Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Purshia mexicana var. stansburiana


Introductory

SPECIES: Purshia mexicana var. stansburiana
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Howard, Janet L. 1995. Purshia mexicana var. stansburiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : PURMEXS PURMEX SYNONYMS : Cowania mexicana D. Don ssp. stansburiana (Torr.) Jepson [41] Cowania stansburiana Torr. [93] Purshia mexicana (D. Don) Welsh var. stansburyana (Torr.) Welsh [33] Purshia stansburiana (Torr.) Henrickson [40,96] SCS PLANT CODE : PUST COMMON NAMES : Stansbury cliffrose cliffrose quinine bush TAXONOMY : The scientific name of Stansbury cliffrose is Purshia mexicana (D. Don) Welsh. var. stansburiana (Torr.) Welsh [97]. Mexican cliffrose, P. mexicana var. mexicana, occurs primarily in Mexico and is discussed very little in this report. Stansbury cliffrose hybridizes with antelope bitterbrush (P. tridentata) [51,87,97], desert bitterbrush (P. glandulosa) [8,42,62), and rarely with Apache plume (Fallugia paradora) [8]. Hybrid swarms of P. mexicana var. stansburiana X P. tridentata are common in Utah [21,85,86,87], and hybrid swarms of P. mexicana var. stansburiana X P. glandulosa are common in Utah, Nevada, and southern California [21,87]. LIFE FORM : Tree, Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Purshia mexicana var. stansburiana
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Stansbury cliffrose is distributed from southwestern Colorado, Utah, Nevada, and southern California south to northern Mexico [33,93,96,97]. Mexican cliffrose occurs rarely in southern Arizona [41,51]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES29 Sagebrush FRES30 Desert shrub FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub FRES35 Pinyon-juniper STATES : AZ CA CO NV NM UT MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 3 Southern Pacific Border 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K019 Arizona pine forest K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland K031 Oak-juniper woodland K032 Transition between K031 and K037 K037 Mountain-mahogany-oak scrub K038 Great Basin sagebrush K039 Blackbrush K040 Saltbush-greasewood SAF COVER TYPES : 220 Rocky Mountain juniper 237 Interior ponderosa pine 239 Pinyon-juniper 241 Western live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : 104 Antelope bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass 105 Antelope bitterbrush-Idaho fescue 210 Bitterbrush 212 Blackbush 315 Big sagebrush-Idaho fescue 318 Bitterbrush-Idaho fescue 320 Black sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass 321 Black sagebrush-Idaho fescue 322 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany-bluebunch wheatgrass 401 Basin big sagebrush 402 Mountain big sagebrush 403 Wyoming big sagebrush 405 Black sagebrush 406 Low sagebrush 408 Other sagebrush types 412 Juniper-pinyon woodland 413 Gambel oak 414 Salt desert shrub 415 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany 416 True mountain-mahogany 417 Littleleaf mountain-mahogany 501 Saltbush-greasewood 503 Arizona chaparral 504 Juniper-pinyon pine woodland 509 Transition between oak-juniper woodland and mahogany-oak association HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Plant communities with Stansbury cliffrose include pinyon-jupiper (Pinus-Juniperus spp.) woodland; dry-site, open ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa var. ponderosa) and Arizona pine (P. ponderosa var. arizonica) forest; mountain brushland; salt and other desert shrublands; and desert shrubland-desert grassland ecotones. Plant species commonly associated with Stansbury cliffrose are listed below. Pinyon-juniper - Utah juniper (J. osteosperma), alligator juniper (J. deppeana), California juniper (J. californica), pinyon (P. edulis), shrub live oak (Quercus turbinella), Apache plume, desert sweet (Chamaebatiaria millefolium), agarito (Mahonia trifoloilata), banana yucca (Yucca baccata), Joshua tree (Y. brevifolia), Opuntia spp., New Mexico needlegrass (Stipa neomexicana), bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides), blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), fringed sagebrush (Artemisia frigida), and Louisiana sagewort (A. ludoviciana) [3,4,34,48]. Ponderosa and Arizona pines - antelope bitterbrush, Gambel oak (Q. gambelii), Oregon-grape (M. repens), blue grama, mountain muhly (Muhlenbergia montana), and Arizona threeawn (Aristida arizonica) [14,31,48]. Mountain brushland - mountain snowberry (Symphoricarposa oreophilus), Utah serviceberry (Amelanchier utahensis), Louisiana sagewort, Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), and sand dropseed (Sporobolus