Nolina microcarpa



INTRODUCTORY


  2006 Kenneth Ingham, www.explorenm.com
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION:
Gucker, Corey L. 2007. Nolina microcarpa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

FEIS ABBREVIATION:
NOLMIC

NRCS PLANT CODE [72]:
NOMI

COMMON NAMES:
sacahuista
beargrass
palmilla
smallseed sacahuista

TAXONOMY:
The scientific name of sacahuista is Nolina microcarpa S. Wats. (Liliaceae) [19,25,35,36,76].

SYNONYMS:
Nolina caudata Trelease [25]

LIFE FORM:
Shrub-forb

FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
No special status

OTHER STATUS:
Information on state-level protected status of plants in the United States is available at Plants Database.

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Nolina microcarpa
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION:
Sacahuista is a native species found throughout Arizona, New Mexico and northern Mexico [36,41]. Utah's Washington County represents sacahuista's northernmost distribution [76]. Taxonomists disagree on sacahuista's range in western Texas. Some indicate that sacahuista occurs in the Trans Pecos region of Texas [41,55], while others report no sacahuista in western Texas [25]. Flora of North America provides a distributional map for sacahuista.

ECOSYSTEMS [27]:
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES30 Desert shrub
FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe
FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub
FRES35 Pinyon-juniper
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES40 Desert grasslands

STATES/PROVINCES: (key to state/province abbreviations)
UNITED STATES
AZ NM UT


MEXICO
Chih. Coah. Dgo. N.L. Son.


BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [8]:
7 Lower Basin and Range
12 Colorado Plateau

KUCHLER [38] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:
K019 Arizona pine forest
K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland
K031 Oak-juniper woodland
K043 Paloverde-cactus shrub
K053 Grama-galleta steppe
K054 Grama-tobosa prairie
K058 Grama-tobosa shrubsteppe

SAF COVER TYPES [23]:
237 Interior ponderosa pine
239 Pinyon-juniper
241 Western live oak

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [63]:
412 Juniper-pinyon woodland
416 True mountain-mahogany
502 Grama-galleta
503 Arizona chaparral
504 Juniper-pinyon pine woodland
505 Grama-tobosa shrub
507 Palo verde-cactus
509 Transition between oak-juniper woodland and mahogany-oak association
702 Black grama-alkali sacaton
703 Black grama-sideoats grama
704 Blue grama-western wheatgrass
705 Blue grama-galleta
706 Blue grama-sideoats grama
707 Blue grama-sideoats grama-black grama
713 Grama-muhly-threeawn
714 Grama-bluestem
715 Grama-buffalo grass
716 Grama-feathergrass

HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES:
Sacahuista is locally dominant or important in Chihuahua desertscrub, Madrean evergreen woodlands, and semidesert grasslands in the Southwest [10,11,12]. Sacahuista is dominant or subdominant in the following vegetation types and communities:

Arizona: New Mexico: Nuevo Leon, Mexico:

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Nolina microcarpa

 

  James L. Reveal, University of Maryland
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Sacahuista is an erect to spreading perennial shrub or large forb that forms clumps up to 6.6 feet (2 m) in diameter. Plants are acaulescent and have a large woody caudex. Variation in form and appearance can be substantial [19,25,36,55]. Numerous narrow leaves arise from the caudex. Leaves are fibrous, thick, coarse, and typically have serrate margins. Leaves measure 1.6 to 3.9 feet (0.5-1.2 m) long and 0.2 to 0.5 inch (5-12 mm) wide [20,25,41]. Southwestern Nolina species are primarily dioecious [24]. Flowers are arranged in a panicle and are supported by a stout stem that may reach 5.9 feet (1.8 m) tall [19,76]. Sacahuista produces thin, papery, 3-lobed, 3-seeded capsules. Capsules measure 4 to 6 mm long and 6 to 8 mm wide [19,41,76]. Seeds, which are 2 to 3.5 mm in diameter, are exposed only after fruits dehisce [19,55].

Some describe sacahuista as slow growing [34]. During a long-term grazing study in central Arizona chaparral, 2 sacahuista plants, 1 inside and 1 outside an exclosure, were monitored periodically from 1920 to 1967. By 1967 both plants were dead, suggesting that the sacahuista life span may be less than 50 years [54].

This description provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g., [25,41,55,76]).

RAUNKIAER [57] LIFE FORM:
Chamaephyte

REGENERATION PROCESSES:
Sacahuista reproduces sexually through seed production and asexually by sprouting. Current literature (2007), however, neither elucidates the factors important to successful sacahuista seedling establishment nor discusses vegetative regeneration in the absence of disturbance.

