Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Larrea tridentata


SPECIES: Larrea tridentata
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Marshall, K. Anna. 1995. Larrea tridentata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: []. ABBREVIATION : LARTRI SYNONYMS : Larrea divaricata Cav. [110] SCS PLANT CODE : LATR2 COMMON NAMES : creosotebush greasewood TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for creosotebush is Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cov. It is a member of the caltrop family (Zygophyllaceae). There are no recognized infrataxa [52]. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Larrea tridentata
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Creosotebush occurs throughout the Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan deserts [11].  Its distribution extends from southern California northeast through southern Nevada to the southwest corner of Utah and southeast through southern Arizona and New Mexico to western Texas and north-central Mexico [67]. ECOSYSTEMS :    FRES30  Desert shrub    FRES32  Texas savanna    FRES33  Southwestern shrubsteppe    FRES40  Desert grasslands STATES :      AZ  CA  NV  NM  TX  UT  MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :     3  Southern Pacific Border     6  Upper Basin and Range     7  Lower Basin and Range    12  Colorado Plateau    13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :    K041  Creosotebush    K042  Creosotebush - bursage    K043  Paloverde - cactus shrub    K044  Creosotebush - tarbush    K045  Ceniza shrub    K058  Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe    K059  Trans-Pecos shrub savanna SAF COVER TYPES :     68  Mesquite    242  Mesquite SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Creosotebush is a dominant or codominant member of most plant communities in the Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan deserts. Creosotebush occurs on 35 to 46 million acres (14-18.4 million ha) in the Southwest [25].  Creosotebush usually occurs in open, species-poor communities, sometimes in pure stands.  It also occurs as a transitional species in desert grasslands [59], viscid acacia (Acacia neovernicosa)-mariola (Parthenium incanum) chaparillo [60], mesquite (Prosopis spp.)  woodlands [90], Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia)/big galleta (Hilaria rigida) communities [57], and xeroriparian areas [14]. The creosotebush-white bursage (Ambrosia dumosa) association covers approximately 70 percent of the Mojave Desert [42,67,91].  Ackerman [3] estimated the density of creosotebush at 959 plants per hectare on Mojave Desert sites in Rock Valley, Nevada.  Relative abundance was 10.8 percent and relative plant cover was 19.6 percent.  Species associated with creosotebush-white bursage communities in the Mojave Desert include Shockley's goldenhead (Acamptopappus shockleyi), Anderson's wolfberry (Lycium andersonii), range ratany (Krameria parvifolia), Mojave yucca (Yucca schidigera), California jointfir (Ephedra funerea), spiny hopsage (Grayia spinosa), and winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata) [88]. Creosotebush also occurs in the Mojave Desert scrub association with desertholly (Atriplex hymenelytra), shadscale (A. confertifolia), white burrobrush (Hymenoclea salsola), blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima), Joshua tree, desertsenna (Cassia armata), and Nevada ephedra (Ephedra nevadensis) [54,97]. In the Sonoran Desert, creosotebush commonly occurs in the creosotebush-triangle bursage (Ambrosia deltoidea) [7], creosotebush-white bursage [91], and Sonoran Desert scrub [54] associations.  Other species associated with creosotebush in the Sonoran Desert include yellow paloverde (Cercidium microphyllum), tesota (Olneya tesota), big galleta, prickly pear (Opuntia spp.), acacia (Acacia paucipina), fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens), western honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana), brittle bush (Encelia farinosa), and pachycereus (Pachycereus schottii) [7, 26, 91].  The densities of creosotebush in the subdivisions of the Sonoran Desert are 448 plants per hectare in the Lower Colorado River Valley, 437.7 plants per hectare in the Arizona Upland Subdivision, and 1.1 plants per hectare on the Central Gulf Coast [67]. The creosotebush scrub phase covers 40 percent of the Chihuahuan Desert [67].  Associated species include tarbush (Flourensia cernua), acacia (Acacia spp.), leucophyllum (Leucophyllum spp.), mesquite, palma (Yucca filifera), ocotillo, small-leaf geigertree (Cordia parviflora), and anisacanthus (Anisacanthus spp.)  [49, 73].  Creosotebush also occurs in the sand dune scrub phase in the Chihuahuan Desert [49]. Publications listing creosotebush as a dominant or codominant species include:   The structure and distribution of Larrea communities [9]   Sonoran Desert [24]   Vegetation and community types of the Chihuahuan Desert [49]   Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial natural communities of     California [54]   The natural vegetation of Arizona [81]   Vegetation of the Santa Catalina Mountains: community types and     dynamics [82]   Plant communities of Texas (Series level) [94]   Vegetation and flora of Fort Bowie National Historic Site, Arizona     [103]