cryptandrus) [13,66]. Desert shrubland - fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), green ephedra (Ephedra viridis), broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), big galleta (Hilaria rigida) [103], bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) [12]. Vegetation typings describing Stansbury cliffrose as a plant community dominant are: A preliminary classification of the natural vegetation of Colorado [3] Forest and woodland habitat types (plant associations) of Arizona south of the Mogollon Rim and southwestern New Mexico [4] Vegetation and soils of Pine and Mathews Canyon Watersheds [7] (NV) A habitat type classification system for ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona [31] Forest and woodland habitat types (plant associations) of northern New Mexico and northern Arizona [48] Habitat and community relationships of cliffrose (Cowania mexicana var. stansburiana) in central Utah [66]

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Purshia mexicana var. stansburiana
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Stansbury cliffrose is an important browse species for mule deer [12,22,23,57,73], elk [57,63], pronghorn [80], desert bighorn sheep [73], livestock [17,22,52], game birds, and songbirds [63]. Wild ungulates and livestock use it heavily in winter; it is the principle winter browse species on the Kaibab Plateau [39,73,90]. Livestock may use it only lightly in spring and summer if deciduous browse species are available [17,90]. Rodents eat Stansbury cliffrose seeds [102]. Elk and other large ungulates use Stansbury cliffrose for bedding cover [15]. PALATABILITY : Although somewhat bitter, Stansbury cliffrose is generally palatable to large ungulates. Mule deer in Utah browse it preferentially [12,80]. Using tame animals, White and Welch [98] found significant (p=0.05) mule deer preference for Stansbury cliffrose. It ranked third in preference out of 10 common Utah browse species. Apparently there are ecotypic or site differences in palatability, however. In another palatability test using captive mule deer in Utah, Smith [78] reported that Stansbury cliffrose ranked only fifteenth in preference out of 32 browse species. Blauer and others [8] noted that Stansbury cliffrose was unpalatable in southern Arizona. The palatability of Stansbury cliffrose has been rated as follows [24,73]: AZ CA UT Cattle Good Poor-fair Fair Sheep ---- Fair-good Good Horses ---- Poor Poor Pronghorn ---- ---- Good Bighorn ---- Good ---- Elk ---- ---- Good Mule deer Good Good-excel. Good White-tailed deer Good ---- ---- Small mammals ---- ---- Good Small nongame birds ---- ---- Fair Upland game birds ---- ---- Poor Waterfowl ---- ---- Poor NUTRITIONAL VALUE : In-vitro digestibility of Stansbury cliffrose for mule deer on New Mexico pinyon-juniper winter range was 37.6 percent [88]. Average percent composition of Stansbury cliffrose in Utah was as follows [79]: protein 8.4 N-free extract 52.6 crude fiber 23.0 ether extract 10.8 COVER VALUE : The degree to which Stansbury cliffrose provides cover for wildlife species in Utah has been rated as follows [24]: Pronghorn Good Elk Fair Mule deer Good Small mammals Good Small nongame birds Good Upland game birds Good Waterfowl Poor VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Stansbury cliffrose is recommended for wildlife [55], roadside, construction, and mine spoils [35] plantings; and for restoring pinyon-juniper woodland [26,35], mountain brushland, basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata)-grassland [35,83], black sagebrush (A. nova), and black greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus) communities [64]. It can be established on disturbed seedbeds by broadcast seeding, drill seeding, or transplanting. Fall or winter seeding is recommended [82,101]. Seeding treatment and planting density recommendations are available [1,35,77,95,102], as are nursery and transplanting recommendations for seedlings [1]. Case examples: On degraded pinyon-juniper and basin big sagebrush range in central Utah, Stansbury cliffrose production on plots seeded with Stansbury cliffrose and other species was 1.4 pounds per acre vs. 0.4 pound per acre on unseeded plots [18]. Near Manti, Utah, former pinyon-juniper woodland that had converted to a dense cheatgrass stand was scalped, and scalps were seeded with Stansbury cliffrose. Stansbury cliffrose survivorship was substantially improved with wider scalps. Survivorship according to scalp width was [29]: Scalp Width ___________________________________________________________ 4 in (10 cm) 8 in (20 cm) 16 in (41 cm) 24 in (61 cm) # of cliffrose surviving 5 13 19 59 Stansbury cliffrose production after 5 years