Pollination: Nolina (Nolina spp.) flowers are insect pollinated, likely by Hymenoptera and/or Diptera species [70].

Breeding system: Nolina plants are primarily dioecious, but perfect flowers may occur [70].

Seed dispersal: Fruit carpels are slightly inflated and likely easily dispersed by wind [70].

Seed production, seed banking, germination, and seedling establishment information was lacking as of the writing of this review (2007). The single mention of sacahuista seedlings came from an early postfire study where researchers did not locate sacahuista seedlings on 1- to 14-month-old burned sites in spite of an extensive search [69].

Vegetative regeneration: Sacahuista sprouts from the caudex following fire. Vegetative regeneration in the absence of other disturbance was not discussed in the available literature.

SITE CHARACTERISTICS:
Sacahuista is typical on rocky slopes and hillsides in high desert grasslands and in oak or pinyon-juniper (Pinus-Juniperus spp.) woodlands [25,55,76].

In southeastern Arizona [47,75] and on the Guadalupe Escarpment of New Mexico and Texas [28], sacahuista is typically most important on moderate to steep north-facing slopes. In a study of vegetation and terrain in southeastern Arizona, Mouat [47] found that sacahuista was predominant on steep slopes with angles averaging over 45%. Sacahuista was also associated with hilly and mountainous terrain with a high density of drainages (generally, >6 mi/mi).

Climate: Semiarid climates are common in sacahuista habitats. Climate is variable in Arizona chaparral. Dry sites average 16 inches (400 mm) of annual precipitation, and wet sites average 26 inches (650 mm) of annual precipitation. However, extreme lows and highs can be 7.9 inches (200 mm) and 47 inches (1,200 mm) for the respective sites. Moisture occurs in a bimodal pattern. Approximately 55% of annual precipitation comes from November to April and 35% from July to September in convection storms [15]. In western montane chaparral in Nuevo Leon, Mexico, the climate is cool semiarid. Average low and high temperatures are 52 F (11 C) and 62 F (16.5 C), respectively. Annual precipitation measures 30 to 39 inches (750-1,000 mm), and most comes from June to September [48].

Elevation: Sacahuista elevational tolerances by state or region are provided below:

State/region Elevation (feet)
Arizona 3,000-6,500 [36]
     Mojave County 3,900 [19]
     southeastern Arizona most common from 4,000-6,000 [47]
New Mexico 4,000-8,000 [41]
New Mexico and Texas (Guadalupe Escarpment) most typical above 5,000 [28]
Utah (Washington County) 3,900 [76]

Soils: Shallow, rocky, unfertile soils are described for sacahuista habitats [53,75]. In southeastern Arizona, sacahuista occurs primarily on nonalluvial parent materials [47]. Emory oak/pointleaf manzanita-sacahuista vegetation on Fort Bowie National Historic Site occurs mainly on igneous or metamorphic rock substrates [75]. Shrub steppe vegetation dominated by sacahuista in New Mexico's Peloncillo Mountains occurs on coarse loamy Cumulic Haplustoll soils [45]. In the Santa Catalina Mountains of Arizona, sacahuista occurs on both limestone and noncalcareous soils [80]. In central New Mexico, sacahuista occurred on a recent lava flow (<1,000 years old) but not on surrounding plains [62].

SUCCESSIONAL STATUS:
The concept of succession, in which community composition changes over time as a site is modified by past and present species, is not appropriate for southwestern desert ecosystem dynamics. Desert plants have a limited effect on soil development, and late-seral vegetation that is well adapted to dry, stressful environments reestablishes following removal of the existing vegetation [60]. In Arizona chaparral, secondary succession following fire does not produce species composition changes but is rather a gradual return to prefire species dominance [15].

Studies of succession in sacahuista habitats are generally lacking. However, some researchers have associated sacahuista habitats with disturbance. Southwestern desert grasslands, where sacahuista is often an associate, have been described as a "fire-caused subclimax" community [31,32]. The sacahuista-scrub oak (Q. turbinella) community is considered a "postclimax" type that results from heavy grazing and erosion in blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) grasslands [79].

SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT:
Sacahuista flowers in mid- to late spring (May-June) throughout its range [19,25,36].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Nolina microcarpa
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS:
Fire adaptations: Sacahuista sprouts from the caudex following fire [21,69]. Postfire seedling establishment was not reported in the available literature (as of 2007).

Fire regimes: Southwestern grasslands and woodlands that provide sacahuista habitat burned repeatedly in past centuries. Climatic conditions and fuel structure in these habitats are conducive to fire ignition and spread.

