Myrica pensylvanica


Unknown @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS database

Hauser, A. Scott. 2006. Myrica pensylvanica. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].


Morella pensylvanica (Mirbel) Kartesz [46]


northern bayberry

The scientific name of northern bayberry is Myrica pensylvanica Mirbel (Myricaceae) [5,18,28,32,69,74,77,82]. Where their ranges overlap, northern bayberry may hybridize with wax-myrtle (M. cerifera) and southern bayberry (M. heterophylla) [28].


No special status

Information on state-level protected status of plants in the United States is available at Plants Database.


SPECIES: Myrica pensylvanica
Northern bayberry is a native species, occurring from Ontario east to Nova Scotia and south to Ohio and North Carolina [5,18,32,46,69,74,77,82]. Flora of North America provides a distributional map of northern bayberry.

FRES11 Spruce-fir
FRES13 Loblolly-shortleaf pine
FRES15 Oak-hickory
FRES18 Maple-beech-birch
FRES41 Wet grasslands

STATES/PROVINCES: (key to state/province abbreviations)



K073 Northern cordgrass prairie
K082 Mosaic of K074 and K100
K094 Conifer bog
K096 Northeastern spruce-fir forest
K102 Beech-maple forest
K106 Northern hardwoods
K108 Northern hardwoods-spruce forest
K110 Northeastern oak-pine forest

5 Balsam fir
12 Black spruce
14 Northern pin oak
22 White pine-hemlock
23 Eastern hemlock
24 Hemlock-yellow birch
25 Sugar maple-beech-yellow birch
27 Sugar maple
28 Black cherry-maple
30 Red spruce-yellow birch
31 Red spruce-sugar maple-beech
32 Red spruce
35 Paper birch-red spruce-balsam fir
37 Northern white-cedar
42 Bur oak
43 Bear oak
45 Pitch pine
46 Eastern redcedar
50 Black locust
52 White oak-black oak-northern red oak
53 White oak
55 Northern red oak
57 Yellow-poplar
58 Yellow-poplar-eastern hemlock
59 Yellow-poplar-white oak-northern red oak
60 Beech-sugar maple
75 Shortleaf pine
79 Virginia pine
81 Loblolly pine
97 Atlantic white-cedar
107 White spruce
108 Red maple
109 Hawthorn
110 Black oak
203 Balsam poplar
253 Black spruce-white spruce


Northern bayberry is commonly associated in American beachgrass (Ammophila breviligulata) communities [53], a type not listed above.

Northern bayberry is listed as a dominant species in the following locations and vegetation classifications:

North Carolina: New York:


SPECIES: Myrica pensylvanica
This description provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g. [18,32,69,74,77,82]).

Northern bayberry is a perennial, low-growing, upright deciduous shrub [18,32,73,82,89]. It is stiffly branched [32,69,82] and typically 5 to 7 feet (1.5-2 m) tall [32,69,82,89], but may grow up to 15 feet (4.5 m) in height [18]. Northern bayberry commonly grows on sand dunes and impoverished soils, where it is considerably shorter than 5 to 7 feet (1.5-2 m) tall [89]. Growth habitat is clonal [28]. Leaves are alternate, 3 inches (8 cm) long and 1 inch (2.5 cm) [69,82] wide, and crowded toward the end of the branch [77,82]. Flowers are small, inconspicuous [34], and grow on the old wood below the current leaf-bearing tips [74,82]. Unisexual flowers occur on different plants [28]. The fruits are densely hairy, spherical drupes, 3.5 to 5.5 mm in diameter, that are covered in a wax-like coating [18,29,34].

Rhizomes/roots: Northern bayberry is rhizomatous [12,18,28,49]. In the Pine Barrens of New Jersey, northern bayberry is mainly found in the pitch pine (Pinus rigida) transition community, but may occur in isolated patches in upland areas. In the Pine Barrens, 1 or more aerial northern bayberry stems arise from a rhizome that is 0.19 to 0.5 inch (5-13 mm) in diameter. Northern bayberry generally occurs in soil where an Ao horizon has formed. The rhizomes of northern bayberry may be completely in the Ao horizon or partly in it and partly in the top 0.5 inch (13 mm) of the A1 horizon. Short roots grow along the rhizome, with roots as long as 12 inches (30 cm) occasionally found. Roots may extend as deep as 20 inches (50 cm) in Pine Barrens transition communities and as much as 24 to 30 inches (60-76cm) in upland communities [49].

Northern bayberry occurs in soils with low concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen. Northern bayberry plants form cluster roots in these soils. This enhances their ability to uptake phosphorus and nitrogen on nutrient-poor soils. Cluster roots are dense assemblages of determinate rootlets that occur along lateral roots in close longitudinal rows, produce abundant root hairs, and resemble a "bottle brush" [44,81].

Cluster roots of northern bayberry were found at 11 sites in Maine and comprised 6.3% to 20.4% of fine root biomass. Northern bayberry cluster roots occurred in a wide range of substrates including mineral soils and organic soils that had litter depths from 0 to 0.8 inch (0-2 cm), organic matter content from 4.4% to 52.9%, and extractable soil phosphorus from 3.0 to 40.4 mg/kg [44].

Physiology: Northern bayberry seedlings are not flood tolerant [80]. Mature plants are extremely drought tolerant [52].

Nitrogen fixation: Northern bayberry is a nitrogen-fixing shrub [4,10,14,31,44,47,57]. Plants in the field are infected by Frankia spp. actinomycetes [4,9,10,14,60].

In a controlled experiment, 1-year old northern bayberry plants associated with Frankia spp. had significantly (p<0.05) greater above- and belowground biomass than those not infected by Frankia spp. Northern bayberry plants associated with Frankia spp. had an average above- and belowground biomass of 35.38 and 14.76 grams, respectively, while plants unassociated with Frankia spp. had an average above- and belowground biomass of 10.10 and 5.04 grams, respectively [27].

