Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Philadelphus lewisii

Introductory

SPECIES: Philadelphus lewisii
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Carey, Jennifer H. 1995. Philadelphus lewisii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].
ABBREVIATION : PHILEW SYNONYMS : Philadelphus californicus Benth. [18] SCS PLANT CODE : PHLE4 PHLEA PHLEE PHLEG2 PHLEH PHLEI PHLEL2 PHLEO PHLEP2 PHLEP3 COMMON NAMES : Lewis' mockorange mockorange syringa Gordon's mockorange TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for Lewis' mockorange is Philadelphus lewisii Pursh (Hydrangeaceae) [14,15,18]. Recognized varieties [18] and subspecies [14,32] are as follows: Philadelphus lewisii var. angustifolius (Rydb.) Hu Philadelphus lewisii var. ellipticus Hu Philadelphus lewisii var. gordonianus (Lindl.) Jepson Philadelphus lewisii var. helleri (Rydb.) Hu Philadelphus lewisii var. intermedius (A. Nels.) Hu Philadelphus lewisii var. lewisii Pursh Philadelphus lewisii var. oblongifolius Hu Philadelphus lewisii var. parvifolius Hu Philadelphus lewisii var. platyphyllus (Rydb.) Hu Philadelphus lewisii subsp. californicus (Benth.) Munz. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : No entry