Research has shown that fire may affect sacahuista abundance, and that sacahuista may affect fire behavior and severity. Some researchers indicate that the range and density of sacahuista have increased on Arizona rangelands since 1900. Twenty percent or more kill of sacahuista after a fire in an oak-juniper woodland in the Santa Rita Mountains [34] suggests that fire restricts this slow growing species and that replacement of individuals would be slow if fires were recurring. See Discussion and Qualification of Plant Response for more on this study. Sacahuista's effect on fire behavior and severity was noted in the Chiricahua National Monument. Sacahuista reportedly "increases locally the fire intensity and flame height," and produces scorch and char heights that are "dramatically higher" on trees located above sacahuista plants [58].

Fire season: Fires in the Southwest are most common in late spring and early summer but are possible through the fall season. Lightning strikes occur from April to November but reach peak levels before the end of July. In National Forests of Arizona and New Mexico, 60% of the annual burned area burned in June lightning fires [6].

Fire frequency: Southwestern desert grasslands are thought to have burned repeatedly, and fire suppression efforts following European settlement are often associated with woody species increases and encroachment [31,32]. The fire frequency in Arizona grasslands before European settlement and heavy grazing in the area was estimated at 10 years [40], and Wright [81] indicates, in a review, that fires may have occurred at intervals of less than 10 years in southern New Mexico. Open oak woodlands in Santa Catalina Mountains dominated by Emory oak, Mexican blue oak, and alligator juniper easily carry fire, and woodland structure and composition are considered a result of fire and drought conditions [50].

Using newspaper reports of wildfires in southeastern Arizona, Bahre [4] summarized that fire size was greater from 1859 to 1890 than in the 1980s. From1859 to 1890, wildfires were fairly frequent and burned in all vegetation types. However, fires were twice as frequent in conifer forests and oak-juniper woodlands than in grasslands and 3 times as frequent in grasslands as in desert scrub communities. Occurrence of fires decreased after 1882 due in part to heavy grazing in the area that reduced fine fuels that carry fire [4].

Researchers determined the past fire regime for Chiricahua National Monument's Rhyolite Canyon from fire scars and living tree age structures. The canyon study area ranged from 5,381 to 7,313 feet (1,640-2,229 m). The mean fire-return interval for fires that burned most or all of the canyon was an estimated 14.6 years and ranged from 9 to 22 years for the 1655 to 1801 time period. After 1851, fires were recorded in the upper and middle portions of the canyon until 1886 when the last widespread fire was recorded. In the lower canyon, the fire-return interval decreased to 6 years from 1852 to 1924 [67].

The following table provides fire-return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where sacahuista is important. For further information, see the FEIS review of the dominant species listed below.

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire-Return Interval Range (years)
desert grasslands Bouteloua eriopoda and/or Pleuraphis mutica <35 to <100 [51]
plains grasslands Bouteloua spp. <35 [51,82]
blue grama-needle-and-thread grass-western wheatgrass Bouteloua gracilis-Hesperostipa comata-Pascopyrum smithii <35 [51,59,82]
blue grama-buffalo grass Bouteloua gracilis-Buchloe dactyloides <35 [51,82]
grama-galleta steppe Bouteloua gracilis-Pleuraphis jamesii <35 to <100 [51]
cheatgrass Bromus tectorum <10 [52,77]
paloverde-cactus shrub Cercidium spp./Opuntia spp. <35 to <100
pinyon-juniper Pinus-Juniperus spp. <35 [51]
Mexican pinyon Pinus cembroides 20-70 [46,68]
Colorado pinyon Pinus edulis 10-400+ [26,29,37,51]
interior ponderosa pine* Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum 2-30 [3,5,39]
Arizona pine Pinus ponderosa var. arizonica 2-15 [5,18,61]
oak-juniper woodland (Southwest) Quercus-Juniperus spp. <35 to <200 [51]
*fire-return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species review

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [65]:
Caudex/herbaceous root crown, growing points in soil

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Nolina microcarpa
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT:
Sacahuista is typically only top-killed by fire [21,33]. Mortality rates in the available fire studies range from 4% to 20% or more [34,69]. Sacahuista survival in unburned refugia has also been noted [69].

DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT:
No additional information is available on this topic.

PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE:
Sacahuista sprouts from the caudex following fire. Sprouts arise from meristems at or just below soil surface [15,69]. Seedlings on burned sites were not reported in any of the available fire studies; however, just a single study mentions an extensive search for seedlings on 1- to 14-year-old burned sites [69].

DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE:
Although sacahuista survives most fires, coverage and/or density are generally lower on burned than unburned sites. Fires typically burn into the sacahuista crown, resulting in burned plants that are smaller than those on unburned sites. Humphrey [33] found that sacahuista abundance increased with decreased fire frequency in southwestern grasslands and suggests that repeated fire may kill sacahuista. However, quantitative data and field observations are lacking from repeatedly burned sacahuista habitats.