In dune sands of the northeastern United States, it is estimated that northern bayberry adds 16 to 32 kg of nitrogen/ha/year to nitrogen-poor soils [27]. This is a substantial nitrogen addition, given that dune sands along Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, average under 11 g/m available nitrogen [87].


Northern bayberry reproduces by seed [34,89] and rhizomes [12,18,49].

Pollination: Northern bayberry is wind pollinated [59].

Breeding system: Northern bayberry is dioecious [18,29,34,38,65,69,77,82,89].

Seed production: Northern bayberry 1st produces fruit at 3 or 4 years of age and reaches maturity in 7 to 8 years of age [52]. Fruits are "numerous" [12,52].

Seed dispersal: Northern bayberry seeds are dispersed by birds [59]. Seeds pass through birds undamaged but with the wax coating removed, which is a pregermination requirement [29]. Birds that disperse northern bayberry seeds come primarily from the families Mimidae, Turdidae, Bombycillidea and/or Sturnidae [84,93].

Seed banking: No information is available on this topic.

Germination: Northern bayberry seeds require stratification [29,89] and scarification [29,34]. Seeds germinate best when cold stratified for 90 to 150 days at 50 F (10 C) [2].

Seedling establishment/growth: No information is available on this topic.

Asexual regeneration: Northern bayberry reproduces by rhizomes [12,18,49].

Northern bayberry is found in swampy woods [50,82], around the coast on headlands, beaches, and occasionally in bogs [32,74], on the border of or in forests [77], and on dry hills, sand flats, and dunes [69]. Northern bayberry also occurs in areas where topsoil has been completely removed, such as roadside cuts, railroad banks, and gravel pits [29].

Northern bayberry is described as a "marginal species," meaning that it occurs on both wet and dry sites [96].

Climate: Northern bayberry is common in the sand plain ecosystems of the northeastern United States. The climate of the region is characterized by cold winters and warm summers, with an average precipitation of 43 inches (1,100 mm). Approximately 50% of the precipitation falls from April to September [45,61]. Where northern bayberry grows in the Pine Barrens of Long Island, precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year and averages 48.7 inches (1,237 mm) [71]. Northern bayberry requires a minimum of 140 frost-free days [89].

Soil: Northern bayberry is adapted to many different soil types, but grows best on light-textured soils [89]. It is well adapted to acidic, sandy, poorly drained, and low-fertility sites [26,29,49,52,71]. Northern bayberry is commonly found on soils with low concentrations of available nitrogen and phosphorus [44]. It requires a soil pH of 5.5 to 7.8 [89]

Northern bayberry is a dominant species on a barrier beach in South Kingstown, Rhode Island. It becomes dominant approximately 150 feet (45 m) from the dune crest. Soil characteristics where northern bayberry is dominant are [47]:

Sand grain size
Organic matter
pH Chlorides
0.74 0.20 4.3 4.7 24.9 1 7.0 1.0

A detailed soil analysis of Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts, where northern bayberry is dominant, is provided in a review by Eberhardt and others [23].

Salt tolerance: Northern bayberry is tolerant of salt spray [89], growing relatively close to the ocean where salt spray is high and water availability is low. It showed no damage from salt spray in greenhouse trials and field experiments in a Massachusetts heathland [35,36].

Northern bayberry occurs along the South River of Maryland. The river is subjected to tidal fluctuations, and the salt content of the river ranges from 9.2% to 14.4% where northern bayberry occurs [67].

Due to its ability to add nitrogen to the soil, northern bayberry has been identified as a keystone species that accelerates community succession in coastal heathlands of the northeastern United States [12,17,60,87]. It is adapted to disturbed sites [39], is shade intolerant [52,89], and occurs across the successional gradient [17].

Early to mid-seral: Northern bayberry is an early successional plant on dunes and impoverished coastal soils due in part to its nitrogen-fixing ability [60]. In the Lake Erie region of Ohio, northern bayberry is an early successional species on open, sandy, or peaty soils [72]. On the sea cliffs of Long Island, northern bayberry occurs in early- to mid-seral communities dominated by pitch pine. Good and Good [33] describe those seres as a "preforest" stage.

Northern bayberry is an early successional species along the northeastern coast. Areas colonized by northern bayberry undergo succession to other shrub communities characteristic of mature coastal heaths. Shrubs that follow northern bayberry along the successional gradient include black huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata), bear oak (Quercus ilicifolia), groundsel-tree, and eastern poison-ivy (Toxicodendron radicans ssp. radicans). In areas near the coast and inland of the coast, northern bayberry gives way to rugosa rose (Rosa rugosa) and Carolina rose (R. carolina), respectively [87].

On Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, northern bayberry codominates with low sweet blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) and dwarf huckleberry (G. dumosa) in the 1st stage of mid-succession. It is preceded by a grass- (Schizachyrium ssp., Deschampsia ssp., and Festuca ssp.) dominated stage and followed by the 2nd mid-succession stage that is dominated by bear oak and the mature successional stage that is dominated by pitch pine [1].

Late-seral: Northern bayberry is an understory species in "climax" stands of Atlantic white-cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) in the Pine Barren swamps of southern New Jersey [50].

Fire: On the Southern Upland of southwestern Nova Scotia, northern bayberry occurs on burned sites of varying ages. Northern bayberry occurred with less than 5% cover on a 10-year-old burn, on a 22-year-old burn with cover of approximately 5%, and a 29-year-old burn with cover of 5% [55]. On Peaks Island in Casco Bay, Maine, large-scale fires burned all or part of the island in 1934, 1936, and 1957. Most of the trees on the island (red spruce (Picea rubens), eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), and paper birch (Betula papyrifera)) were burned and killed. After vegetation sampling in 1962, northern bayberry was described as "conspicuous" (see Plant Response to Fire) [13].