ranged from 3,188 to 15,659 grams per 100 linear feet, depending upon scalp width. Average number of plants per 100 linear feet ranged from 25 to 150 [29]. Stansbury cliffrose germination/survivorship in a drill-seeded mixture in silverscale saltbush (Atriplex argentea)-grassland in northwestern Colorado was "relatively poor" [30]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Triterpenoids extracted from Stansbury cliffrose have been shown to have inhibitory effects on HIV and Epstein-Barr virus [44,45]. Native Americans used the inner bark for making clothing and ropes, and the branches for making arrows [41]. Hopi used Stansbury cliffrose as an emetic and a wash for wounds. Stansbury cliffrose is used in ornamental landscaping [1,58]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Stansbury cliffrose is moderately browse tolerant [65]. Plant form tends to be more branched with moderate browsing than without browsing [36,39]. Older Stansbury cliffrose plants that grow out of reach of browsing animals can be a wildlife and livestock management problem [39]. Pruning out-of-reach branches can increase plant branching and accessibilty to browsers [10]. In a 3-year study of Stansbury cliffrose response to mule deer browsing on the Kaibab Plateau, Julander [39] found that plants declined with over 80 percent utilization. Seventy to eighty percent utilization maintained plants but did not permit growth or seed production; 70 to 75 percent utilization allowed some growth and seed production; and plants utilized 45 to 65 percent showed good growth and seed production. Techniques to estimate percentage utilization of Stansbury cliffrose are presented and evaluated in Jensen and Urness [38]. Stansbury cliffrose sometimes aids in fixing nitrogen [64,70,71]. Stansbury cliffrose is easily inoculated with nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the laboratory, but root infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria does not always occur naturally [71]. Nelson [60] found that in the field, the number of nodule clusters on roots differed from plant to plant, site to site, and year to year. Poor Stansbury cliffrose seedling establishment in the Great Basin, especially central and northern Utah where Stansbury cliffrose is at the edge of its range, has been noted since the late 1940's. Factors cited as possibly contributing to decline include climate change, overbrowsing, succession, and poor ability of Stansbury cliffrose seedlings to compete against cheatgrass seedlings for water [32,66] Dozing, chaining, or cutting may kill older Stansbury cliffrose, especially single-stemmed individuals. Young, multistemmed individuals are more likely to sprout after these treatments [95].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Purshia mexicana var. stansburiana
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Stansbury cliffrose is a drought-resistant native shrub or tree. It usually grows from 1 to 6 feet (0.3-1.8 m) in height but may reach 25 feet (7.5 m) on favorable sites [93]. Plants in northern populations are rarely over 12 feet (3.6 m) tall [10]. The simple, evergreen leaves are small and alternate to clustered. Leaves, flowers, and twigs are glandular. Twig and branch bark is shreddy. The flowers are bisexual; rarely, some are staminate. The fruit is an achene with a persisent style. At one-half inch to 2 inches (1-3.5 cm), the style is several times longer than the fruit [33,93,97]. Stansbury cliffrose has a taproot and much-branched, widely spreading lateral roots. Where not restricted by bedrock, the taproot grows moderately deep. In the Wasatch Mountains of Utah, Cline [19] excavated roots of a 30-year-old individual that reached 8.8 feet (2.4 m) below ground. Roots may have nodules with nitrogen-fixing bacteria [60]. This is apparently a moderately long-lived shrub. Brotherson and others [12] and Price and Brotherson [66] reported that the oldest living Stansbury cliffrose in a population on the Wasatch Range of Utah was 69 years; 40 to 45 years was the modal age class. Similarly, Cline [19] found no individuals older than 69 years on a Wasatch Range site in Utah County. