SPECIES: Rhododendron periclymenoides

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Introductory

SPECIES: Rhododendron periclymenoides
Thomas G. Barnes @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Rhododendron periclymenoides. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ []. ABBREVIATION : RHOPER SYNONYMS : Rhododendron nudiflora (L.) Torr. Azalea nudiflora L. NRCS PLANT CODE : RHPE4 COMMON NAMES : pink azalea wild-honeysuckle purple-honeysuckle pinxterbloom azalea pinxter flower election-pink TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for pink azalea is Rhododendron periclymenoides (Michx.) Schinners [9,10,17]. There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : None

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Rhododendron periclymenoides
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Pink azalea grows mostly in the mountainous regions in the eastern United States from southeastern New York south through the Appalachian Mountains to Georgia. Outlying populations occur in southern Indiana, Ohio, and Illinois [1,9,17]. ECOSYSTEMS [6]: FRES10 White- ed-jack pine FRES11 Spruce-fir FRES14 Oak-pine FRES15 Oak-hickory FRES18 Maple-beech-birch STATES: (key to state/province abbreviations) AL CT DE GA IL IN IA KY MD MA NJ NY NC OH PA SC TN VA WV BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : None KUCHLER [11] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS: K095 Great Lakes pine forest K097 Southeastern spruce - fir forest K100 Oak-hickory forest K102 Beech-maple forest K103 Mixed mesophytic forest K104 Appalachian oak forest K110 Northeastern oak-pine forest K111 Oak-hickory-pine forest SAF COVER TYPES [5]: 25 Sugar maple-beech-yellow birch 34 Red spruce-Fraser fir 44 Chestnut oak 46 Eastern redcedar 51 White pine-chestnut oak 52 White oak-black oak-northern red oak 53 White oak 55 Northern red oak 58 Yellow-poplar-eastern hemlock 60 Beech-sugar maple 76 Shortleaf pine-oak 78 Virginia pine-oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES: No entry HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Pink azalea commonly occurs in mixed deciduous forests [1]. Some common tree associates of pink azalea are eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), pitch pine (Pinus rigida), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), ironwood (Ostrya virginiana), oak (Quercus spp.), and birch (Betula spp.). Some common understory associates include rosebay rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum), flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia), highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum), and maple-leaved viburnum (Viburnum acerifolium) [7,8,15].

Botanical and Ecological Characteristics

SPECIES: Rhododendron periclymenoides
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Pink azalea is a low, erect, deciduous, stoloniferous shrub which grows to 6.0 feet (2.0 m) in height. It has open branches, sparse foliage, and forms dense thickets. The leaves are simple, alternate, and mostly in clusters at the tips of the branches. The tubular, individual flowers are borne in small terminal clusters. The fruit is a many-seeded, woody capsule [1,2,20]. RAUNKIAER [18] LIFE FORM: Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES: Pink azalea can reproduce by seed, although details have not been described. It can also regenerate by layering, sprouting from the root crown, or by sending out horizontal stems that root at the nodes [3,9,20]. Pink azalea seed are probably dispersed by small birds and mammals. SITE CHARACTERISTICS: Pink azalea commonly occurs in mixed deciduous forests along stream bottoms, bogs, shaded mountain sides, and ravines [1]. Wild honeysuckle flourishes on well-drained acid soils in cool, moist locations [2,9,17]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS: Pink azalea is very shade tolerant [12]. Lipscombe [13] reports that pink azalea produces a majority of its growth after canopy closure. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT: Pink azalea flowering dates are from March to May. The fruit ripens late in the summer and the seed is dispersed in the late fall [16].

Fire Ecology

SPECIES: Rhododendron periclymenoides
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Pink azalea typically survives fire by sprouting from the root crown. Birds and small mammals may transport some seed to burned sites [4,22]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [23]: Small shrub, adventitious-bud root crown Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

Fire Effects

SPECIES: Rhododendron periclymenoides
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT: Fire typically top-kills pink azalea [4,22]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT: No additional information is available on this topic. PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE: In New England, pink azalea recovers quickly after light fires but more slowly after moderate to severe fires [22]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE: No additional information is available on this topic. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: No additional information is available on this topic.

Management Considerations

SPECIES: Rhododendron periclymenoides
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: No further information is available on this topic. PALATABILITY: No further information is available on this topic. NUTRITIONAL VALUE: No further information is available on this topic. COVER VALUE: Pink azalea provides cover for a variety of birds and mammals [12,16]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES: Pink azalea affords erosion control and steep watershed protection in the mountains of the eastern United States [20]. OTHER USES AND VALUES: Pink azalea has been cultivated as an ornamental [16]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: No further information is available on this topic.

Aquilegia canadensis: References

References

SPECIES: Aquilegia canadensis
REFERENCES : 1. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. [12914] 2. Chapman, William K.; Bessette, Alan E. 1990. Trees and shrubs of the Adirondacks. Utica, NY: North Country Books, Inc. 131 p. [12766] 3. Cooper, S. D.; McGraw, J. B. 1988. Constraints on reproductive potential at the level of the shoot module in three ericaceous shrubs. Functional Ecology. 2: 97-108. [9039] 4. DeSelm, H. R.; Clebsch, E. E. C. 1991. Response types to prescribed fire in oak forest understory. In: Nodvin, Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the environment: ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-69. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 22-33. [16630] 5. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 6. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 7. Glenn, Marian G.; Wagner, Wendy S.; Webb, Sara L. 1991. Mycorrhizal status of mature red spruce (Picea rubens) in mesic and wetland sites of northwestern New Jersey. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21: 741-749. [15015] 8. Glitzenstein, Jeff S.; Canham, Charles D.; McDonnell, Mark J.; Streng, Donna R. 1990. Effects of environment and land-use history on upland forests of the Cary Arboretum, Hudson Valley, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 117(2): 106-122. [13301] 9. Godfrey, Robert K.; Wooten, Jean W. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 933 p. [16907] 10. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954] 11. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 12. Leach, David G. 1963. Rhododendrons of the world and how to grow them. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 544 p. [10688] 13. Lipscomb, M. V.; Nilsen, E. T. 1990. Environ. & physiol. fact. infl. the nat. dist. of evergr & decidu ericac shrubs on ne & sw slopes of the s Appala. Mtns. I. Irradiance tolerance. American Journal of Botany. 77(1): 108-115. [13853] 14. Niering, William A.; Goodwin, Richard H. 1974. Creation of relatively stable shrublands with herbicides: arresting "succession" on rights-of-way and pastureland. Ecology. 55: 784-795. [8744] 16. Olson, David F., Jr. 1974. Rhododendron L. rhododendron. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 709-712. [7739] 17. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606] 18. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 19. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 20. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240] 21. Reynolds, Hudson G. 1950. Relation of Merriam kangaroo rats to range vegetation in southern Arizona. Ecology. 31: 456-463. [9889] 22. Patton, David R. 1975. Nest use and home range of three Abert squirrels as determined by radio tracking. Res. Note RM-281. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 3 p. [18447] 23. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky        Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences        Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 10 p.  [40374]


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