Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Ribes lacustre

Introductory

SPECIES: Ribes lacustre
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Carey, Jennifer H. 1995. Ribes lacustre. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ []. ABBREVIATION : RIBLAC SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : RILA COMMON NAMES : bristly black currant swamp currant prickly currant TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for bristly black currant is Ribes lacustre (Pers.) Poir. (Grossulariaceae) [25,33,34,35,59]. There are no currently accepted infrataxa. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Ribes lacustre
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Bristly black currant occurs throughout Canada from Newfoundland to Yukon Territory and in Alaska [35,54,59].  It extends south into the continental United States in the Coast and Cascade ranges to northern California, in the Rocky Mountains to central Colorado and northern Utah, in the Great Lake States, and in the Appalachian Mountains to West Virginia [8,25,33,65,72].  In the northern Great Plains region, bristly black currant occurs in the Black Hills [26]. ECOSYSTEMS :    FRES11  Spruce-fir    FRES18  Maple-beech-birch    FRES19  Aspen-birch    FRES20  Douglas-fir    FRES22  Western white pine    FRES23  Fir-spruce    FRES24  Hemlock-Sitka spruce    FRES25  Larch    FRES26  Lodgepole pine    FRES28  Western hardwoods STATES :      AK  CA  CO  CT  ID  ME  MA  MI  MN  MT      NH  OH  OR  PA  SD  UT  VT  VA  WA  WV      WY  AB  BC  MB  NB  NF  NT  ON  PE  PQ      SK  YT BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :     1  Northern Pacific Border     2  Cascade Mountains     5  Columbia Plateau     8  Northern Rocky Mountains     9  Middle Rocky Mountains    10  Wyoming Basin    11  Southern Rocky Mountains    15  Black Hills Uplift    16  Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :    K001  Spruce-cedar-hemlock forest    K003  Silver fir-Douglas-fir forest    K004  Fir-hemlock forest    K007  Red fir forest    K008  Lodgepole pine-subalpine forest    K012  Douglas-fir forest    K013  Cedar-hemlock-pine forest    K014  Grand fir-Douglas-fir forest    K015  Western spruce-fir forest    K025  Alder-ash forest    K093  Great Lakes spruce-fir forest    K096  Northeastern spruce-fir forest    K106  Northern hardwoods SAF COVER TYPES :     60  Beech-sugar maple    107  White spruce    201  White spruce    205  Mountain hemlock    206  Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir    207  Red fir    208  Whitebark pine    210  Interior Douglas-fir    211  White fir    212  Western larch    213  Grand fir    215  Western white pine    218  Lodgepole pine    221  Red alder    222  Black cottonwood-willow    223  Sitka spruce    227  Western redcedar-western hemlock SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES :    422  Riparian HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Bristly black currant occurs in woods, forests, and shrublands.  It is a common but not abundant understory species [16,27,32]. Bristly black currant occurs in the understory of subalpine forests in Wyoming with gooseberry currant (Ribes montigenum), sidebells wintergreen (Orthilia secunda), heartleaf arnica (Arnica cordifolia), and fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium) [9]. In the cedar (Thuja spp.)-hemlock (Tsuga spp.) zone of northwestern British Columbia, bristly black currant occurs with devil's club (Oplopanax horridus), leafy moss (Mnium spp.), oak fern (Gymnocarpium dryopteris), Schreber's moss (Pleurozium schreberi), common ladyfern (Athyrium filix-femina), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.) [28].  Bristly black currant occurs in the oak fern, devil's club, horsetail, and queencup beadlily (Clintonia uniflora) series of the wet, cool subboreal spruce (Picea spp.) forest zone in British Columbia [32]. Bristly black currant occurs with Rocky Mountain maple (Acer glabrum), Utah honeysuckle (Lonicera utahensis), blue huckleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum), and western meadowrue (Thalictrum occidentale) in the understory of a virgin grand fir (Abies grandis) forest in northern Idaho [36]. In spruce forests in Alberta, bristly black currant occurs with other mesophytic species including twinberry honeysuckle (Lonicera involucrata), highbush cranberry (Viburnum edule), tall bluebells (Mertensia paniculata), wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis), bluejoint reedgrass (Calamagrostis canadensis), oak fern, stiff clubmoss (Lycopodium amnotinum), and claspleaf twistedstalk (Streptopus amplexifolius) [41]. Bristly black currant occurs in riparian woodlands and shrublands.  It occurs in a thinleaf alder (Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia) riparian dominance type in east-central Oregon [50].  In the Klamath Mountains of northern California, bristly black currant borders streams with thinleaf alder, California mountain-ash (Sorbus californica), and Scouler willow (Salix scouleriana), and it occurs in thickets with thinleaf alder, Sitka alder (Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata), red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), red elderberry (Sambucus racemosa ssp. pubens), and cascara (Rhamnus purshiana) [56]. Clearcuts in the Olympic Mountains in Washington, dominated by oceanspray (Holodiscus discolor) and thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus), include common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus) and bristly black currant [23].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Ribes lacustre