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Reproduction is by seed and, rarely, sprouting. Stansbury cliffrose is self-incompatible [8]. Plants first produce seed at about age 5 and produce a good seed crop about every 2 years. There is often more than one seed set per season [1,102]. Heavily browsed plants usually do not produce seed except on branches above browseline [39]. Seed readily disperses when wind catches the long, plumose style. Animals also disperse seed [1,58]. Seed requires overwinter stratification (or 1-2 months cold stratification in the laboratory) and germinates in spring [67,101,102]. Rodents cache Stansbury cliffrose seed, and seedling clusters resulting from germination of uncomsumed seed are common [Jensen and Stapley in (1),102]. Soil-stored seed remains viable for 5 [81,94] to 16 years [75]. There is no light requirement for germination [94], and seeds germinate under a wide range of temperatures [101]. Fifteen to 100 percent germination has been reported in the laboratory depending upon treatment and, probably, seed source [72,101]. Field germination probably rarely exceeds 60 percent even under optimal conditions [101]. Germination rates are usually higher in seed produced early in the season than in later-maturing seed [1,102], and seed on current-year growth may fail to mature [39]. Price and Brotherson [66] found that seedling establishment was highest in years of below-average precipitation in central Utah. Still, mortality from desiccation is high in germinants. Early growth is mainly below ground; seedlings have a high root:shoot ratio [19]. Dense stands of exotic annual grasses may competitively exclude Stansbury cliffrose seedlings [66]. Variable sprouting ability is reported for Stansbury cliffrose, and it is uncertain whether the variation is due to genetics, degree of damage to the root crown, or a combination of both. Stansbury cliffrose is anecdotally reported as nonsprouting in California [73], nonsprouting to weakly sprouting in Arizona and New Mexico [74], and sprouting in western Nevada [Klebenow and Bruner in (61)]. Multistemmed individuals have a greater tendancy to sprout than single-stemmed individuals [95]. McCulloch [53] reported that on the Kaibab Plateau, plants bulldozed to the root crown did not sprout, while those sustaining only top-crown damage sprouted from the root crown. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : True to its name, Stansbury cliffrose occurs on cliffs and other exposed, dry sites such as mesas and foothills [1,32,56]. Aspect is usually south or west [35,66]. Limestone is the most common substrate parent material, but Stansbury cliffrose also occurs on other sedimentary substrates and also on igenous formations [17,22,31,66]. Soils are acidic to alkaline [10], well-drained [51], and have a coarse sandy, gravelly, or rocky texture [32,94]. Stansbury cliffrose can survive on sites receiving less than 12 inches (305 mm) of annual precipitation [10]. Elevational range by state is: feet meters state 3,000-8,000 914-2,438 AZ [17,41] 3,630-7,500 1,100-2,500 CA [33] 2,525-8,235 975-2,745 UT [66,97] SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Stansbury cliffrose seedlings colonize open, disturbed sites [61]. As adults, plants are "fairly" shade tolerant [95]. Stansbury cliffrose occurs in understories of open coniferous forests [14,31,48,] but is probably shaded out with canopy closure. In desert shrublands, Stansbury cliffrose may persist for 60 years or more, although individuals over 69 years of age have not been found [66]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Flowers first appear from early May to late June, with blooming continuing until first autumn frost. Seeds from the earliest flowers mature and disperse from mid-July to August in Utah, with later-produced seed ripening and dispersing through October [1]. Arizona and California plants flower from April to September [41,59], with seed ripening and dispersing through October [73].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Purshia mexicana var. stansburiana
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : The sagebrush, salt desert, and creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) shrublands in which Stansbury cliffrose occurs have historically had low fuel loads and long periods between fires. Prior to invasion of exotic cheatgrass, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities burned at 30- to 70-year intervals [99,100]. Cheatgrass invasion in big sagebrush communities of northern Nevada and Utah has increased fuel loads and shortened fire-free periods to an average of 5.5 years [9]. Effects of this fire interval change on Stansbury cliffrose are not documented but have probably been detrimental. Intervals between fire in the other two desert shrubland types where Stansbury cliffrose occurs are very long and have not been quantified. Vegetation is usually sparse. Both saltbush (Atriplex spp.) and creosotebush communities have been characterized as "essentially nonflammable" [37] due to the open, infrequent distribution of dominant shrubs and paucity of herbaceous associates [28]. Rare fires may provide bare, disturbed seedbeds where Stansbury cliffrose can establish from seed transported on-site. Fire