SPECIES: Larrea tridentata
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Many animals bed in or under creosotebush.  Domestic sheep dig shallow beds under creosotebush because it provides the only shade in the desert scrub community [105].  Desert reptiles and amphibians use creosotebush as a food source and perch site and hibernate or estivate in burrows under creosotebush, avoiding predators and excessive daytime temperatures.  Desert tortoises dig their shelters under creosotebush where its roots stabilize the soil [12,30].  Seventy-one percent of desert tortoise burrows studied near San Bernardino, California, were associated with creosotebush [12].  Banner-tailed kangaroo rats frequently use creosotebush for cover [76].  Merriam's kangaroo rats often make their dens under creosotebush [76].  Some special status subspecies of kit fox rest and den in creosotebush flats in the Sonoran Desert [111]. Many small mammals browse creosotebush or consume its seeds. Creosotebush comprised 14.6 percent of black-tailed jackrabbit diets on Isla Carmen in the Gulf of California.  Terminal twigs of creosotebush were consumed in proportion to their availability in black-tailed jackrabbit habitat.  Ninety percent of creosotebush were browsed, and 52.5 percent of twigs on those plants were browsed [53].  Creosotebush dominated the diet of desert woodrats in the Mojave Desert of California; the desert woodrats strongly preferred creosotebush foliage of relatively low resin content [74].  Boyd and Brum [19] found that 27.5 percent of creosotebush seed mericarps on a Mojave Desert site showed signs of postdispersal rodent predation. PALATABILITY : Creosotebush is unpalatable to livestock and most browsing wildlife [8,55,70,95].  Consumption of creosotebush may be fatal to sheep [35]. A few researchers have treated creosotebush chemically to make it palatable [95,36,4].  Such treatments can produce a feed that is relatively palatable and nutritious. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Catlin [27] evaluated the nutritional content of creosotebush browse in Arizona: Water 4.79% Ash 8.06% Crude protein        13.37% Crude fiber        11.21% Fat 9.13% Nitrogen-free extract  43.38% Reichman [86] estimated that creosotebush seeds contain 4,966 calories per gram or 11.37 calories per seed. COVER VALUE : Creosotebush in Utah provides good cover for small mammals and nongame birds, fair cover for pronghorn and upland game birds, and poor cover for bighorn sheep, mountain goats, and waterfowl [113]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Creosotebush may be used to rehabilitate disturbed environments in southwestern deserts.  Once established, creosotebush may improve sites for annuals that grow under its canopy by trapping fine soil, organic matter, and symbiont propagules.  It may also increase water infiltration and storage [8]. Creosotebush should be transplanted rather than spot-seeded [47]. Miller and Holden [75] increased germination success by leaching seeds in running water for 12 hours.  At Organ Pipe National Monument, the survival rate for creosotebush was 78 percent when seeds were germinated in grow tubes filled with nursery soil mix and allowed to harden-off before being transplanted outside.  Creosotebush should be planted in the spring or fall [31,96].  Bainbridge and Virginia [8] recommend pruning seedlings heavily 1 month before transplanting.  Rodent protectors are necessary [31]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Creosotebush has been highly valued for its medicinal properties by desert peoples.  It has been used to treat at least 14 illnesses [80]. Twigs and leaves may be boiled as tea, steamed, pounded into a powder, pressed into a poultice, or heated into an infusion. Creosotebush is host to an insect, Tachardiella larreae, which produces lac and deposits it on the stems of creosotebush [39].  Lac is plastic when heated but hardens again on cooling, forming a strong bond like commercial sealing wax.  