Logging: At 3 locations on mainland Nova Scotia (Six Mile Bog, Four Mile Road, and Milton) northern bayberry was an early successional species on clearcut forests. At Six Mile Bog and Four Mile Road, northern bayberry had established 3 to 5 years following logging. At Milton, northern bayberry initiated growth 1 year following clearcutting [91].

Old fields: At the Audubon Nature Sanctuary in southwestern Connecticut, northern bayberry commonly gains dominance following a stage of herbaceous annuals and perennials in abandoned farmlands. The northern bayberry stage is followed by dominance of gray birch (Betula populifolia), eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), black cherry (Prunus serotina), and white ash (Fraxinus americana) [64]. Northern bayberry is of local importance on 30-year-old abandoned farmland dominated by pin oak (Quercus palustris) in the Hutcheson Memorial Forest, New Jersey [58]. In Somerset County, New Jersey, northern bayberry is present on abandoned farmlands as young as 2 years old. It occurs in greatest numbers on fields abandoned for approximately 60 years [12].

Species displacement: In old fields on the New Jersey Piedmont, little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) communities may be invaded and displaced by northern bayberry. Several factors contribute to northern bayberry displacement of little bluestem in old fields. First, vigorous vegetative sprouting of mature northern bayberry plants results in the enlargement of its area. Second, as northern bayberry invades little bluestem communities, increased shading can inhibit the growth of little bluestem seedlings and vegetative sprouts. Third, northern bayberry litter leachate may slightly inhibit little bluestem growth. Fourth, northern bayberry's ability to enrich the soil through nitrogen fixation may allow for establishment of later successional species that can further contribute to the displacement of little bluestem [12].

Displacement of little bluestem grasslands by northern bayberry clonal expansion was measured from 1980 to 1984 at the Gateway National Recreation Area, New York, utilizing aerial photography. Northern bayberry expanded into and displaced little bluestem communities at a rate of 4.08% per year during the study. In area, this translates to an increase of 610 m. The researchers attribute northern bayberry displacement of little bluestem to litter accumulation and shading [73].

Northern bayberry begins producing new growth early in the growing season [89], and fruit generally ripens in late September to early October [29,38,77]. The plants go dormant in late October [22]. Leaves remain attached to branches late into the fall [82]. Northern bayberry fruits persist throughout winter and into the next spring [5]. In eastern deciduous forests, northern bayberry fruit is generally dispersed from September through winter [84,93].

Flowering dates of northern bayberry are presented below:

State/region/province Flowering period
New York June [15]
North Carolina April [69]
Atlantic coastline April to May [18]
Nova Scotia June [74]


SPECIES: Myrica pensylvanica
Fire adaptations: Northern bayberry is a fire "persister" [62]. Limited fire research shows that it reemerges on burned sites within 2 years following fire [19]. Northern bayberry regenerates via seed [34,89] and rhizomes [12,18,49], though its regeneration after fire is not documented in current (2006) literature. Northern bayberry seeds are likely dispersed onto burned sites by birds [29,59,84,93].

Fire regimes: Much of the research on northern bayberry focuses on its presence along the coastline in dune communities, where the occurrence of fire is low. Due to a long history of anthropogenic ecosystem interference in the northeastern United States, the fire history of the area is largely unknown. Northern bayberry is a minor species in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey. The Pine Barrens have burned repeatedly, at intervals of 10 to 30 years [56]. Northern bayberry is common and dominant in several locations at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Several fire history studies of Cape Cod have been conducted and are presented below.

Fires were likely an important factor in maintaining Atlantic coastal woodlands, heathlands, and grassland communities prior to European settlement. There is little fire history for Cape Cod prior to the mid-19th century; however, fire frequency in the area generally increased with land clearing associated with colonial settlement. Fires were common on Cape Cod from the mid-19th to the early 20th century, with primary ignition caused by railroads [61]. From 1897 to 1962 there have been at least 31 fires at Cape Cod National Seashore, some of which have exceeded 74 acres (30 ha). Since the establishment of Cape Cod National Seashore in 1961, no large fires have occurred due to fire exclusion [23]. Motzkin and others [61] investigated the fire history of Cape Cod and reported that there was historical evidence of fire in 38.5% of the sites.

The following table provides fire return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where northern bayberry is important. For further information, see the FEIS review of the dominant species listed below.

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
maple-beech Acer-Fagus spp. 684-1,385 [11,90]
maple-beech-birch Acer-Fagus-Betula spp. >1,000
sugar maple Acer saccharum >1,000 [90]
birch Betula spp. 80-230 [85]
Atlantic white-cedar Chamaecyparis thyoides 35 to >200 [90]
northern cordgrass prairie Distichlis spicata-Spartina spp. 1-3 [66]
beech-sugar maple Fagus spp.-Acer saccharum >1,000 [90]
California steppe Festuca-Danthonia spp. <35 [51,66]
yellow-poplar Liriodendron tulipifera <35
northeastern spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35-200
black spruce Picea mariana 35-200
conifer bog* Picea mariana-Larix laricina 35-200
red spruce* Picea rubens 35-200
shortleaf pine Pinus echinata 2-15
shortleaf pine-oak Pinus echinata-Quercus spp. <10 [90]
pitch pine Pinus rigida 6-25 [6]
loblolly pine Pinus taeda 3-8
loblolly-shortleaf pine Pinus taeda-P. echinata 10 to <35
Virginia pine Pinus virginiana 10 to <35
Virginia pine-oak Pinus virginiana-Quercus spp. 10 to <35 [90]
aspen-birch Populus tremuloides-Betula papyrifera 35-200 [16,90]
black cherry-sugar maple Prunus serotina-Acer saccharum >1,000
oak-hickory Quercus-Carya spp. <35
northeastern oak-pine Quercus-Pinus spp. 10 to <35
white oak-black oak-northern red oak Quercus alba-Q. velutina-Q. rubra <35
northern pin oak Quercus ellipsoidalis <35
bear oak Quercus ilicifolia <35
bur oak Quercus macrocarpa <10
northern red oak Quercus rubra 10 to <35
black oak Quercus velutina <35 [90]
*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species review

Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil
Secondary colonizer (on-site or off-site seed sources)


SPECIES: Myrica pensylvanica
Northern bayberry is top-killed by fire [22].

