Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Mitchella repens


Introductory

SPECIES: Mitchella repens
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Mitchella repens. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : MITREP SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : MIRE COMMON NAMES : partridgeberry two-eyed berry running-fox TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for partridgeberry is Mitchella repens L. [5,10]. There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Mitchella repens
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Partridgeberry is widely distributed throughout the eastern United States. It ranges from Newfoundland south to central Florida and from southern Ontario and Minnesota south to eastern Texas [4,5,22,24,31]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES10 White - red - jack pine FRES11 Spruce - fir FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood FRES18 Maple - beech - birch FRES19 Aspen - birch STATES : AL AR CT DE FL GA IL IN IA KS KY ME MD MA MI MN MS MO NH NJ NY NC OH OK PA SC TN TX VT VA WV WI NB NF NS ON PQ BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K095 Great Lakes pine forest K096 Northeastern spruce - fir forest K097 Southeastern spruce - fir forest K100 Oak - hickory forest K101 Elm - ash forest K102 Beech - maple forest K104 Appalachian oak forest K106 Northern hardwoods K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest K113 Southern floodplain forest SAF COVER TYPES : 14 Northern pin oak 17 Pin cherry 19 Gray birch - red maple 20 White pine - northern red oak - red maple 21 Eastern white pine 22 White pine - hemlock 23 Eastern hemlock 25 Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch 28 Black cherry - maple 31 Red spruce - sugar maple - beech 43 Bear oak 44 Chestnut oak 51 White pine - chestnut oak 52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak 53 White oak 55 Northern red oak 59 Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak 60 Beech - sugar maple 62 Silver maple - American elm 64 Sassafras - persimmon 80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine 82 Loblolly pine - hardwood 83 Longleaf pine - slash pine 93 Sugarberry - American elm - green ash 97 Atlantic white-cedar 108 Red maple 110 Black oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Partridgeberry is part of the climax undergrowth vegetation in several forest communities in the eastern United States. It is not an indicator or dominant species in any habitat types [12,16,21,26].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Mitchella repens
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : The fruit of partridgeberry is eaten by ruffed grouse, northern bobwhite, sharp-tailed grouse, and prairie chicken. The fruit is also frequently eaten by raccoons and red fox [5,28]. Keegan [13] reported that partridgeberry made up 2.9 to 3.4 percent (dry weight) of the summer and fall diets of white-tailed deer. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : Partridgeberry has been planted as an ornamental in several parts of its range [2]. In Newfoundland, the berry is made into jam and sold commercially [15]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Mitchella repens
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Partridgeberry is a creeping, rhizomatous, evergreen, woody vine up to 1.5 feet (50 cm) tall. It roots at the nodes and often forms loose mats. The flowers are borne in axillary, single stalks at the tip of the branchlets. The fruit is a drupe containing eight seeds [11,19,22,24]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Hemicryptophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Although partridgeberry is a seed producer, information regarding its propagation by seed is scant. The primary mode of reproduction is vegetative [3]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Partridgeberry grows on a variety of sites but generally prefers mildly acidic, well-drained mesic soils [1,17] It grows on leached banks, shaded sandstone ledges, and mossy hammocks and bogs [4,10,11]. In addition to those identified under Distribution and Occurrence, common associates of partridgeberry include red mulberry (Morus rubra), strawberry-bush (Euonymus americanus), Carolina silverberry (Halesia carolina), southern black-haw (Viburnum prunifolium), devil's walkingstick (Aralia spinosa), Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense), yaupon (Ilex vomitoria), huckleberry (Gaylussacia spp.), blueberry (Vaccinium spp.), hickory (Carya spp.), grape (Vitis spp.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), and fetterbush (Lyonia ferruginea) [3,4,16,26]. A complete list of trees associated with partridgeberry would include a majority of trees growing in the eastern United States. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Partridgeberry is a shade tolerant, mid- to late-seral species. It is a component of climax forests in the eastern United States [3,16,26]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Partridgeberry flowers between April and June, and often again in autumn. The fruit ripens between July and October, and often persists throughout the year [3,10,28].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Mitchella repens
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Partridgeberry is not well adapted to fire. The rhizomes are usually in the litter layer and not well protected from fire [6,18]. However, protected and underground rhizomes probably sprout following fire. Partridgeberry probably colonizes burned area by animal-dispersed seed or by trailing vines, but these regeneration strategies have not been documented in the literature. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Rhizomatous low woody plant, rhizome in organic mantle