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Bristly black currant berries are eaten by rodents, bears, and birds [38].  In southwestern Alberta grizzly bears feed on bristly black currant berries in late summer and early autumn [31].  Elk, mule deer, white-tailed deer, and mountain goats eat bristly black currant foliage [11,18,55,58,71].  In Montana bristly black currant was 1 percent of elk diet in early summer and 3 percent in late summer [18]. PALATABILITY : Bristly black currant browse is moderately palatable to livestock, elk, and deer [17,38].  The berries are edible but somewhat disagreeable tasting [35,38,59]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Bristly black currant berries collected in the summer in northern Ontario consisted of 79.68 percent moisture, 20 percent dry matter, 0.28 percent fat, 1.46 percent protein, and 5.66 percent soluble carbohydrate based on fresh fruit weight.  Fresh bristly black currant fruit contains slightly more than 30 kilocalories per 100 grams [69]. Nutritional values of bristly black currant berries collected in late summer in southeastern Washington, based on dry weight, were 2.94 percent protein, 4.09 percent lipid, 3.96 percent neutral detergent fiber, 4.56 percent ash, 0.282 percent calcium, 0.066 percent magnesium, 0.17 percent phosphorus, and 1.887 percent potassium [52]. Norton and others [46] analyzed the nutritional value of dried bristly black currant berries stored for 1 year.  Traditional Native American drying and storing methods were used.  One gram dry weight contained on average 3.19 milligrams calcium, 0.05 milligram iron, 0.94 milligram magnesium, 0.02 milligram zinc, and 3.33 milligrams ascorbic acid [46]. COVER VALUE : In Wyoming, bristly black currant is considered poor cover for elk and pronghorn and fair cover for mule deer and white-tailed deer.  It is good cover for upland game birds, small nongame birds, and small mammals [17]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest ate bristly black currant berries in historic times [46]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Bristly black currant is an alternate host for white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) which infests five-needled pines.  Because of its association with the rust, bristly black currant has been a target of various eradication studies.  Bristly black currant is highly resistant to chemical injury [48].  Efforts to eradicate Ribes spp. have been unsuccessful and have not resulted in decreased rust infection.  Only a few Ribes bushes per acre are sufficient to perpetuate blister rust [29]. Although bristly black currant establishes on scarified ground after tree harvest, it does not impede conifer seedling establishment [61]. Grazing by wild ungulates prevents development of bristly black currant in clearcuts.  Eleven years after clearcutting, burned and unburned grazed sites averaged 0.3 percent cover bristly black currant.  Ungrazed burned clearcuts averaged 4.6 percent cover and ungrazed unburned clearcuts averaged 9.8 percent cover [19].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Ribes lacustre
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Bristly black currant is a native, deciduous shrub that grows 3 to 4 feet (1-1.2 m) tall [44,59,72].  In sunlight bristly black currant grows erect, but in shade, branches are often reclining or trailing [44]. Bristly black currant has prickly stems and nodal spines.  The drooping raceme has 5 to 15 flowers [33].  The berries average 0.34 inch (8.6 mm) in diameter and contain an average of 16.5 small seeds [52]. The root systems of Ribes spp. consist of shallow roots radiating from a central root crown [47].  Bristly black currant roots are very shallow, especially on moist sites, but lateral spread can be extensive [48]. Some sources report that bristly black currant is rhizomatous [22,48] while others report that it is nonrhizomatous [61].  Bristly black currant partially buried by volcanic ejecta from Mount St. Helens in southern Washington had not developed rhizomes but had a well-developed adventitious root system [3]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :       Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Bristly black currant regenerates primarily from seed.  Plants first begin producing seeds when 3 to 5 years old.  An average bush produces 50 to 75 berries.  