No additional information is available on this topic.

Northern bayberry is described as a fire "persister" [62,63]. It probably regenerates via seed [34,89] and rhizomes [12,18,49] on burned sites. Understanding of northern bayberry's response to fire is limited and inconsistent, so further research is sorely needed. In the fire research described below, northern bayberry cover has decreased [19,22,63], increased [22], and remained constant [63] after burning.

On the sandplain grasslands of Nantucket Island, spring prescription burning slightly decreased northern bayberry cover and frequency at postfire year 2 compared to prefire levels. Summer prescription burning increased cover and did not change frequency. Conditions during the 13 April 1983 prescription fire included windspeeds of 10 to 13 miles/hour, a temperature of 45 F (7 C), and 66% relative humidity. Most species were still dormant when the fire occurred. Nearly 100% of the plot burned, and little litter remained on the ground. Conditions during the 5 August 1983 prescription fire included windspeeds of 5 to 13 miles/hour, a temperature of 73 F (23 C), and 70% relative humidity. Most species had largely completed summer growth but were still green. Vegetation sampling in 1983 occurred prior to burning, and vegetation was resampled 2 years later in July and August of 1985. Cover and frequency of northern bayberry may have decreased in response to the fires, though statistical analysis was not given [19]:

Month of fire Cover (%) Frequency (%)
1983 1985 1983 1985
April 4 2 33 30
August 9 12 50 50

Regular burning of old fields dominated by little bluestem at the Connecticut College Arboretum reduced the cover and frequency of northern bayberry. Burning began in 1968 on 2 separate plots, approximately 40 years after agricultural abandonment. Prescription burning on Plot A occurred from 1968 to 1976 and in 1978, 1980, 1983, and 1985. Prescription burning on Plot B occurred from 1968 to 1975 and in 1978, 1980, 1983, and 1985. Burning on both plots took place during early April when northern bayberry was still dormant. Cover and frequency of northern bayberry in 1967 prior to burning and reduced cover in 1985 [63] were:

Plot A Plot B
  1967 1985 1967 1985

Cover (%)

6.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0
Frequency (%) 9.0 3.0 5.0 3.0

In Massachusetts, prescription burning of northern bayberry during 3 different seasons, in different ecosystems, and at various intervals on Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard, and Cape Cod produced myriad results. Burning trials were conducted on either coastal heathlands (Tom Nevers and Sesachacha sites) or sandplain grasslands (Ram Pasture, Sanford Farm, and Katama sites) from 1982 to 1995. Northern bayberry was top-killed in all burning trials. Prescription fires in both ecosystems were generally ignited as strip headfires with flame lengths not exceeding 6 feet (2 m) in grasslands and 30 feet (10 m) in heathlands. In the heathlands, northern bayberry remained relatively constant or decreased when prescription burned during fall and spring. In the sandplain grasslands, northern bayberry decreased on 4 of 5 burned plots [22]. Details are provided below.

Burning heathlands: At Tom Nevers, northern bayberry stands were burned in 1985, 1988, and 1992 during October and in 1985, 1987, 1989, and 1992 during April. In 1985, cover and frequency of northern bayberry on October burn plots was 2% and 23%, respectively. In 1992, cover remained at 2% and frequency increased to 30%. In 1985, cover and frequency of northern bayberry on April burn plots was 5% and 47%, respectively. In 1994, cover and frequency were reduced to 2% and 37%, respectively. At Sesachacha, northern bayberry communities were burned in 1988, 1991, and 1994 during April. In 1989, cover and frequency was 1% and 9%, respectively. By 1995, northern bayberry cover was reduced to <1% and frequency to 7% [22].

Burning grasslands: At Ram Pasture, northern bayberry was burned biennially from 1983 to 1995 on plots designated as August burn and April burn. On August burn plots, northern bayberry was reduced from 9% cover and 50% frequency in 1983 to 3% cover and 13% frequency in 1995. In plots burned in April, northern bayberry was reduced from 4% cover and 33% frequency in 1982 to 2% cover and 30% frequency in 1995. The only instance where northern bayberry increased following burning was at Katama, Martha's Vineyard. At this location, northern bayberry was burned during October in 1986, 1987, and 1992. In 1986, cover and frequency were 4% and 17%, respectively. Two years following the last burn, 1994, cover and frequency had increased to 7% and 20%, respectively [22].

Burning/mowing grasslands: Northern bayberry was mowed prior to burning on 2 plots at Sanford Farm. On Plot 1, northern bayberry was mowed and burned in June 1986, March 1987, March and June 1989, April 1991, September 1992, April 1993, and March and September 1995. In 1986, cover and frequency of northern bayberry were 12% and 46%, respectively, and reduced to 5% and 23%, respectively, in 1994. On Plot 2, northern bayberry was mowed and burned in August 1986, May 1987, March 1989, and February and March 1990. On Plot 2, northern bayberry decreased from 16% cover and 42% frequency in 1986 to 11% cover and 42% frequency in 1990 [22]. For more information on this study, see the Research Project Summary Vegetation change in grasslands and heathlands following multiple spring, summer, and fall prescription fires in Massachusetts.

With the limited fire research available and contradictory reports on northern bayberry's response to fire, land managers should use caution when burning in ecosystems where the shrub is located. The research suggests that northern bayberry responds best when burned in October, after it has gone dormant [22].


SPECIES: Myrica pensylvanica
Northern bayberry is of primary importance to bird species [38,52,68,84,89,92,93]. Little research has been conducted on the importance of northern bayberry to other animal species. White-tailed deer in the New Jersey Pine Barrens browse northern bayberry on lowland sites during the dormant season (mid-October to late April) [51], and domestic sheep historically browsed northern bayberry on Nantucket Island [21].