plays a more visible role in the other plant communities in which Stansbury cliffrose occurs. Open, dry-site ponderosa and Arizona pine types within Stansbury cliffrose's distribution historically had periods between low-severity surface fires averaging 1 to 13 years [2]. Frequent, low-severity fires probably maintained Stansbury cliffrose as a low, bushy understory plant. The mountain shrub and Arizona chaparral types are dominated by sprouting shrubs and typically experienced fire every 3 to 60 years. When these communities do not burn within 15 to 20 years, succeeding fires are severe and likely to consume much of the existing vegetation [16,47,47,100]. Relatively long-return interval (40+ years), intense fires, which kill a larger proportion of sprouting shrubs than do shorter-interval fires [42], may have provided opportunities for Stansbury cliffrose seedling establishment by reducing competition and providing a bare, disturbed seedbed. Fire autecology: The majority of the literature indicates that Stansbury cliffrose is usually killed by fire [11,25,35,68,73,74,89,95]. Some sources cite a variable or weak ability to sprout after fire [61,74,100]. Since Stansbury cliffrose is a colonizer [61], it probably establishes from wind- and animal-dispersed seed on fire-disturbed seedbeds, but documentation of postfire seedling establishment is lacking. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : NO-ENTRY

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Purshia mexicana var. stansburiana
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : There are conflicting reports on fire's effect on Stansbury cliffrose. One source [100] classifies Stansbury cliffrose as a strong sprouter after fire; others [25,50] classify it as strictly nonsprouting. Other reports conclude that fire effects are variable: Fire may kill or severely damaging plants [35,68,73,95]. Western Nevada populations have been described as "quite sensistive" to burning [89]. When mortality occurs, it is most likely in single-stemmed and/or old individuals [35,95]. Late-season fire also increases risk of mortality [100]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Stansbury cliffrose appears to be a weak sprouter that is generally killed by severe fire. Some populations, however, are very sensitive to fire and the majority of individuals may not sprout after even low-severity fire [11,25,74]. Sprouting ability may be genetically fixed, with the proportion of individuals able to sprout varying between populations [107]. Field managers report that Stansbury cliffrose is usually killed by prescribed fire [104,105]. Mortality is greatest in large, decadent plants [104]. Cool fires promote some resprouting, especially if green foliage remains. Spring burning with high fuel moisture and soil moisture conditions increase the likelihood of sprouting. Top-killed Stansbury cliffrose may take 5 years or more to sprout [105]. Thirteen to fifteen years after a crown fire in pinyon-juniper in Grand Canyon National Park, Stansbury cliffrose was observed in unburned areas, but few plants were present in burned areas. Densitities of Stansbury cliffrose greater than 2 feet (0.6 m) in height averaged 5 plants per acre (burned) and 44 plants per acre (unburned). For Stansbury cliffrose less than 2 feet tall, densities averaged 8 plants per acre (burned) and 314 per acre (unburned) [54]. In Death Valley National Monument, Stansbury cliffrose density following a lightning-ignited fire in creosotebush ranged from five to eight plants per square meter. Frequency was 20 percent [49]. Prescribed fire used before the 1960's to remove blackbrush (Colegyne ramosissima) from Nevada rangelands generally removed the blackbrush, which was replaced by Stansbury cliffrose, Nevada ephedra, and several other desert shrubs [Jensen and others in (5)]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Since Stansbury cliffrose's sprouting ability is apparently variable, fire probably should not be used on this species unless postfire sprouting ability of the population under consideration has been confirmed. Fire used on sprouting Stansbury cliffrose should be low severity surface fire since the dormant buds of Stansbury cliffrose root crowns are apparently killed by severe, and possibly moderate-severity, fire. Prescribed fires may burn around Stansbury cliffrose growing on rocky outcrops [106].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Purshia mexicana var. stansburiana