Sacahuista density was not changed significantly 2 years following a spring fire in the Malpai Borderlands. Sacahuista was top-killed and sprouted after the fire, but fire severity was not reported [21]. Sacahuista decreased after a fire above the Molino Basin in Arizona's Santa Catalina Mountains. Neither fire characteristics nor sacahuista abundance comparisons were provided [50]. Density of sacahuista was typically lower on burned than unburned sites in the 1st and 2nd years following a late June wildfire near Sasabe, Arizona, and density decreased on northern slopes between the 1st and 2nd postfire growing seasons. Fire severity was not reported [78].

After a late June fire in a Madrean oak woodland in the Santa Catalina Mountains, sacahuista coverage decreased. Fire severity was not reported. Burned plots, stratified by aspect, were visited 10 months and 2.5 years after the fire. Southern, eastern, and northern aspects were described as "very open, open, and relatively" dense woodlands, respectively. Canopy dominants were Emory oak and Mexican blue oak, and there was no evidence of recent fire in the study area. Sacahuista recovered to unburned coverage by 2.5 years after the fire on southern but not on eastern or northern slopes. Few sacahuista plants died, and the frequency of sacahuista on pooled burned and unburned plots was not different. Plants sprouted quickly from the outer edges of the caudex. Researchers noted that plants were very leafy on unburned sites and measured the largest fuel load when sacahuista fell within the 10-foot (1 m) quadrat. Meristem protection at or below the soil surface likely affected survival. Sacahuista coverage on burned and unburned plots is summarized below [13,14]:

Time since fire 10 months 2.5 years
Aspect S E N S E N
 

% coverage

Unburned 3.5 1.3 14.4 3.2 0.8 14.3
Burned 1.4 0 1.4 3.8 0 1.8

Sacahuista numbers and "vigor" had declined 2 years after fire on sites burned in mid-June in an oak-juniper woodland in the Box Canyon of the Santa Rita Mountains. Fire characteristics were not reported. On burned sites, 10% of sacahuista plants were dead, 10% were producing a few weak sprouts but dying back, and 15% produced sprouts but were in a "weakened" condition. Researchers doubted the survival of all "weakened" plants. Fifty-two percent of sacahuista plants had slight damage but were not as "vigorous" as unburned plants, and 13% had recovered to the unburned condition [34].

Survival of sacahuista was better than in the above study on 2 burned semidesert grassland sites in southern Arizona. Burned areas within the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge and in the Dry Canyon of the Whetstone Mountains were studied 1 to 14 months after burning. Survival was evaluated using unburned reference sites as a measure of the prefire condition. Fuel loads were 435 g/m in the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge and 179 g/m in the Dry Canyon. Fire season and severity were not described. Sacahuista mortality was 4%. Ninety-six percent of surviving sacahuista recovered through sprout production, and 4% escaped the fire in unburned refugia. Although extensive searches for seedlings on burned sites were conducted, researchers found no sacahuista seedlings [69].

FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Most studies of fire's effect on sacahuista report just early postfire survival and recovery and lack information on fire severity and/or intensity. A lack of fire severity comparisons, long-term fire studies, and studies on repeatedly burned sites leaves many gaps in the knowledge required to properly manage fire in sacahuista habitats.

Fuel moisture: The average moisture content was 110% and ranged from 101% to 117% for 4 sacahuista samples collected from the Chiricahua National Monument in November [58].


MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Nolina microcarpa
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE:
Sacahuista provides a food source for deer and small mammals and is important in a variety of wildlife habitats. Livestock utilization of sacahuista is rare.

In chaparral vegetation in central Arizona's Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest, 2 sacahuista plants, 1 outside and the other inside the exclosure, were marked and evaluated 7 years later. The plant outside the exclosure was closely browsed, but the grazing animal was not identified [54].

Livestock: Sacahuista is rarely browsed by domestic livestock. Some indicate that sacahuista leaves are browsed in times of drought and/or when other forage is unavailable [33,36]. Sacahuista stands that are heavily browsed are an indication that stocking rates are too high [22,33].

Sacahuista buds, blooms, and seeds are toxic to domestic sheep [56]. Cattle are considered less susceptible to poisoning. In Agua Prieta, Sonora, sacahuista leaves that remain after processing plants for use in brooms are fed to local cattle. In this area ranchers encourage sacahuista harvesting on their land, as it encourages new growth that is palatable to cattle [49].

Deer: Southwestern mule and white-tailed deer utilize sacahuista and sacahuista habitats. In the San Cayetano and Dos Cabezas mountains of southeastern Arizona, researchers found that sacahuista was important in the diets and habitats of white-tailed and mule deer. Regardless of season and climatic conditions, sacahuista was ranked 7th in the 7 most important mule and white-tailed deer foods in the area. Consumption of sacahuista flower stalks increased in a drought year [1,2].