Lac has been used by desert peoples to seal lids on food jars [39,80]. Creosotebush contains phototoxins in its leaves that inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures [35]. Creosotebush is used as an ornamental throughout its range [42]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Creosotebush invades desert grasslands [6,17,22,56,58].  In 1904, creosotebush was confined to about 950 acres (380 ha) at the Santa Rita Experimental Range in Arizona [56].  By 1934, the number of acres occupied by creosotebush had increased more than 12-fold to 11,900 acres (4760 ha).  By 1954, creosotebush occupied an area 73 times as great as it had 50 years before.  Humphrey and Mehrhoff [56] attribute creosotebush expansion to a reduction in range fires.  Buffington and Herbel [22] cite heavy grazing and periodic droughts as the major causes of the rapid increase of creosotebush and other shrubs in desert grasslands. Controlling creosotebush can be difficult because it can sprout from the root crown following disturbance [16].  A variety of herbicides may be used to kill creosotebush [37,51,77,50], but Flores and others [40] suggested that revegetation of former creosotebush sites with more desirable species is very difficult. Bush muhly (Muhlenbergia porteri) often grows under creosotebush canopies where their ranges overlap.  Where creosotebush is 3.3 feet (1 m) or less tall, bush muhly shades the lower branches of creosotebush, causing its leaves to fall.  In some instances, this competition may kill creosotebush [106]. Creosotebush is susceptible to severe drought during short-term climate changes like El Nino [102].  During dry years, creosotebush undergoes severe moisture stress and subsequent defoliation.  Older branches do not produce new foliage, but sprouting may occur.  The cumulative result of El Nino can be a 60-80 percent stem dieback.  Dead stemwood remains standing within the shrub biomass for several years. Pollution from electric power generating facilities may adversely affect creosotebush.  Creosotebush showed sensitivity to sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide fumigation [112].


SPECIES: Larrea tridentata
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Creosotebush is a native, drought-tolerant, evergreen shrub growing up to 13.2 feet (4 m) tall [79].  Its numerous branches are brittle and densely leafy at the tips [41,79].  Because of leaf and stem alignment, creosotebush provides little shade during the full desert sunshine [70]. The leaves of creosotebush are thick, resinous, and strongly scented [8,61] .  Flowers are solitary and axillary [61].  Fruits are globose, consisting of five united, indehiscent, one-seeded carpels which may or may not break apart after maturing [13,68,79].  Each carpel is densely covered by long trichomes [68]. The root system of creosotebush consists of a shallow taproot and several lateral secondary roots, each about 10 feet (3 m) in length and 8 to 14 inches (20-35 cm) deep.  The taproot extends to a depth of about 32 inches (80 cm); further penetration is usually inhibited by caliche [41,114].  Barbour [10] found that root growth decreased as pH increased above 8.0.  Optimum root growth occurred at acid pH; however, only one of the topsoils from which seeds were gathered exhibited acid pH.  Root growth was inhibited by high concentrations of salt (>10,000 ppm). Creosotebush roots require relatively large amounts of oxygen for growth [66]. Creosotebush is known to attain ages of several thousand years; some creosotebush clones may be the earth's oldest living organisms.  The age of the largest clone in Johnson Valley, California, is estimated at 9,400 years [101].  McAuliffe [71] estimated the average longevity of creosotebush to be 1,250 years at a study site in Dateland, California, and 625 years at a San Luis site. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :       Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Creosotebush reproduces both vegetatively and sexually. Vegetative reproduction:  Creosotebush achieves its status as one of the most stable members of desert communities by cloning.  When drought is extreme, old branches and roots of creosotebush die back.  When rains return, branches are replaced by sprouts originating near the outside of the root crown.  Creosotebush clones gradually expand to form rings many meters in diameter [32,63].  Creosotebush may occasionally sprout from its root crown after disturbance.  New sprouts were produced by creosotebush on a Mojave Desert site that had been denuded by grading [89]. Sexual reproduction:  Age distribution in many stands of creosotebush indicates that germination and survival under natural conditions are rare [11,66].  