REFERENCES : 1. Alexander, Robert R.; Jorgensen, Kent; Plummer, A. P. 1974. Cowania mexicana var. stansburiana (Torr.) Jepsen: cliffrose. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 353-355. [6853] 2. Baisan, Christopher H.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1990. Fire history on a desert mountain range: Rincon Mountain Wilderness, Arizona, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 20: 1559-1569. [14986] 3. Baker, William L. 1984. A preliminary classification of the natural vegetation of Colorado. Great Basin Naturalist. 44(4): 647-676. [380] 4. Bassett, R.; Larson, M.; Moir, W. 1987. Forest and woodland habitat types (plant associations) of Arizona south of the Mogollon Rim and southwestern New Mexico. 2nd Edition. Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region. [Pages unknown]. [20308] 5. Bates, Patricia A. 1983. Prescribed burning blackbrush for deer habitat improvement. Cal-Neva Wildlife Transactions. [Volume unknown]: 174-182. [4458] 6. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 7. Blackburn, Wilbert H.; Tueller, Paul T.; Eckert, Richard E., Jr. 1969. Vegetation and soils of the Pine and Mathews Canyon watersheds. Reno, NV: University of Nevada, Agricultural Experiment Station. 109 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. [7437] 8. Blauer, A. Clyde; Plummer, A. Perry; McArthur, E. Durant; [and others]. 1975. Characteristics and hybridization of important Intermountain shrubs. I. Rose family. Res. Pap. INT-169. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 36 p. [472] 9. Boltz, Mike; Jones, Chuck; Green, Galen; Johansen, Jim. 1987. Jarbridge Resource Area: normal year fire rehab plan; greenstripping plan; sagebrush management plan. Boise, ID: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Idaho State Office. 179 p. [483] 10. Borland, Jim. 1988. Cowania mexicana. American Nurseryman. 168(5): 138. [25030] 11. Britton, Carlton M.; Wright, Henry A. 1983. Brush management with fire. In: McDaniel, Kirk C., ed. Proceedings--brush management symposium; 1983 February 16; Albuquerque, NM. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management: 61-68. [521] 12. Brotherson, J. D.; Price, K. P.; O'Rourke, L. 1987. Age in relationship to stem circumference and stem diameter in cliffrose (Cowania mexicana var. stansburiana) in central Utah. Great Basin Naturalist. 47(2): 334-338. [527] 13. Brown, David E. 1982. Great Basin montane scrubland. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 83-84. [8890] 14. Brown, David E. 1982. Madrean evergreen woodland. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 59-65. [8886] 15. Brown, Richard L. 1989. Effect of timber management practices on elk. In: Tecle, Aregai; Covington, W. Wallace; Hamre, R. H., technical coordinators. Multiresource management of ponderosa pine forests: Proceedings of the symposium; 1989 November 14-16; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-185. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 160-164. [11314] 16. Brown, Thomas C.; Boster, Ron S. 1974. Effects of chaparral-to-grass conversion on wildfire suppression costs. Res. Pap. RM-119. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 11 p. [549] 17. Cable, Dwight R. 1975. Range management in the chaparral type and its ecological basis: the status of our knowledge. Res. Pap. RM-155. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 30 p. [579] 18. Clary, Warren P. 1989. Test of RPA production coefficients and local assumptions for the pinyon-juniper ecosystem in central Utah. Res. Pap. INT-403. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculature, Forest Service. 11 p. [9292] 19. Cline, Morris G. 1960. A comparison of the root systems of bitterbrush and cliffrose. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 81 p. Thesis. [6562] 20. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 21. Davis, James N. 1983. Performance comparison among populations of bitterbrush, cliffrose, and bitterbrush-cliffrose crosses on study sites throughout Utah. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R.; Johnson, Kendall L., compilers. Proceedings--research and management of bitterbrush and cliffrose in western North America; 1982 April 13-15; Salt Lake City, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-152. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 38-44. [756] 22. Dayton, William A. 1931. Important western browse plants. Misc. Publ. 101. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 214 p. [768] 23. Dietz, Donald R.; Nagy, Julius G. 1976. Mule deer nutrition and plant utilization. In: Workman; Low, eds. Mule deer decline in the West: A symposium; [Date of conference unknown]; [Location of conference unknown]. [Logan], UT: College of Natural Resources, Utah Agriculture Experiment Station: 71-78. [6909] 24. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. 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