Sacahuista sprouts and buds averaged 6% of the volume of 11 mule deer stomachs analyzed in late spring in south-central Arizona's Three Bar Wildlife Area. The greatest volume of sacahuista per sample was 32%. Sacahuista was not recovered from white-tailed deer stomachs or from either species in any other season. Sacahuista frequency ranged from 0 to 30% in the chaparral and desert zones of the study area. Researchers found that sacahuista leaves in the late spring had protein levels of just 4% [42,73].

Small mammals: In paloverde-prickly-pear (Cercidium-Opuntia spp.) vegetation in the Sugarloaf Mountain area of Arizona's Maricopa County, stomachs of 96 desert cottontails were analyzed. Sacahuista occurred with an average frequency of 10.3% in stomachs collected between March 1972 and June 1973 [71].

Birds: Sacahuista is important in quail and wild turkey habitats. Sacahuista was a dominant species in Montezuma quail habitats in the eastern foothills in the Santa Rita Mountains and Canelo Hills southeast of Tucson. However, sacahuista was not recovered from crops [9]. The Emory oak-sacahuista-sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) habitat in the Peloncillo Mountains of New Mexico's Hidalgo County received use proportional to its availability by wild turkeys in the winter. Use was low in the spring, and 1 of 10 summer telemetry observations were made in this habitat [83].

Palatability/nutritional value: Dry weight composition of sacahuista collected in Arizona was 3.1% ash, 4.7% crude protein, 45% crude fiber, 2.2% fat, and 45% nitrogen-free extract [17]. Sacahuista leaves collected from Arizona chaparral in early May were 4% crude protein, 55% acid detergent fiber, 0.62% calcium, 0.16% phosphorus, and 26% invitro digestibility [74].

Cover value: Sacahuista is important in a variety of wildlife habitats and likely provides important cover for small mammal and bird species.

VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES:
No information is available on this topic.

OTHER USES:
Early southwestern inhabitants used sacahuista leaves to construct mats and baskets. Pueblo people of the Rio Grande valley constructed grain storage and washing baskets from sacahuista. Early people of southeastern New Mexico used sacahuista mats to cover their dead. Northeastern Yavapai used sacahuista to construct bed mats and to wrap foods for transport. Leaves were collected in bundles and typically worked with while still green [7]. Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache used sacahuista leaves to cover Parry's agave (Agave parryi) crowns while roasting and consumed emerging sacahuista flower stalks [16].

Sacahuista is still used today in weaving and in broom head construction [30]. Sacahuista is harvested by machete, taken to processing plants, and made into broom heads. Harvesting previously harvested stands is typically quicker and more fruitful, as there are fewer dead leaves and irregular-sized leaves. Ranchers typically encourage sacahuista harvesting on their land because new growth is considered more palatable. Harvesting sacahuista may also improve quail habitat and deer browse by removing dead plant material (Fitch, personal communication in [30]). Harvesting is illegal in some areas [49].

OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Sacahuista can be an indicator of range condition in Arizona chaparral. Sacahuista stands with selectively browsed flower stalks but without foliage browsed indicate a satisfactory range condition. Noticeably hedged stands of sacahuista indicate an unsatisfactory range condition [22].