Birds: Northern bayberry fruit remains on the plant well into winter when above accumulated snow, making it accessible to northern bobwhite, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, and numerous songbird species [38,89]. During fall migration, especially along the east coast of the United States, songbirds cease eating insects and begin eating primarily fruit. Block Island, Rhode Island, is a stopping point for yellow-rumped warblers during fall migration. While on Block Island, yellow-rumped warbler diets consist mainly of northern bayberry fruits [68]. On the New Jersey Piedmont, northern bayberry fruit is an important source of food for birds in the families Mimidae, Turdidae, Bombycillidea, and/or Sturnidae [84,92,93].

Palatability/nutritional value: Northern bayberry plant tissue and litter, collected on Nantucket Island in mid-June and mid-September, was analyzed for nitrogen content. Little difference was observed between dates, and thus only the mean nitrogen content was reported. The percent nitrogen content (xs x) of northern bayberry tissue and litter was 1.590.13 and 1.550.10, respectively [17].

Cover value: Northern bayberry retains part of its leaf cover throughout the winter, providing shelter for game and nongame animals throughout the year [89]. The northern harrier, rare in Massachusetts, has been observed roosting at Barney's Joy Point in dense shrub/grasslands codominated by northern bayberry [8].

Northern bayberry is used extensively throughout the Northeast to stabilize roadside banks and revegetate disturbed soil [14,94]. It provides excellent stabilization and cover for sand dunes along the mid-Atlantic coastline [52,89,95]. Northern bayberry seedlings can be grown in containers and transplanted successfully in the field [94].

On Sable Island, Nova Scotia, northern bayberry showed tolerance to experimental natural gas contamination [54].

On strip-mine spoil banks in southern Indiana that were amended with lime, 1- to 2-year-old transplanted northern bayberry seedlings had low survival rate at all lime levels. To raise the pH level of the acid mine spoils, lime was added at rates of 0, 12.5, 25, and 39 tonnes/ha. At the 4 levels, northern bayberry survival rate 15 months following planting was 0%, 33.0%, 12.5%, and 26.7%, respectively. Combining all plots, northern bayberry survival rate was 18.1%, which was the lowest survival rate of any plant used in the study [41,42].

There was 1 northern bayberry cultivar ('Wildwood') available as of 2006 [89].

Northern bayberry is often used as an ornamental [34,37,52,89]. The wax from the berries is melted off and used in bayberry candles [5,24,34,37,38,89]. The wax is also used to make soap [38]. The dried leaves (picked in early summer) can be blended into stews and sauces. Berries picked from late summer into winter can also be used for seasoning [24,37,38].

The Micmac and Malecite tribes of Canada's Maritime Provinces used northern bayberry stems, leaves, berries, and roots for medicinal purposes [43].

Browsing: A combination of domestic sheep browsing and trampling significantly (p<0.05) reduced northern bayberry cover and frequency on Nantucket Island. The study site was a mixture of grasslands and heathlands that was grazed by as many as 15,000 domestic sheep until the mid-1800s, at which time grazing largely ended excepting a flock of approximately 500 domestic sheep that remained on the island until 1948. Ungrazed sites had seen little to no grazing for at least 100 years and were relatively undisturbed. Vegetation sampling occurred in 1990, 42 years following grazing. On ungrazed sites, northern bayberry cover and frequency were 3.5% and 17.2%, respectively. On grazed sites, cover and frequency of northern bayberry were both 0% [21].

Herbicides: Several researchers [76,94] discuss the effects of the herbicides azafenidin, pendimethalin, simazine, and sulfometuron on the growth rate of northern bayberry at the Southeast Purdue Agricultural Center, Indiana. Herbicides were used to control crabgrass (Digitaria spp.), horseweed (Erigeron canadensis), giant foxtail (Setaria faberii), and yellow foxtail (S. glauca).

Mowing: On the sandplain grasslands of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, northern bayberry cover and frequency were decreased 2 years after an August mowing compared to premowing levels. Mowing occurred on 4 August 1983, and all vegetation was mowed within 2 inches (5 cm) of the ground. Most species had largely completed summer growth, but were still green during the August mowing. In 1983, prior to mowing, cover and frequency of northern bayberry were 5% and 28%, respectively. When the mowed plot was again sampled in July and August of 1985, northern bayberry cover and frequency were reduced to 2% and 24%, respectively [20].

Mowing northern bayberry 6 times from 1985 to 1992 at Tom Nevers, Nantucket Island, did not change cover or frequency. Northern bayberry was mowed in July and September 1985, October 1988, February 1990, and March 1992. In 1985, cover and frequency of northern bayberry were 4% and 40%, respectively, and remained the same when sampled again in 1994 [22].

Plant facilitation: Northern bayberry had a positive influence on the growth, reproductive output, and seedling recruitment of the sand dune species seaside goldenrod (Solidago sempervirens) and American beachgrass under the shrub's canopy at Cape Cod National Seashore. Seaside goldenrod under northern bayberry canopies was significantly taller (p<0.0001), had a greater number of leaves (p<0.001), more biomass (p<0.0009), was more likely to be in flower (p<0.0001), had more flowering stems (p<0.002), more flowerheads (p<0.01), more florets per flowerhead (p<0.01), and established more seedlings (p<0.001). American beachgrass under northern bayberry was significantly taller (p<0.0002), had a greater number of adult stems (p<0.05), more biomass (p<0.001), was more likely to be in flower (p<0.0007), had more flowering stems (p<0.0005), more flowers (p<0.0001), and more seeds (p<0.02). Seaside goldenrod and American beachgrass under the canopy of northern bayberry grow and reproduce better because soil temperatures are lower, plants are shielded from solar- and wind-driven water loss and are not as subjected to sand movement, and the availability of soil nutrients is higher under the canopy [79].