Good crops occur in 2- to 3-year intervals.  Some seeds are dispersed by animals, but many berries fall to the ground beneath the parent plant [44]. Stratification is usually required to break the dormancy in bristly black currant seed.  Seeds stored at 32 degrees Fahrenheit (0 deg C) for 120 to 200 days had 48 percent germination in sand moistened with nutrient solution.  Alternating diurnal temperatures (77 degrees Fahrenheit [25 deg C] and 41 or 50 degrees Fahrenheit [5 or 10 deg C]) results in some germination without prior stratification.  Scarification enhances germination.  A five-minute soak in 2 to 10 percent sulfuric acid solution improved germination [51]. Mineral soil is the best seed bed.  Bristly black currant establishes on well scarified sites [44,61]. Bristly black currant seeds have long-term viability.  They accumulate in the organic mantle and mineral soil over time.  The mineral soil seedbank in mature forests in west-central Idaho contained 51 viable bristly black currant and sticky currant (Ribes viscosissimum) seeds per square foot (567/sq m).  Over 80 percent of the viable seeds were found in the top 2 inches (5 cm) of mineral soil.  The two Ribes spp. were combined in the data because seedlings could not be distinguished in the greenhouse [39]. Bristly black currant regenerates vegetatively [44,48].  Bristly black currant stems in contact with soil produce adventitious roots [3,27,48]. In southern Washington, bristly black currant that was partially buried for 1 year by 2 to 8 inches (5-20 cm) of volcanic ejecta had two to five adventitious roots per centimeter of stem.  Maximum adventitious root length was 10 inches (25 cm) [3].  Offord and others [48] observed rhizomes in bristly black currant near Mount Hood in northwestern Oregon.  Some sources [22,43,47] suggest that bristly black currant sprouts from the root crown, but definitive documentation was not found in the literature. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Bristly black currant occurs in moist woods and forests, ravines, shrub thickets, meadow margins, swamps, rock crevices, seepage areas, along avalanche chutes, on streambanks, and on steep slopes [4,27,33,34,59]. On Big Snowy Peak in central Montana, bristly black currant grows in crevices of limestone outcrops and cliffs [5]. Bristly black currant occurs in cool, moist climates.  It occurs from 7,700 to 10,500 feet (2,300-3,200 m) in Utah, 7,000 to 11,400 feet (2,100-3,500 m) in Colorado, 5,500 to 10,700 feet (1,700-3,300 m) in Wyoming, and 3,000 to 8,700 feet (900-2,700 m) in Montana [17].  At the southern extremes of its range (California, Utah, Colorado, and West Virginia), bristly black currant occurs in cool high-elevation forests [1,56,65].  It is found more often on northerly and easterly exposures than southerly or westerly exposures [44]. Bristly black currant occurs on moist, nutrient-rich sites.  In 91- to 160-year-old lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands and 60- to 160-year-old white spruce (Picea glauca) stands in west-central Alberta, bristly black currant had significantly (P<0.025) higher canopy cover on sites with high site index (indicative of higher productivity) than low site index [66].  In the Prince Rupert Forest Region of British Columbia, bristly black currant occurs on mesic to subhydric sites with high nutrient status (permesotrophic to subeutrophic) [73].  It occurs in both acidic and basic soils [1,5]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Bristly black currant is moderately shade tolerant [32,44] but grows most vigorously in canopy openings [27].  It establishes in partial shade or full sun after disturbance and then persists in the understory of closed canopy forests and woods [10,44,61].  Seedlings are suppressed on sites with more than 75 percent of full shade [44].  Bristly black currant established on a 1-year-old mudflow surface formed by the volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens.  The mudflow was reworked nonorganic substrate with no shallowly buried soil [30] Dense thickets of bristly black currant are uncommon.  Bristly black currant canopy cover reported in the literature is generally less than 10 percent and commonly less than 1 percent [16,27,32]. Bristly black currant response to timber harvest is an indicator of its successional status.  Although bristly black currant generally increases after clearcutting [2,20,23,32], its response is varied.  In western Montana bristly black currant cover averaged 1.5 percent in 7- to 16-year-old clearcuts but was only a trace in uncut stands [2].  In northern British Columbia, bristly black currant increased in abundance on alluvial and poorly drained sites following clearcutting [20]. Bristly black currant is a principal understory species on clearcuts in northwestern Washington [23].  In subalpine forests in central Colorado, pre- and postlogging bristly black currant canopy cover was not significantly (P<0.05) different [13].  In northwestern Montana, bristly black currant response to clearcutting depended on habitat type.  