Nolina microcarpa: REFERENCES


1. Anthony, Robert G. 1976. Influence of drought on diets and numbers of desert deer. Journal of Wildlife Management. 40(1): 140-144. [11558]
2. Anthony, Robert G.; Smith, Norman S. 1977. Ecological relationships between mule deer and white-tailed deer in southeastern Arizona. Ecological Monographs. 47: 255-277. [9890]
3. Arno, Stephen F. 2000. Fire in western forest ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 97-120. [36984]
4. Bahre, Conrad J. 1985. Wildfire in southeastern Arizona between 1859 and 1890. Desert Plants. 7(4): 190-194. [37739]
5. Baisan, Christopher H.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1990. Fire history on a desert mountain range: Rincon Mountain Wilderness, Arizona, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 20: 1559-1569. [14986]
6. Barrows, Jack S. 1978. Lightning fires in southwestern forests. Final report: Cooperative Agreement 16-156 CA. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 154 p. [40057]
7. Bell, Willis H.; Castetter, Edward F. 1941. Ethnobiological studies in the American Southwest. IV. The utilization of yucca, sotol, and beargrass by the aborigines in the American Southwest. University of New Mexico Bulletin. 5(5): 1-74. [38174]
8. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]
9. Bishop, Richard A.; Hungerford, Charles R. 1965. Seasonal food selection of Arizona Mearns quail. Journal of Wildlife Management. 29(4): 813-819. [22955]
10. Brown, David E. 1982. Chihuahuan desertscrub. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 169-179. [3607]
11. Brown, David E. 1982. Madrean evergreen woodland. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 59-65. [8886]
12. Brown, David E. 1982. Semidesert grassland. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 123-131. [3603]
13. Caprio, Anthony C.; Zwolinski, Malcolm J. 1995. Fire and vegetation in a Madrean oak woodland, Santa Catalina Mountains, southeastern Arizona. In: DeBano, Leonard F.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Ortega-Rubio, Alfredo; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Hamre, Robert H.; Edminster, Carleton B., technical coordinators. Biodiversity and management of the Madrean Archipelago: the Sky Islands of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico: Proceedings; 1994 September 19-23; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GRT-264. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 389-398. [26246]
14. Caprio, Anthony Conger. 1994. Fire effects and vegetation response in a Madrean oak woodland, southeastern Arizona. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona, School of Renewable Natural Resources. 297 p. Thesis. [24079]
15. Carmichael, R. S.; Knipe, O. D.; Pase, C. P.; Brady, W. W. 1978. Arizona chaparral: plant associations and ecology. Res. Pap. RM-202. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 16 p. [3038]
16. Castetter, Edward F.; Opler, M. E. 1936. Ethnobiological studies in the American Southwest. III. The ethnobiology of the Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache. University of New Mexico Bulletin. 4(5): 1-63. [38173]
17. Catlin, C. N. 1925. Composition of Arizona forages, with comparative data. In: Bulletin 113. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station: 155-173. [4525]
18. Cooper, Charles F. 1960. Changes in vegetation, structure, and growth of southwestern pine forests since white settlement. Ecological Monographs. 30(2): 129-164. [3927]
19. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; Reveal, James L.; Holmgren, Patricia K. 1977. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 6: The Monocotyledons. New York: Columbia University Press. 584 p. [719]
20. Crosswhite, Frank S.; Crosswhite, Carol D. 1984. A classification of life forms of the Sonoran Desert, with emphasis on the seed plants and their survival strategies. Desert Plants. 5: 131-161. [45807]
21. Curtin, Charles G. 2003. Fire as a landscape restoration and management tool in the Malpai Borderlands. In: Galley, Krista E. M.; Klinger, Robert C.; Sugihara, Neil G., eds. Proceedings of fire conference 2000: the 1st national congress on fire ecology, prevention, and management; 2000 November 27-December 1; San Diego, CA. Miscellaneous Publication No. 13. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 79-87. [51381]
22. Darrow, Robert A. 1944. Arizona range resources and their utilization: 1. Cochise County. In: Tech. Bull. 103. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station: 311-364. [4521]
23. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]
24. Faucon, Philippe. 2004. Nolina, [Online]. In: Desert tropicals. Philippe Faucon (Producer). Available: http://www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Agavaceae/Nolina.html [2007, January 29]. [65478]
25. Flora of North America Association. 2007. Flora of North America: The flora, [Online]. Flora of North America Association (Producer). Available: http://www.fna.org/FNA [2007, February 22]. [36990]
26. Floyd, M. Lisa; Romme, William H.; Hanna, David D. 2000. Fire history and vegetation pattern in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, USA. Ecological Applications. 10(6): 1666-1680. [37590]
27. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]
28. Gehlbach, Frederick R. 1967. Vegetation of the Guadalupe Escarpment, New Mexico-Texas. Ecology. 48(3): 404-419. [5149]
29. Gottfried, Gerald J.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Allen, Craig D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Chung-MacCoubrey, Alice L. 1995. Pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: Finch, Deborah M.; Tainter, Joseph A., eds. Ecology, diversity, and sustainability of the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-268. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 95-132. [26188]