On Nantucket Island, young (5-8 years) and old (12-25 years) pitch pine and young (3-6 years) Japanese black pine (P. thunbergii) grew more in height annually when located within northern bayberry clumps. Young pitch pine trees associated with northern bayberry on average increased 5.0 inches (12.7 cm) a year compared to 4.2 inches (10.7 cm) for trees not associated with northern bayberry. Old pitch pines associated with northern bayberry on average increased 5.1 inches (12.9 cm) a year compared to 4.4 inches (11.2 cm) for trees not associated with northern bayberry. Young Japanese black pines associated with northern bayberry on average increased 8.1 inches (20.8 cm) a year compared to 7.7 inches (19.5 cm) for trees not associated with northern bayberry. Increased growth by pitch pine and Japanese black pine in clumps of northern bayberry was attributed to nitrogen fixation [86].

Myrica pensylvanica: REFERENCES

1. Barford, C.; Lajtha, K. 1992. Nitrification and nitrate reductase activity along a secondary successional gradient. Plant and Soil. 145(1): 1-10. [39665]
2. Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M. 2001. Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. 666 p. [60775]
3. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]
4. Bloom, Raanan A.; Lechevalier, Mary P.; Tate, Robert L., III. 1989. Physiological, chemical, morphological, and plant infectivity characteristics of Frankia isolates from Myrica pensylvanica: correlation to DNA restriction patterns. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 55(9): 2161-2166. [62490]
5. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. [12914]
6. Buchholz, Kenneth; Good, Ralph E. 1982. Density, age structure, biomass and net annual aboveground productivity of dwarfed Pinus rigida Moll. from the New Jersey Pine Barren Plains. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 109(1): 24-34. [8639]
7. Butler, Brett J.; Barclay, John S.; Fisher, Jeffrey P. 1999. Plant communities and flora of Robins Island (Long Island), New York. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 126(1): 63-76. [62545]
8. Christiansen, Dave A., Jr.; Reinert, Steven E. 1990. Habitat use of the northern harrier in a coastal Massachusetts shrubland with notes on population trends in southeastern New England. Journal of Raptor Research. 24(4): 84-90. [60952]
9. Clawson, Michael L.; Benson, David R. 1999. Natural diversity of Frankia strains in actinorhizal root nodules from promiscuous hosts in the family Myricaceae. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 65(10): 4521-4527. [62486]
10. Clawson, Michael L.; Gawronski, Jeffrey; Benson, David R. 1999. Dominance of Frankia strains in stands of Alnus incana subsp. rugosa and Myrica pensylvanica. Canadian Journal of Botany. 77(9): 1203-1207. [62487]
11. Cleland, David T.; Crow, Thomas R.; Saunders, Sari C.; Dickmann, Donald I.; Maclean, Ann L.; Jordan, James K.; Watson, Richard L.; Sloan, Alyssa M.; Brosofske, Kimberley D. 2004. Characterizing historical and modern fire regimes in Michigan (USA): a landscape ecosystem approach. Landscape Ecology. 19: 311-325. [54326]
12. Collins, Beverly S.; Quinn, James A. 1982. Displacement of Andropogon scoparius on the New Jersey Piedmont by the successional shrub Myrica pensylvanica. American Journal of Botany. 69(5): 680-689. [62570]
13. Coveney, Mary Camilla. 1965. Effect of fire and wind-throw on a forest area. Boston, MA: Boston University. 142 p. Dissertation. [35683]
14. Del Tredici, Peter. 1996. A nitrogen fixation: the story of the Frankia symbiosis. Arnoldia. 55(4): 26-31. [62553]
15. Dowhan, Joseph J.; Rozsa, Ron. 1989. Flora of Fire Island, Suffolk County, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 116(3): 265-282. [22041]
16. Duchesne, Luc C.; Hawkes, Brad C. 2000. Fire in northern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 35-51. [36982]
17. Dudley, Judith L.; Michener, Bob; Lajtha, Kate. 1996. The contributions of nitrogen-fixing symbioses to coastal heathland succession. The American Midland Naturalist. 135(2): 334-342. [62488]
18. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 409 p. [12906]
19. Dunwiddie, Peter W. 1990. Postglacial vegetation history of coastal islands in southeastern New England. National Geographic Research. 6(2): 178-195. [7620]
20. Dunwiddie, Peter W. 1991. Comparisons of aboveground arthropods in burned, mowed and untreated sites in sandplain grasslands on Nantucket Island. The American Midland Naturalist. 125(2): 206-212. [15673]
21. Dunwiddie, Peter W. 1997. Long-term effects of sheep grazing on coastal sandplain vegetation. Natural Areas Journal. 17(3): 261-264. [27443]
22. Dunwiddie, Peter W. 1998. Ecological management of sandplain grasslands and coastal heathlands in southeastern Massachusetts. In: Pruden, Teresa L.; Brennan, Leonard A., eds. Fire in ecosystem management: shifting the paradigm from suppression to prescription: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1996 May 7-10; Boise, ID. No. 20. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 83-93. [35607]
23. Eberhardt, Robert W.; Foster, David E.; Motzkin, Glenn; Hall, Brian. 2003. Conservation of changing landscapes: vegetation and land-use history of Cape Cod National Seashore. Ecological Applications. 13(1): 68-84. [44244]
24. Elias, Thomas S.; Dykeman, Peter A. 1982. Field guide to North American edible wild plants. New York: Outdoor Life Books. 286 p. [21104]
25. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]
26. Fimbel, Robert A.; Kuser, John E. 1993. Restoring the pygmy pine forest of New Jersey's pine barrens. Restoration Ecology. 1(2): 117-129. [22352]
27. Fimbel, Robert A.; Kuser, John E. 1995. Competitive and mutualistic interactions between pitch pine, bayberry, and their symbionts. Soil Science. 160(1): 69-76. [62489]
28. Flora of North America Association. 2006. Flora of North America: The flora, [Online]. Flora of North America Association (Producer). Available: [36990]
29. Fordham, Alfred J. 1983. Of birds and bayberries: seed dispersal and propagation of three Myrica species. Arnoldia. 43(4): 20-23. [62541]
30. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]