In the subalpine fir/queencup beadlily habitat type, bristly black currant canopy cover was lower on burn sites, clearcut sites, and avalanche chutes than on old growth sites; in the more mesic subalpine fir/menziesia (Menziesia spp.)  habitat type, bristly black currant canopy cover was higher after these disturbances than on old-growth sites [74].   SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Bristly black currant flowers from May to June, and berries ripen in August.  Seeds germinate in the spring [51].  Bristly black currant does not always produce fruit in spruce-fir (Abies spp.) forests of Canada because of the short growing season [27].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Ribes lacustre
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Bristly black currant occurs in many forest types, such as grand fir and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii)-subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), that are characterized by long fire-free intervals punctuated by severe, stand-replacing fires [22,77].  The ability of bristly black currant to regenerate after fire from long-lived seed stored in soil or from off-site sources makes bristly black currant fairly resilient to stand-replacing fire [89].  Low-severity fire is probably more favorable to Ribes spp. than severe fire [78]. After fire bristly black currant canopy cover increases slowly, reaching a maximum density in several to many decades [15,42,76].  Bristly black currant cover was reported for sites with a history of fire in the southern boreal forest region of Quebec.  Postfire ages of sites ranged from 26 to 230 years.  Bristly black currant was present on all sites at low cover.  The highest bristly black currant cover recorded (2.2 percent) occurred on the site with a postfire age of 74 [15].  The percent bristly black currant cover follows:                                      Years since fire                   26  46 74 120 143 167 174 230 Canopy cover      0.1    0.2 2.2 1.0 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 In north-central Idaho, the vegetation was measured for 36 clearcut and broadcast burned sites and 7 old-growth sites.  Postfire ages of burned sites ranged from 1 to 23 years.  Bristly black currant average percent canopy volume (percent of total volume occupied in a 1x1x3 m space) and average height by postfire year follow [75]:                                       Years since fire                          1       3  8 12 23  old growth Avg. % canopy volume  0.1  0.1  0.3 0.8    trace Average height (cm)      11  24  45  65 43      25 POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :    Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)    Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Ribes lacustre
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire that burns the organic soil probably kills bristly black currant. Noste and Bushey [47] report that fire that removes the organic soil layer will likely kill the shallow root systems of most Ribes spp. Bristly black currant was nearly absent from study sites after a severe prescribed fire in central Idaho (see Fire Case Studies) [42]. Low-severity fire probably top-kills bristly black currant. Bristly black currant seeds contained in the organic mantle are destroyed by severe fire [44].  However, seeds buried in mineral soil probably survive most fire. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Numerous secondary sources suggest that bristly black currant sprouts from the root crown and rhizomes after top-kill by fire [7,12,22,43, 47,77].  However, primary documentation of bristly black currant sprouting from the root crown or rhizomes after fire was not found in the literature. Bristly black currant was present in the postfire ravine vegetation 1 year after a mid-summer wildfire in western Montana.  Although the fire was generally severe, some ravine sites did not burn severely because of the higher moisture content of plant material and soil.  Bristly black currant plants recovered quickly in low-severity burn patches; the mechanism of recovery (sprouting from rootstocks, rhizomes, or adventitious stem buds) was not reported.  Maximum bristly black currant postfire canopy cover was 2.5 percent 1 year after fire and 6.3 percent 2 years after fire [37]. Bristly black currant colonizes burned sites via long-lived buried seed and/or seed carried on to the site by animals [64].  Regeneration success after fire depends on site conditions and fire severity.  Severe fire substantially reduces or delays bristly black currant establishment [42].  Bristly black currant seedlings were present on 1 of 18 burn sites 1 year after the Sundance wildfire in northern Idaho.  The fire consumed the overstory, litter and duff; fire intensity ranged from 3,400 to 22,500 British thermal units per second per foot [63]. According to Steele and Geier-Hayes [61], bristly black currant and sticky currant are common on scarified portions of past pile-and-burn sites but rare on severely burned areas.  