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Philadelphus lewisii
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Lewis' mockorange occurs in the northwestern United States and southern Canada. It occurs from extreme southern British Columbia south to California, and east to north and central Idaho, western Montana, and southwestern Alberta [14,15,34]. Philadelphus lewisii ssp. californicus occurs from the southern Cascade Range of southwestern Oregon south through the Sierra Nevada to Tulare County, California [14,32], and P. l. var. gordonianus occurs in the Coast Ranges and the Cascade Range from British Columbia south to northern California [43]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES22 Western white pine FRES23 Fir-spruce FRES25 Larch FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES29 Sagebrush FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub FRES36 Mountain grasslands STATES : CA ID MT OR WA AB BC BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 4 Sierra Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau 8 Northern Rocky Mountains KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K010 Ponderosa shrub forest K011 Western ponderosa forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K013 Cedar-hemlock-pine forest K014 Grand fir-Douglas-fir forest K025 Alder-ash forest K026 Oregon oakwoods K028 Mosaic of K002 and K026 K034 Montane chaparral K051 Wheatgrass-bluegrass K055 Sagebrush steppe SAF COVER TYPES : 210 Interior Douglas-fir 212 Western larch 213 Grand fir 219 Limber pine 221 Red alder 222 Black cottonwood-willow 227 Western redcedar-western hemlock 229 Pacific Douglas-fir 230 Douglas-fir-western hemlock 233 Oregon white oak 234 Douglas-fir-tanoak-Pacific madrone 237 Interior ponderosa pine 244 Pacific ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir 245 Pacific ponderosa pine SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : 109 Ponderosa pine shrubland 203 Riparian woodland 209 Montane shrubland 421 Chokecherry-serviceberry-rose 422 Riparian HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Lewis' mockorange commonly occurs in open coniferous forests and at forest edges [34], and is usually associated with other shrubs. In dry Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests on the western slope of the Cascade Range in Oregon, Lewis' mockorange is positively (significant at P<0.05) associated with beaked hazelnut (Corylus cornuta), oceanspray (Holodiscus discolor), poison-oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum), baldhip rose (Rosa gymnocarpa), and hollyleaved barberry (Mahonia aquifolium). It reaches its greatest importance in the Douglas-fir/hollyleaved barberry/disporum (Disporum spp.) community type [26]. Lewis' mockorange is positively (significant at P<0.05) associated with ninebark (Physocarpus malvaceus) on talus slopes in western Montana [25]. Lewis' mockorange occurs in moist draws and riparian areas, especially in drier regions of the Northwest. In eastern Oregon, Lewis' mockorange is associated with willows (Salix spp.), alders (Alnus spp.), and hawthorns (Crataegus spp.) [13]. It occurs with red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea) and Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia) in north-central Washington [6]. It occurs with Saskatoon serviceberry and common chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) on rocky outcrops of the National Bison Range in western Montana [29]. In Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana) woodlands in northern California, Lewis' mockorange occurs along stream channels with oceanspray, cluster rose (R. pisocarpa), pale serviceberry (A. pallida), and Indian plum (Oemleria cerasiformis). A Lewis' mockorange/brittle bladderfern (Cystopteris fragilis) community type has been described [41]. Lewis' mockorange occurs in seral shrubfields and chaparral communities. In northern Idaho, Lewis' mockorange is a component of the tall shrub union that follows logging and burning [48]. In southwestern Oregon, Philadelphus lewisii ssp. californicus occurs in chaparral dominated by wedgeleaf ceanothus (Ceanothus cuneatus). Other shrubs present include skunkbush sumac (Rhus trilobata), yerba santa (Eriodictylon californicum), chaparral honeysuckle (Lonicera interrupta), Klamath plum (P. subcordata), hollyleaf redberry (Rhamnus crocea ssp. ilicifolia), and pale serviceberry [7].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Philadelphus lewisii
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Lewis' mockorange is of minor importance as a forage species for livestock [43]. Sampson [36] considered it poor to useless browse for cattle and horses. However, Shaw [37] reports that in riparian areas in eastern Oregon, Lewis' mockorange is heavily browsed in areas accessible to cattle. Lewis' mockorange is a moderately important winter forage species for deer and elk in the northern Rocky Mountains. In southern British Columbia, Lewis' mockorange is of moderate importance as a winter forage species for white-tailed deer and Rocky Mountain elk, and of low importance to other wild ungulates [4]. In Montana, a 1957 study based on rumen samples showed that Lewis' mockorange constituted 2 percent of mule deer diets in the winter and a trace in the summer [47]. In northern Idaho, use by white-tailed deer was moderate, although a few individual plants were browsed heavily [42]. Lewis' mockorange seeds are eaten by quail and squirrels [46]. PALATABILITY : Although generally considered of low palatability, Lewis' mockorange is browsed heavily at times [21,37,42,43]. New sprouts of Lewis' mockorange are very palatable [1,21,36]. See FIRE MANAGEMENT for discussion of Lewis' mockorange palatability following fire. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : Lewis' mockorange occurs in dense shrub habitats which probably provide good cover for wildlife. In north-central Washington, Lewis' mockorange occurs in a riparian cover type which is preferred in both summer and winter by mule deer for thermal and security cover [6]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : Native Americans used the strong, hard branches of Lewis' mockorange for bows, arrows, combs, tobacco pipes, cradles, and netting shuttles [17,34]. Lewis' mockorange is cultivated as an ornamental, but Philadelphus coronarius, a European species, is the most commonly grown mockorange in the Northwest [39]. Lewis' mockorange is the Idaho state flower [17]; it is illegal to collect Lewis' mockorange in Idaho for export or sale [30]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Lewis' mockorange is very sensitive to herbicide sprays [2,31]. Effects of herbicides on Lewis' mockorange are described [27].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Philadelphus lewisii
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Lewis' mockorange is a native, deciduous, erect to spreading shrub that grows 3 to 10 feet (1-3 m) tall. The showy flowers occur in clusters of three to fifteen. The fruit is a four-chambered capsule about 0.24 to 0.39 inch (0.6-1 cm) long [34]. Seeds are about 0.08 inch (0.2 cm) long. Lewis' mockorange is extremely variable in both vegetative and floral characteristics [39]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Lewis' mockorange reproduces vegetatively and by seed. Seeds accumulate in the seedbank. Sparsely distributed viable seeds were collected from the top 2 inches (5 cm) of soil in forested sites in central Idaho [19] Stratification of Lewis' mockorange increases germination. Seeds stratified for 8 weeks at 41 degrees Fahrenheit (5 deg C) then placed in a sand medium at 72 to 79 degrees Fahrenheit (22-26 deg C) had 64 percent germination. The germination rate was less than 10 percent for seeds stratified less than 8 weeks [39]. Germination was 52 percent when stored at room temperature for 3 years and 39 percent when stored at 40 degrees Fahrenheit (4 deg C) [28]. Germination was low when seeds were fully exposed to light or kept in complete darkness [39]. Fruit development was adversely affected by drought in northern Idaho. Fruit partially developed, turned brown, and opened, but no viable seed was produced [8]. Lewis' mockorange sprouts from the root crown [10]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Lewis' mockorange occurs on well-drained, moist sites [46]. It grows on deep, rich alluvial loams to rocky or gravelly loams [43]. Lewis' mockorange is commonly found on rocky sites, at the base of talus slopes and cliffs, along streams, and in seasonally moist draws [6,15]. It is found at talus margins in the Columbia River Basin [11]. It occurs at seeps, springs, and rocky wet areas in the Crooked River National Grasslands in central Oregon [16]. Lewis' mockorange occurs from sea level up to 7,000 feet (2,100 m) in the Cascade Range [15,43]. Philadelphus lewisii ssp. californicus grows from 1,000 to 5,000 feet (300-1,500 m) elevation on rocky slopes and in canyons in the Sierra Nevada [36]. Lewis' mockorange grows best on northern and eastern exposures [43]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Lewis' mockorange is tolerant of moderate shade [43]. It is an early to mid-seral species [38] and is often present in seral shrub communities following logging and burning [48]. Although normally scattered at low densities [43], it sometimes occurs in dense, localized stands [17]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Flowering of Lewis' mockorange occurs from May through July. Fruit matures in late summer and seeds are dispersed in September or October [39]. The following dates are general ranges drawn from several studies in northern Idaho. Specific times for several years are reported [8,33]. Development Date of Occurrence bud burst early April leaf out late April to early May leaf growth late April to mid-May stem elongation early May to late May flower bloom late June to July fruit development begins in July leaf fall late September to late November