31. Gemma, J. N.; Koske, R. E. 1997. Arbuscular mycorrhizae in sand dune plants of the North Atlantic coast of the U.S.: field and greenhouse inoculation and presence of mycorrhizae in planting stock. Journal of Environmental Management. 50(3): 251-264. [62546]
32. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
33. Good, Ralph E.; Good, Norma F. 1970. Vegetation of the sea cliffs and adjacent uplands on the north shore of Long Island, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 97(4): 204-208. [62577]
34. Griffin, Jason J.; Blazich, Frank A. [In press]. Myrica L. and Morella Lour.: bayberry, [Online]. In: Bonner, Franklin T.; Nisley, Rebecca G.; Karrfait, R. P., coords. Woody plant seed manual. Agric. Handbook 727. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (Producer). 8 p. Available: [2006, October 9]. [64175]
35. Griffiths, Megan E.; Orians, Colin M. 2003. Responses of common and successional heathland species to manipulated salt spray and water availability. American Journal of Botany. 90(12): 1720-1728. [60949]
36. Griffiths, Megan E.; Orians, Colin M. 2003. Salt spray differentially affects water status, necrosis, and growth in coastal sandplain heathland species. American Journal of Botany. 90(8): 1188-1196. [45267]
37. Grimm, William Cary. 1967. Recognizing native shrubs. Camping Journal. September: 49-61. [10897]
38. Halls, Lowell K., ed. 1977. Southern fruit-producing woody plants used by wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-16. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region, Southern Forest Experiment Station; Southeastern Area, State and Private Forestry. 235 p. [23522]
39. Hanks, Sharon; Fairbrothers, David E. 1969. Habitats and associations of Opuntia compressa (Salisb.) Macbr. in New Jersey. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 96(5): 592-594. [62571]
40. Hendrickson, William H. 1972. Perspective on fire and ecosystems in the United States. In: Fire in the environment: Symposium proceedings; 1972 May 1-5; Denver, CO. FS-276. [Washington, DC]: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 29-33. In cooperation with: Fire Services of Canada, Mexico, and the United States; Members of the Fire Management Study Group; North American Forestry Commission; FAO. [17276]
41. Hensley, D. L.; Carpenter, P. L. 1984. Effect of lime additions to acid strip-mine spoil on survival, growth and nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) of several woody legume and actinomycete-nodulated species. Plant and Soil. 79(3): 353-367. [62561]
42. Hensley, David L.; Carpenter, Philip L. 1986. Survival and coverage by several N2-fixing trees and shrubs on lime-amended acid mine spoil. Tree Planters' Notes. 29: 27-31. [2845]
43. Hooper, Shirley N.; Chandler, R. Frank. 1984. Herbal remedies of the maritime Indians: phytosterols and triterpenes of 67 plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 10: 181-194. [48295]
44. Hurd, Todd M.; Schwintzer, Christa R. 1997. Formation of cluster roots and mycorrhizal status of Comptonia peregrina and Myrica pensylvanica in Maine, USA. Physiologia Plantarum. 99(4): 680-689. [62554]
45. Johnson, Ann F. 1981. Plant communities of the Napeague Dunes. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 108(1): 76-84. [62573]
46. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. [36715]
47. Koske, R. E.; Halvorson, W. L. 1981. Ecological studies of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in a barrier sand dune. Canadian Journal of Botany. 59(8): 1413-1422. [62562]
48. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384]
49. Laycock, William A. 1967. Distribution of roots and rhizomes in different soil types in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey. Geological Survey Professional Paper 563-C. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey. 29 p. [22934]
50. Little, S. 1951. Observations on the minor vegetation of the pine barren swamps in southern New Jersey. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 78(2): 153-160. [62576]
51. Little, Silas; Moorhead, George R.; Somes, Horace A. 1958. Forestry and deer in the pine region of New Jersey. Stn. Pap. No. 109. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 33 p. [11681]
52. Lorenz, David G.; Sharp, W. Curtis.; Ruffner, Joseph D. 1991. Conservation plants for the Northeast. Program Aid 1154. [Washington, DC]: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 43 p. [47719]
53. Lortie, J. P.; Sorrie, B. A.; Holt, D. W. 1991. Flora of the Monomoy Islands, Chatham, Massachusetts. Rhodora. 93(876): 361-389. [17708]
54. Lucas, Z.; Freedman, B. 1989. The effects of experimental spills of natural gas condensate on three plant communities on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada. Oil and Chemical Pollution. 5(4): 263-272. [62547]
55. Martin, J. Lynton. 1956. An ecological survey of burned-over forest land in southwestern Nova Scotia. Forestry Chronicle. 32: 313-336. [8932]
56. McCormick, Jack. 1998. The vegetation of the New Jersey Pine Barrens. In: Forman, Richard T. T., ed. Pine Barrens: ecosystem and landscape. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press: 229-243. [50774]
57. McNiel, Robert E.; Carpenter, Philip L. 1974. Nitrogen fixation by woody plant species as measured by the acetylene reduction assay. Hortscience. 9(4): 381-382. [13491]
58. Monk, Carl D. 1957. Plant communities of Hutcheson Memorial Forest based on shrub distribution. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 84(3): 198-206. [62586]
59. Moore, Gerry. 2004. Morella caroliniensis. In: Francis, John K., ed. Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: thamnic descriptions: volume 1. Gen. Tech. Rep. IITF-GTR-26. San Juan, PR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry; Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 502-504. [52202]
60. Morris, M.; Eveleigh, D. E.; Riggs, S. C.; Tiffney, W. M., Jr. 1974. Nitrogen fixation in the bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) and its role in coastal succession. American Journal of Botany. 61(8): 867-870. [62564]
61. Motzkin, Glenn; Eberhardt, Robert; Hall, Brian; Foster, David R.; Harrod, Jonathan; MacDonald, Dana. 2002. Vegetation variation across Cape Cod, Massachusetts: environmental and historical determinants. Journal of Biogeography. 29: 1439-1454. [46039]