In western Montana bristly black currant was 25.6 percent less frequent on burned slash pile sites than on adjacent unburned scarified clearcut sites.  Postfire age of sampled burned sites averaged 8.8 years [70]. Optimal conditions for bristly black currant establishment may not occur until several years after fire.  In broadcast-burned clearcuts in north-central Idaho, bristly black currant occurred in only 1 of 10 microplots in 1-year-old burns but was found on seven of nine microplots in 3-year-old burns [75].  Severe hot or dry soil conditions associated with some burns may discourage immediate colonization by bristly black currant.  Lyon [42] suggests that optimal environmental conditions for bristly black currant establishment may not occur on some sites until other vegetation is established. Bristly black currant recovery was slow after prescribed broadcast fires in clearcut western larch (Larix occidentalis)-Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in northwestern Montana.  Bristly black currant disappeared from the most severely burned site (E-8), but appeared within 8 years on three sites on which it had not been present in the prefire vegetation.  Bristly black currant pre- and postfire canopy cover follows [62]:                               Year since fire Site    prefire     1     2     3     4     5     6     7     8   postfire         % cover                                                   duff (cm) N-6        -        -     -     1     1     1     -     -     -     7.0 N-8        -        -     -     -     -     1     -     1     3     6.0 E-8        1        -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     6.6 S-2        1        -     -     -     -     -     1     -     -     * W-3        -        -     -     -     -     -     -     -     1     4.5 *Duff depth was not reported for the S-2 burn site. Literature which contains fire response information for Ribes spp. in general should be viewed with caution because of substantial differences between co-occurring species.  In the above-mentioned study [62], sticky currant rapidly colonized some burned sites, reaching a maximum canopy cover of 11 percent after 4 years on a site from which it was absent before fire [62].  Lyon [42] also documented rapid sticky currant recovery after fire (see Fire Case Studies).  Mueggler [45] combined Ribes spp. when he reported they were considerably more frequent on burn sites than unburned sites in grand fir and western redcedar (Thuja plicata) forest associations in northern Idaho.  Bristly black currant and sticky currant co-occur in these forests [14], and it is possible that only sticky currant was doing well on burned sites in the first several postfire years. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : For further information on bristly black currant response to fire, see Fire Case Studies.  The Research Project Summary and Research Papers (Hamilton 2006a, Hamilton 2006b) of Hamilton's studies and Lyon's Research Paper (Lyon 1966) also provide information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species, including bristly black currant. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Nutrient content of shrub species was estimated for seven silvicultural treatments including burning in the Coram Experimental Forest in northwestern Montana [60].  The elemental content of bristly black currant branches and leaves collected in July and August is presented [60].

FIRE CASE STUDIES

SPECIES: Ribes lacustre
FIRE CASE STUDY CITATION : Carey, Jennifer H., compiler. 1995. Sawtooth National Forest, Idaho, prescribed fire study: effects on bristly black currant. In: Ribes lacustre. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ []. REFERENCE : Lyon, L. Jack. 1971. Vegetal development following prescribed burning of Douglas-fir in south-central Idaho. Res. Pap. INT-105. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 30 p. [42]. SEASON/SEVERITY CLASSIFICATION : Summer/severe STUDY LOCATION : The study site is located in Neal Canyon, 6 miles (9.6 km) north of Ketchum, Idaho, in the Sawtooth National Forest. PREFIRE VEGETATIVE COMMUNITY : The study site was selectively logged in 1950 and 1960.  The remaining trees were primarily pole and sapling Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), many of which were diseased.  Minor tree species included lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides).  Understory vegetation was dominated by Rocky Mountain maple (Acer glabrum) and mountain snowberry (Symphoricarpos oreophilus). Bristly black currant was a minor species. Vegetation layers over and under 18 inches (46 cm) in height were sampled and described separately.  Bristly black currant under 18 inches occurred on 20 percent of the study quadrats.  