Sexual reproduction may be especially rare at the upper elevational limits of creosotebush [104]. Creosotebush requires summer rains for successful sexual reproduction. The flowering success of creosotebush is greatest with moderate rainfall.  In years of high rainfall, a high proportion of flowers is diseased [13]. Creosotebush seeds are primarily adapted for tumbling rather than for animal dispersal or lofting [68].  The stiff trichomes radiate equally in all directions so that little wind is required to send the seeds tumbling.  The trichomes are not stiff enough to penetrate animal skin, and the seeds are too heavy for lofting.  However, Chew and Chew [29] suggested that the shucking and burial of creosotebush seeds by rodents may facilitate the germination and survival of creosotebush.  Shreve [91] noted poor creosotebush reproduction on level plains.  More seedlings established if the soil surface was broken or scarred. Leitner [116] found creosotebush more abundant on southern or northern slopes of a pediment in Sonora, Mexico, than in washes.  Rock crevices and irregularities of the pediment may provide protection and footholds for wind-tumbled seeds. Germination of creosotebush is related to rainfall.  A minimum of about 1 inch of rainfall seems necessary to induce germination.  A 1971 rain of 1 to 1.96 inches (25-49 mm) in the Mojave Desert was sufficient, but neither an August 1972 rain of 0.68 inch (17 mm) nor a July rain of 0.84 inch (21 mm) promoted germination of creosotebush seeds [2].  If less than 2 to 3 inches (50-80 mm) or more than 6 inches (150 mm) of rain fall during the summer, germinability of seeds is usually less than 20 percent.  If 3 to 6 inches (80-150 mm) fall, germination is 20 to 60 percent. Germination experiments have been conducted on creosotebush seeds from all three southwestern deserts.  Barbour [10] found that the average creosotebush mericarp contained one seed, and viability ranged from 15 to 76 percent.  The presence or absence of mericarp about the seed had no effect on germination.  Germination was two times higher in darkness than under light, and optimal germination temperature was 73.4 degrees Fahrenheit (23 deg C).  Optimum salinity was 500 parts per million of sodium chloride.  Germination was not affected by pH.  Creosotebush seeds may lose viability if they remain in topsoils during the summer; seeds from the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts showed decreased germination as storage temperature increased. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Creosotebush commonly grows on bajadas, gentle slopes, valley floors, sand dunes, and in arroyos [23,34,107] at elevations up to 5,000 feet (1,515 m) [61,79] throughout the Sonoran, Mojave, and Chihuahuan deserts.  It occurs on calcareous, sandy, and alluvial soils that are often underlain by a caliche hardpan [21,43,45,48,67]. Temperatures in the southwestern deserts are variable and extreme.  Near the southern boundary of creosotebush distribution, at Puerto Libertad, Sonora, the mean annual temperature is 68.37 degrees Fahrenheit (20.2 degrees C).  Daytime temperatures in the summer often reach 117 degrees Fahrenheit (47 deg C) [26].  In Rock Valley, Nevada, near the northern boundary of creosotebush distribution, temperatures range from 5 degrees Fahrenheit (-15 deg C) in winter to 117 degrees Fahrenheit (47 deg C) in summer [3]. Phenological events in the southwestern deserts are triggered by rain. In the Sonoran Desert, annual rainfall averages 4 to 12 inches (100-300 mm) and is distributed bimodally [67].  The Mojave Desert gets more winter than summer rain [67]; in Rock Valley, Nevada, rainfall averages 5.524 inches (138.1 mm), with 60 percent falling between September and February [18].  The Chihuahuan Desert is slightly less dry; in the Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico, rainfall averages from 8.5 inches at San Marcial to slightly more than 10 inches at Socorro.  Two-thirds to three-fourths of the precipitation falls between April 1 and September 30 [43]. Low soil oxygen may be a controlling factor in the distribution of desert species.  Creosotebush is less tolerant of low soil oxygen than white bursage [46].  Lunt [66] attributes the exclusion of creosotebush from fine-textured and poorly drained soils to its high oxygen requirement. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Creosotebush density and cover are generally decreased by disturbance. In a comparison between vegetation on disturbed and undisturbed Mojave Desert sites, creosotebush was dominant on all control sites and subdominant to white bursage on disturbed sites [84].  