30. Huber, Dean W. 1992. Utilization of hardwoods, fuelwood, and special forest products in California, Arizona, and New Mexico. In: Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Bennett, Duane A.; Hernandez C., Victor Manuel; Ortega-Rubio, Alfred; Hamre, R. H., tech. coords. Ecology and management of oak and associated woodlands: perspectives in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico: Proceedings; 1992 April 27-30; Sierra Vista, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-218. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 103-108. [19748]
31. Humphrey, R. R. 1958. The desert grassland. Botanical Review. 24: 193-253. [36271]
32. Humphrey, Robert R. 1958. The desert grassland: A history of vegetational change and an analysis of causes. Bull. 299. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station. 61 p. [5270]
33. Humphrey, Robert R. 1960. Forage production on Arizona ranges. V. Pima, Pinal and Santa Cruz Counties. Bulletin 502. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station. 137 p. [4520]
34. Johnson, Donald E.; Mukhtar, Hashim A. M.; Mapston, Raymond; Humphrey, R. R. 1962. The mortality of oak-juniper woodland species following a wild fire. Journal of Range Management. 15: 201-205. [129]
35. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. In: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]
36. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
37. Keeley, Jon E. 1981. Reproductive cycles and fire regimes. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; Lotan, J. E.; Reiners, W. A., tech. coords. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 231-277. [4395]
38. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384]
39. Laven, R. D.; Omi, P. N.; Wyant, J. G.; Pinkerton, A. S. 1980. Interpretation of fire scar data from a ponderosa pine ecosystem in the central Rocky Mountains, Colorado. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., tech. coords. Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 46-49. [7183]
40. Leopold, Aldo. 1924. Grass, brush, timber, and fire in southern Arizona. Journal of Forestry. 22(6): 1-10. [5056]
41. Martin, William C.; Hutchins, Charles R. 1981. A flora of New Mexico. Volume 2. Germany: J. Cramer. 2589 p. [37176]
42. McCulloch, Clay Y. 1973. Part I: Seasonal diets of mule and white-tailed deer. In: Deer nutrition in Arizona chaparral and desert habitats. Special Report No. 3: Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act Project W-78-R. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Game and Fish Department, Research Division: 1-37. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. [9894]
43. Medina, Alvin L. 1987. Woodland communities and soils of Fort Bayard, southwestern New Mexico. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. 21: 99-112. [3978]
44. Moir, W. H.; Carleton, J. O. 1987. Classification of pinyon-juniper (p-j) sites on national forests in the Southwest. In: Everett, Richard L., compiler. Proceedings--pinyon-juniper conference; 1986 January 13-16; Reno, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-215. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 216-226. [6852]
45. Moir, William H. 1979. Soil-vegetation patterns in the central Peloncillo Mountains, New Mexico. The American Midland Naturalist. 102(2): 317-331. [4634]
46. Moir, William H. 1982. A fire history of the High Chisos, Big Bend National Park, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist. 27(1): 87-98. [5916]
47. Mouat, David A. 1974. Relationships between vegetation and terrain variables in southeastern Arizona. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 242 p. Thesis. [50426]
48. Muller, Cornelius H. 1939. Relations of the vegetation and climatic types in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The American Midland Naturalist. 21(3): 687-729. [64761]
49. Nabhan, G. P.; Burns, B. T. 1985. Palmilla (Nolina) fiber: a native plant industry in arid and semi-arid U.S./Mexico borderlands. Journal of Arid Environments. 9: 97-103. [14227]
50. Niering, William A.; Lowe, Charles H. 1984. Vegetation of the Santa Catalina Mountains: community types and dynamics. Vegetatio. 58: 3-28. [12037]
51. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Haase, Sally M.; Harrington, Michael G.; Narog, Marcia G.; Sackett, Stephen S.; Wilson, Ruth C. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-volume 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. [36978]
52. Peters, Erin F.; Bunting, Stephen C. 1994. Fire conditions pre- and postoccurrence of annual grasses on the Snake River Plain. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Kitchen, Stanley G., comps. Proceedings--ecology and management of annual rangelands; 1992 May 18-22; Boise, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-313. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 31-36. [24249]
53. Pieper, Rex D. 1977. The southwestern pinyon-juniper ecosystem. In: Aldon, Earl F.; Loring, Thomas J., technical coordinators. Ecology, uses, and management of pinyon-juniper woodlands: Proceedings of the workshop; 1977 March 24-25; Albuquerque, NM. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-39. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 1-6. [17251]
54. Pond, Floyd W. 1971. Chaparral: 47 years later. Res. Pap. RM-69. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 11 p. [1905]
55. Powell, A. Michael. 1988. Trees and shrubs of Trans-Pecos Texas: Including Big Bend and Guadalupe Mountains National Parks. Big Bend National Park, TX: Big Bend Natural History Association. 536 p. [6130]
56. Rankins, D. L., Jr.; Smith, G. S.; Ross, T. T.; Caton, J. S.; Miller, P. R.; Khan, M. F. 1988. Nolina microcarpa toxicosis in sheep. Proceedings, Western Section,, American Society of Animal Science. 39: 218-221. [14233]
57. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]
58. Rice, Carol. 1989. Live fuel moisture sampling methods for Chiricahua National Monument. Tech. Rep. No. 27. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, School of Renewable Resources; Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. 28 p. [15800]