Bristly black currant abundance of plants over 18 inches in height was: density                     0.9 plant/1,000 sq feet canopy cover                0.67 percent aerial crown volume        16.8 cubic feet/1,000 sq feet TARGET SPECIES PHENOLOGICAL STATE : Bristly black currant was probably in flowering and fruiting stages on August 1, the day of the fire.  SITE DESCRIPTION : The mountainous study site is at 6,500 feet (1,980 m) elevation.  Annual precipitation is from 14 to 17 inches (360-430 mm), most occurring in the winter as snow.  The slope averages 64 percent and the aspect is 10 to 20 degrees.  The soils are rocky, averaging 50 percent gravel. FIRE DESCRIPTION : The fire was started at 8 a.m. on August 1, 1963 and burned until 5 p.m. Air temperature was 50 degrees Fahrenheit (10 deg C) in the morning and nearly 80 degrees Fahrenheit (27 deg C) in the afternoon.  Relative humidity declined from 50 percent in the morning to 10 percent in the afternoon.  Fuel moisture sticks indicated 5 to 6 percent moisture. Surface winds were less than 5 miles per hour, but fire-induced gusts up to 30 miles per hour were recorded. The fire was severe and crowned.  All litter, herbaceous plants, dead woody stems less than 3 inches (7.6 cm) in diameter, and live woody stems less than 2 inches (5.1) in diameter were consumed.  The Douglas-fir overstory was killed.  The mean heat flux, measured using water-can integrating devices, was 200 calories per second for 45 seconds. FIRE EFFECTS ON TARGET SPECIES : Bristly black currant was killed by the fire.  Bristly black currant was observed on the study site beginning in postfire year 2.  However, no bristly black currant less than 18 inches in height was detected during the 7 postfire years in 2- by 2-foot quadrats.  Density, height, and crown volume for bristly black currant over 18 inches in height was originally recorded using quarter-point sampling [79], but this technique was eventually deemed inadequate because of low plant densities.  Beginning in 1966 (postfire year 3), 0.04 acre (0.016 ha) plots were sampled, both in the original quarter-point sampling area and in three additional subplots located at lower, middle, and upper slope sites; measurable quantities of bristly black currant occurred only on the lower and upper slope subplots.  Bristly black currant over 18 inches in height was first recorded in postfire year 3, presumably growing from seed in the first or second postfire year.  The following data should be interpreted with caution because of very low sample numbers for bristly black currant.                                            Postfire year                                                  1      2      3      4      5      6     7 plants/1,000 sq ft   original study area:     -      -      T      T      -     0.3   0.1   subplots (lower slopes): *      *     0.2    0.2    1.0    1.3   1.8   subplots (upper slopes): *      *     0.1    0.5    0.2    0.2   0.5 canopy cover (%)              original study area:     -      -      T     0.01    -    0.05    T aerial crown volume    (cu ft/1,000 sq ft)      original study area:     -      -     0.1    0.1     -     1.1    T      subplots (lower slopes): *      *     0.2    0.4    2.6    7.4   4.4   subplots (upper slopes): *      *     0.7    2.0    1.4    1.8   2.5 *Data were not collected Height and crown volume were measured and averaged for the first four bristly black currants on the burn to reach 18 inches in height.                                            Postfire year                            1      2      3      4      5      6     7 average height (ft)        -      -     1.7    1.6    1.5    2.4   1.9 Average volume (cu ft)     -      -     2.6    3.1    4.4   11.5   6.2 A wildfire site which burned in 1950 was located near the Neal Canyon study site.  Twenty years after the wildfire, bristly black currant averaged 2.6 plants per 1,000 square feet, 0.6 percent cover , and 12.2 cubic feet aerial crown volume per 1,000 square feet.  Based on the Neal Canyon prescribed fire and the wildfire, Lyon [42] projects that bristly black currant will reach prefire crown volumes 30 to 40 years after fire. FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Ribes lacustre
REFERENCES :  1.  Allen, Robert B.; Peet, Robert K.; Baker, William L. 1991. Gradient        analysis of latitudinal variation in Southern Rocky Mountain forests.        Journal of Biogeography. 18(2): 123-138.  [14875]  2.  Antos, Joseph A.; Shearer, Raymond C. 1980. Vegetation development on        disturbed grand fir sites, Swan Valley, northwestern Montana. Res. Pap.        INT-251.  Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 26 p.  [7269]  3.  Antos, Joseph A.; Zobel, Donald B. 1985. Plant form, developmental        plasticity and survival following burial by volcanic tephra. Canadian        Journal of Botany. 63: 2083-2090.  [12553]  4.  Antos, Joseph A.; Zobel, Donald B. 1986. Habitat relationships of        Chamaecyparis nootkatensis in southern Washington, Oregon, and        California. Canadian Journal of Botany. 64: 1898-1909.  [19168]  5.  Bamberg, Samuel A.; Major, Jack. 1968. 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