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Philadelphus lewisii
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Lewis' mockorange occurs in both forested environments which frequently experience fire and on rocky scree slopes which may not burn at all. In western Montana, Lewis' mockorange occurs in Douglas-fir habitat types which had historical fire frequencies of 5 to 45 years [10]. The ability of Lewis' mockorange to sprout after top-kill by fire enables it to persist in these forests. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Philadelphus lewisii
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Lewis' mockorange is top-killed by fire, but the root crown usually survives and produces sprouts [10,23,24]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Lewis' mockorange sprouts vigorously from the root crown following fire [10,23,24]. After an April fire on a south-facing slope in north-central Idaho, Lewis' mockorange increased to prefire densities by the third postfire growing season [22]. The following two studies have investigated the sprouting response of Lewis' mockorange to fire. Seral brushfields within the grand fir (Abies grandis)/pachistima (Pachistima myrsinites) habitat type in northern Idaho were burned in either spring (late March - early April) or fall (October). Temperatures during the fires ranged from 67 to 78 degrees Fahrenheit (19-26 deg C), and relative humidities ranged from 25 to 48 percent. Lewis' mockorange on sites burned in October did not sprout until the following April. Lewis' mockorange on the spring-burned sites sprouted 4 to 8 weeks after the fire. Twenty completely top-killed Lewis' mockorange (eleven on the fall burned sites and nine on the spring burned sites) were measured at the end of the first postfire growing season [24]: Fall Fires Spring Fires Average crown diameter (ft) prefire 4.7 (143 cm) 4.7 (143 cm) postfire 2.4 (73 cm) 2.2 (67 cm) Average crown height (ft) prefire 8.8 (268 cm) 9.6 (293 cm) postfire 4.1 (125 cm) 3.7 (113 cm) No. basal sprouts per plant prefire 1.5 0.6 postfire 38.0 28.9 Average postfire sprout height (ft) 2.4 (73 cm) 2.1 (64 cm) A multiple regression equation is presented which relates the number of postfire basal sprouts to prefire crown height, crown diameter, and crown volume [24]. In another study in north-central Idaho, a brushfield was burned three times at 5-year intervals (31 March 1965, 3 May 1970, and 14 May 1975). Maximum air temperatures during the fires were 77, 81, and 88 degrees Fahrenheit (25, 27, and 31 deg C), and relative humidities at 4:00 pm were 35, 16, and 27 percent, respectively. Leaves on shrubs and succulent herbaceous growth depressed the fire in 1975. A single Lewis' mockorange was followed during the study. The plant was dormant during the first fire, but leaves were beginning to emerge at the time of the second fire and were completely emerged at the time of the third fire. With each successive fire, average sprout height decreased. Reduced growth following the second and third fires may have resulted from the advanced phenological stage at the time of those fires. Sprout height and number were measured the first growing season following each fire. Crown height and diameter were measured during the second postfire growing season [23]. No. basal sprouts Average sprout height (ft) 1965 14 2.0 (61 cm) 1970 19 1.5 (46 cm) 1975 16 1.0 (30 cm) Crown height (ft) Crown diameter (ft) prefire 7.0 (213 cm) 1.5 (46 cm) 1966 4.0 (122 cm) 2.0 (61 cm) 1971 2.5 (76 cm) 2.0 (61 cm) 1976 2.5 (76 cm) 1.5 (46 cm) DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Lewis' mockorange palatability increases following fire. After a spring fire in northern Idaho, utilization of Lewis' mockorange by Rocky Mountain elk was significantly (p<0.05) greater on recently burned sites than on adjacent unburned sites [21]. % of available twigs browsed 1st season 2nd season Control 1.3 0.6 Burn 36.3 30.0 Allometric equations, which can be used to estimate fuel quantities, have been developed for Lewis' mockorange. The equations use basal stem diameter to estimate foliage biomass and total biomass [5].

References for species: Philadelphus lewisii


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