59. Rowe, J. S. 1969. Lightning fires in Saskatchewan grassland. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 83: 317-324. [6266]
60. Rowlands, Peter G. 1980. Recovery, succession, and revegetation in the Mojave Desert. In: Rowlands, Peter G., ed. The effects of disturbance on desert soils, vegetation and community processes with emphasis on off road vehicles: a critical review. Special Publication. Riverside, CA: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Desert Plan Staff: 75-120. [20680]
61. Seklecki, Mariette T.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1996. Fire history and the possible role of Apache-set fires in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona. In: Ffolliott, Peter F.; DeBano, Leonard F.; Baker, Malchus B., Jr.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Solis-Garza, Gilberto; Edminster, Carleton B.; Neary, Daniel G.; Allen, Larry S.; Hamre, R. H., tech. coords. Effects of fire on Madrean Province ecosystems: a symposium proceedings; 1996 March 11-15; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-289. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 238-246. [28082]
62. Shields, Lora Mangum; Crispin, Joe. 1956. Vascular vegetation of a recent volcanic area in New Mexico. Ecology. 37(2): 341-351. [48580]
63. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]
64. Shreve, Forrest. 1917. The vegetation of a desert mountain range as conditioned by climatic factors. The Journal of Ecology. 5(1): 45-52. [64753]
65. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. FEIS postfire regeneration workshop--April 12: Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. 10 p. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [20090]
66. Stuever, Mary C.; Hayden, John S. 1996. Plant associations (habitat types) of the forests and woodlands of Arizona and New Mexico. Final report: Contract R3-95-27. Placitas, NM: Seldom Seen Expeditions, Inc. 520 p. [28868]
67. Swetnam, Thomas W.; Baisan, Christopher H.; Brown, Peter M.; Caprio, Anthony C. 1989. Fire history of Rhyolite Canyon, Chiricahua National Monument. Tech. Rep. No. 32. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, School of Renewable Natural Resources; Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. 47 p. [10573]
68. Swetnam, Thomas W.; Baisan, Christopher H.; Caprio, Anthony C.; Brown, Peter M. 1992. Fire history in a Mexican oak-pine woodland and adjacent montane conifer gallery forest in southeastern Arizona. In: Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Bennett, Duane A.; Hernandez C., Victor Manuel; Ortega-Rubio, Alfred; Hamre, R. H., tech. coords. Ecology and management of oak and associated woodlands: perspectives in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico: Proceedings; 1992 April 27-30; Sierra Vista, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-218. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 165-173. [19759]
69. Thomas, P. A.; Goodson, P. 1992. Conservation of succulents in desert grasslands managed by fire. Biological Conservation. 60(2): 91-100. [19894]
70. Trelease, William. 1911. The desert group Nolineae. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 50(200): 404-443. [65311]
71. Turkowski, Frank J. 1975. Dietary adaptability of the desert cottontail. Journal of Wildlife Management. 39(4): 748-756. [19887]
72. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2007. PLANTS Database, [Online]. Available: http://plants.usda.gov/ [2007, February 22]. [34262]
73. Urness, P. J.; McCulloch, C. Y. 1973. Part III: Nutritional value of seasonal deer diets. In: Deer nutrition in Arizona chaparral and desert habitats. Special Report No. 3: Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act Project W-78-R. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Game and Fish Department, Research Division: 53-68. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. [12223]
74. Urness, Philip J. 1973. Part II: Chemical analyses and in vitro digestibility of seasonal deer forages. In: Deer nutrition in Arizona chaparral and desert habitats. Special Report No. 3: Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act Project W-78-R. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Game and Fish Department, Research Division: 39-52. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. [93]
75. Warren, Peter L.; Hoy, Marina S.; Hoy, Wilton E. 1992. Vegetation and flora of Fort Bowie National Historic Site, Arizona. Tech. Rep. NPS/WRUA/NRTR-92/43. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona, School of Renewable Natural Resources, Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. 78 p. [19871]
76. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
77. Whisenant, Steven G. 1990. Postfire population dynamics of Bromus japonicus. The American Midland Naturalist. 123: 301-308. [11150]
78. White, Larry D. 1965. The effects of a wildfire on a desert grassland community. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona. 107 p. Thesis. [5552]
79. Whitfield, Charles J.; Anderson, Hugh L. 1938. Secondary succession in the desert plains grassland. Ecology. 19(2): 171-180. [5252]
80. Whittaker, R. H.; Niering, W. A. 1975. Vegetation of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona. V. Biomass, production, and diversity along the elevation gradient. Ecology. 56(4): 771-790. [35729]
81. Wright, Henry A. 1980. The role and use of fire in the semidesert grass-shrub type. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-85. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 24 p. [2616]
82. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620]
83. York, Darryl L.; Schemnitz, Sanford D. 2003. Home range, habitat use, and diet of Gould's turkeys, Peloncillo Mountains, New Mexico. The Southwestern Naturalist. 48(2): 231-240. [47383]

FEIS Home Page