseberry frequency was 6 percent and cover was 1 percent. Frequency and cover on unburned sites was 1 percent and less than 1 percent, respectively. Similar results were obtained after a May fire in 1970 [1]: May 1970 fire unburned burned 1970 1971 1972 1970 1971 1972 frequency (%) 4 9 9 7 11 11 cover (%) + + + + 1 + + = present but less than 1 percent Inland gooseberry was present in the summer following spring prescribed fire in the Blacktail Hills of central Montana [19]. Idaho gooseberry was present in postfire years 1 and 2 in a patchily burned ravine area of the Pattee Canyon wildfire in western Montana [17]. Severe fire creates canopy openings and suitable mineral seedbeds for Ribes oxyacanthoides establishment. On islands in Great Slave Lake in the Northwest Territories, northern gooseberry was present on a site burned severely 12 years previously but not on adjacent unburned spruce (Picea spp.) forest sites [18]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Fire suppression in quaking aspen parklands in central Alberta resulted in increased brush cover. Prescribed fire was considered for removal of brush dominated by western snowberry and including northern gooseberry [1]. At the time of the May prescribed fires, standing woody fuel averaged 11,017 kg/ha and fuel moisture was 20 percent. During the fires, soil surface temperatures ranged from 242 to 1,198 degrees Fahrenheit (117-648 deg C) with an average of 748 degrees Fahrenheit (398 deg C) [2]. Northern gooseberry cover returned to prefire levels 3 months after prescribed fire [1]. In the Blacktail Hills of central Montana, the crude protein content of inland gooseberry foliage collected in late summer and in early spring was 3.4 to 9.8 percent higher on burned sites than unburned sites [19] .


SPECIES: Ribes oxyacanthoides
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Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 68 p. [771] 14. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168] 15. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403] 16. Kartesz, John T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume I--checklist. 2nd ed. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 622 p. [23877] 17. Keller, Marilyn Crane. 1980. Post-fire recovery within ravine forest communities of Pattee Canyon, Missoula, Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 136 p. Thesis. [6725] 18. Kelsall, John P. 1957. Continued barren-ground caribou studies. Wildlife Management Bulletin Series 1: No. 12. Ottawa, Canada: Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, National Parks Branch, Canadian Wildlife Service. 148 p. [16597] 19. Keown, Larry D. 1982. An evaluation of qualitative plant responses to prescribed burning on a central Montana ecosystem. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 17 p. [14925] 20. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 21. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798] 22. Lesica, Peter; Shelly, J. Stephen. 1991. Sensitive, threatened and endangered vascular plants of Montana. Occasional Publication No. 1. Helena, MT: Montana Natural Heritage Program. 88 p. [20964] 23. Mealey, Stephen Patrick. 1975. The natural food habits of free ranging grizzly bears in Yellowstone National Park, 1973-1974. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 158 p. Thesis. [10580] 24. Moseley, Robert K.; Bernatas, Susan. 1992. Vascular flora of Kane Lake Cirque, Pioneer Mountains, Idaho. Great Basin Naturalist. 52(4): 335-343. [20212] 25. Moss, Virgil D.; Wellner, Charles A. 1953. Aiding blister rust control by silvicultural measures in the western white pine type. Circular No. 919. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 32 p. [12262] 26. Noste, Nonan V.; Bushey, Charles L. 1987. Fire response of shrubs of dry forest habitat types in Montana and Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-239. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 22 p. [255] 27. Offord, H. R.; Van Atta, G. R.; Swanson, H. E. 1940. Chemical and mechanical methods of Ribes eradication in the white pine areas of the western states. Tech. Bull. No. 692. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 50 p. [1795] 28. Pfister, Robert D. 1974. Ribes L.--currant, gooseberry. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., tech. coord. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 720-727. [1877] 29. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 30. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362] 31. Sinnott, Quinn P. 1985. A revision of Ribes L. subg. Grossularia (Mill.) pers. sect. Grossularia (Mill.) Nutt. (Grossulariaceae) in North America. Rhodora. 87(850): 189-286. [24610] 32. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. [12907] 33. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 34. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1994. Plants of the U.S.--alphabetical listing. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 954 p. [23104] 35. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. [n.d.]. NP Flora [Data base]. Davis, CA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. [23119] 36. Uresk, Daniel W.; Boldt, Charles E. 1986. Effect of cultural treatments on regeneration of native woodlands on the Northern Great Plains. Prairie Naturalist. 18(4): 193-201. [3836] 37. Uresk, Daniel W. 1987. Effects of livestock grazing and thinning of overstory trees on understory woody plants. In: Provenza, Frederick D.; Flinders, Jerran T.; McArthur, E. Durant, compilers. Proceedings--symposium on plant-herbivore interactions; 1985 August 7-9; Snowbird, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-222. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 168-171. [7412] 38. Washington Natural Heritage Program. 1990. Endangered, threatened and sensitive vascular plants of Washington. Olympia, WA: Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Land and Water Conservation. 52 p. [13211] 39. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944] 40. Wilkins, Bruce T. 1957. Range use, food habits, and agricultural relationships of the mule deer, Bridger Mountains, Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management. 21(2): 159-169. [1411] 41. Young, Vernon A.; Robinette, W. Leslie. 1939. A study of the range habits of elk on the Selway Game Preserve. Bull. No. 9. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, School of Forestry. 47 p. [6831] 42. Youngblood, Andrew P.; Padgett, Wayne G.; Winward, Alma H. 1985. Riparian community type classification of eastern Idaho - western Wyoming. R4-Ecol-85-01. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 78 p. [2686]

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