62. Niering, William A. 1981. The role of fire management in altering ecosystems. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; Lotan, J. E.; Reiners, W. A., technical coordinators. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 489-510. [5084]
63. Niering, William A.; Dreyer, Glenn D. 1989. Effects of prescribed burning on Andropogon scoparius in postagricultural grasslands in Connecticut. The American Midland Naturalist. 122: 88-102. [8768]
64. Niering, William A.; Egler, Frank E. 1955. A shrub community of Viburnum lentago, stable for twenty-five years. Ecology. 36(2): 356-360. [62585]
65. Oregon State University. 2004. Landscape plants: Images, identification, and information. Volume 2, [Online]. Corvallis, OR: Department of Horticulture (Producer). Available: [2004, August 26]. [51737]
66. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Haase, Sally M.; Harrington, Michael G.; Narog, Marcia G.; Sackett, Stephen S.; Wilson, Ruth C. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-volume 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. [36978]
67. Philipp, Charles C.; Brown, Russell G. 1965. Ecological studies of transition-zone vascular plants in South River, Maryland. Chesapeake Science. 6(2): 73-81. [62591]
68. Podlesak, David W.; McWilliams, Scott R.; Hatch, Kent A. 2005. Stable isotopes in breath, blood, feces and feathers can indicate intra-individual changes in the diet of migratory songbirds. Oecologia. 142(4): 501-510. [62542]
69. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
70. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]
71. Reiners, W. A. 1965. Ecology of a heath-shrub synusia in the pine barrens of Long Island, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 92(6): 448-464. [22835]
72. Reznicek, A. A. 1994. The disjunct coastal plain flora in the Great Lakes region. Biological Conservation. 68(3): 203-216. [23461]
73. Rogers, Garry F.; Robertson, John M.; Solecki, William D.; Vint, Mary K. 1985. Rate of Myrica pensylvanica (bayberry) expansion in grassland at Gateway National Recreation Area, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 112(1): 74-78. [39655]
74. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
75. Schafale, Michael P.; Weakley, Alan S. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina: Third approximation. Raleigh, NC: Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, North Carolina Natural Heritage Program. 325 p. Available online: [2005, February 14]. [41937]
76. Seifert, John R.; Woeste, Keith. 2002. Evaluation of four herbicides and tillage for weed control on 1-0 planted tree seedlings. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 19(3): 101-105. [62552]
77. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
78. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]
79. Shumway, Scott W. 2000. Facilitative effects of a sand dune shrub on species growing beneath the shrub canopy. Oecologia. 124(1): 138-148. [62544]
80. Shumway, Scott W.; Banks, Catherine R. 2001. Species distribution in interdunal swale communities: the effects of soil waterlogging. The American Midland Naturalist. 145(1): 137-146. [62543]
81. Skene, Keith R. 1998. Cluster roots: some ecological considerations. Journal of Ecology. 86(6): 1060-1064. [62572]
82. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Miscellaneous Publications. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. [12907]
83. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. FEIS postfire regeneration workshop--April 12: Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. 10 p. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [20090]
84. Stiles, Edmund W. 1980. Patterns of fruit presentation and seed dispersal in bird-disseminated woody plants in the eastern deciduous forest. The American Naturalist. 116(5): 670-688. [6508]
85. Swain, Albert M. 1978. Environmental changes during the past 2000 years in north-central Wisconsin: analysis of pollen, charcoal, and seeds from varved lake sediments. Quaternary Research. 10: 55-68. [6968]
86. Tiffney, W. N., Jr.; Barrera, J. F. 1979. Comparative growth of pitch and Japanese black pine in clumps of the N2-fixing shrub, bayberry. Botanical Gazette. 140(Supplement): S108-S109. [63667]
87. Tiffney, W., Jr.; Eveleigh, D.; Barrera, J.; Mitchell, S. 1979. Evaluation of some nitrogen-fixing plants for coastal zone management applications. In: Gordon, J. C.; Wheeler, C. T.; Perry, D. A., eds. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the management of temperate forests: Proceedings of a workshop; 1979 April 2-5; Corvallis, OR. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Forest Research Laboratory: 420-428. [4309]
88. Torrey, John G. 1978. Nitrogen fixation by actinomycete-nodulated angiosperms. Bioscience. 28(9): 586-592. [8517]
89. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2006. PLANTS database (2006), [Online]. Available: [34262]
90. Wade, Dale D.; Brock, Brent L.; Brose, Patrick H.; Grace, James B.; Hoch, Greg A.; Patterson, William A., III. 2000. Fire in eastern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 53-96. [36983]
91. Wall, R. E. 1982. Secondary succession on recently cut-over forest land in Nova Scotia. Information Report M-X-133. Fredericton, NB: Department of the Environment, Canadian Forestry Service, Maritimes Forest Research Centre. 19 p. [7302]
92. White, Douglas W.; Stiles, Edmund W. 1990. Co-occurrences of foods in stomachs and feces of fruit-eating birds. The Condor. 92(2): 291-303. [62598]
93. White, Douglas W.; Stiles, Edmund W. 1992. Bird dispersal of fruits of species introduced into eastern North America. Canadian Journal of Botany. 70: 1689-1696. [19713]
94. Woeste, K. E.; Seifert, J. R.; Selig, M. F. 2005. Evaluation of four herbicides and tillage for weed control on third year growth of tree seedlings. Weed Science. 53(3): 331-336. [62551]
95. Zak, John M.; Wagner, Joachim. 1967. Oil-base mulches and terraces as aids to tree and shrub establishment on coastal sand dunes. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 22(5): 198-201. [62567]
96. Zampella, Robert A.; Moore, Gerry; Good, Ralph E. 1992. Gradient analysis of pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) lowland communities in the New Jersey pinelands. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 119(3): 253-261. [62589]

FEIS Home Page