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Mitchella repens
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Most fires probably top-kill partridgeberry, and severe fires may kill the plant. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Partridgeberry's response to fire is not well documented. Reports in the literature suggest that it is a fire decreaser, although postfire density, frequency, or growth rates for partridgeberry were not given [9,23,29,30]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : The Research Project Summary Effects of surface fires in a mixed red and eastern white pine stand in Michigan provides information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species, including partridgeberry, that was not available when this species review was written. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Mitchella repens
REFERENCES : 1. Archambault, Louis; Barnes, Burton V.; Witter, John A. 1989. Ecological species groups of oak ecosystems of southeastern Michigan. Forest Science. 35(4): 1058-1074. [9768] 2. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801] 3. Bierzychudek, Paulette. 1982. Life histories and demography of shade-tolerant temperate forest herbs: a review. New Phytologist. 90: 757-776. [19197] 4. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. [12914] 5. Brinkman, K. A.; Erdmann, G. G. 1974. Mitchella repens L. partridgeberry. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 543. [7709] 6. Chapman, Rachel Ross; Crow, Garrett E. 1981. Application of Raunkiaer's life form system to plant species survival after fire. Torrey Botanical Club. 108(4): 472-478. [7432] 7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 8. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 9. Gilliam, Frank S. 1991. The significance of fire in an oligotrophic forest ecosystem. In: Nodvin, Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the environment: ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-69. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 113-122. [16641] 10. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239] 11. Godfrey, Robert K.; Wooten, Jean W. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 933 p. [16907] 12. Hough, A. F. 1936. A climax forest community on East Tionesta Creek in northwestern Pennsylvania. Ecology. 17(1): 9-28. [3460] 13. Keegan, Thomas W.; Johnson, Mark K.; Nelson, Billy D. 1989. American jointvetch improves summer range for white-tailed deer. Journal of Range Management. 42(2): 128-134. [9840] 14. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 15. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. [19376] 16. Kurz, Herman. 1944. Secondary forest succession in the Tallahassee Red Hills. Proceedings, Florida Academy of Science. 7(1): 59-100. [10799] 17. Lemieux, G. J. 1963. Soil-vegetation relationships in northern hardwoods of Quebec. In: Forest-soil relationships in North America. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 163-176. [8874] 18. McKinley, Carol E.; Day, Frank P., Jr. 1979. Herb. prod. in cut-burned, uncut-burned & contl areas of a Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) BSP (Cupressaceae) stand in the Great Dismal Swamp. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 106(1): 20-28. [14089] 19. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606] 20. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 21. Roberts, Mark R.; Christensen, Norman L. 1988. Vegetation variation among mesic successional forest stands in northern lower Michigan. Canadian Journal of Botany. 66(6): 1080-1090. [14479] 22. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158] 23. Sidhu, S. S. 1973. Early effects of burning and logging in pine-mixed woods. I. Frequency and biomass of minor vegetation. Inf. Rep. PS-X-46. Chalk River, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Petawawa Forest Experiment Station. 47 p. [7901] 24. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. [12907] 25. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 26. Stransky, John J.; Huntley, Jimmy C.; Risner, Wanda J. 1986. Net community production dynamics in the herb-shrub stratum of a loblolly pine-hardwood forest: effects of clearcutting and site prepar. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-61. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 11 p. [9835] 27. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 28. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240] 29. Waldrop, Thomas A.; White, David L.; Jones, Steven M. 1992. Fire regimes for pine-grassland communities in the southeastern United States. Forest Ecology and Management. 47: 195-210. [17763] 30. White, David L.; Waldrop, Thomas A.; Jones, Stephen M. 1991. Forty years of prescribed burning on the Santee fire plots: effects on understory vegetation. In: Nodvin, Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the environment: ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-69. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 51-59. [16633] 31. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Tampa, FL: University Presses of Florida, University of South Florida. 472 p. [13125]


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