Webb [104] noted that desert succession can be described using life-history strategies: Species with high recruitment and mortality rates, such as white bursage, are dominant in the colonizing stage and species with low recruitment and mortality, such as creosotebush, eventually dominate the landscape, although colonizing species usually remain present. Creosotebush uses white bursage as a nurse plant.  McAuliffe [71] found that 85.5 percent of all young creosotebush were rooted beneath the canopies of live white bursage or positioned next to dead ones.  The smallest creosotebush plants in McAuliffe's [71] study were all associated with live white bursage.  Most creosotebush establishment apparently occurs near live white bursage. Recruitment of creosotebush is infrequent.  Despite the abundance of potentially suitable areas beneath white bursage, McAuliffe [71] found young creosotebush beneath only 1 percent of all white bursage.  Total densities of young creosotebush were between 12 and 15 plants per hectare.  The density of white bursage plants was ten times that of creosotebush.  Although large-scale creosotebush seedling establishment does not occur after disturbance, relict creosotebush usually increases in size by cloning [100,101,104].  Creosotebush canopies may grow to exceed the coverage of white bursage by more than six times [71]. Creosotebush exhibits root-mediated allelopathy.  In a laboratory study, creosotebush test roots grew freely through soil occupied by white bursage roots, but white bursage test roots grew at reduced rates into soil occupied by creosotebush [69].  Mature creosotebush may be allelopathic to their own seedlings, encouraging an open community structure [71]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Creosotebush leafs out in response to spring, summer, or fall rains [1]. Creosotebush usually flowers in May [1] in the Mojave Desert, but it can flower anytime during the summer if it receives enough rain [1,3,9].  In the Sonoran Desert, most creosotebush seeds are shed in the summer, but creosotebush in the Chihuahuan Desert does not shed its seeds until fall [10].  Creosotebush seeds germinate after rains from mid-June to mid-September in the Mojave Desert [2].


SPECIES: Larrea tridentata
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Creosotebush is poorly adapted to fire because of its limited sprouting ability [59,115].  Creosotebush survives some fires that burn patchily or are of low severity [87,115].  Historically, infrequent fires may have limited the invasion of desert grasslands by creosotebush [59]. Most fires in the desert are infrequent and of low severity because production of annual and perennial herbs seldom provides a fuel load capable of sustaining fire.  Humphrey [59] stated that the creosotebush-white bursage community is "essentially nonflammable" because the shrubs are too sparse to carry fire.  The resinous foliage of creosotebush, however, is very flammable. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :    Secondary colonizer - off-site seed    Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown


SPECIES: Larrea tridentata
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire kills many creosotebush.  During a low-severity California fire, many creosotebush were scorched and few burned, but overall mortality was still 97 percent [115].  Dalton [33] reported mortality rates of 69 and 63 percent for moderately and lightly burned plants, respectively. A low-severity fire near Florence, Arizona, top-killed 97 percent of all creosotebush; however, 37 percent of those sprouted.  Overall creosotebush mortality was 61 percent [72]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Creosotebush may sprout if its root crown is not killed by fire [64]. In a southern California brushfire, creosotebush successfully sprouted and regained its estimated former cover within 5 years [83].  In a low-severity Arizona fire, 37 percent of top-killed creosotebush sprouted [72].  However, Brown and Minnich [115] reported that creosotebush rarely sprouted even though most shrubs were incompletely burned in a low-severity fire near Palm Springs, California. Dalton [33] reported good creosotebush seedling establishment on a burned site in Arizona, possibly due to reduced competition for soil moisture.  No seedling establishment occurred on unburned sites. Seedling establishment also occured after a low-severity fire in Arizona.  Prefire density of creosotebush was 45 plants per hectare, and creosotebush cover was 1.3 percent [72].  In postfire year 1, the density of creosotebush was 125 plants per hectare and creosotebush cover was 0.3 percent.  In postfire year 2, the density of creosotebush was 95 plants per hectare and creosotebush cover was 0.6 percent. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : Season of burning, fuel quantity, fire temperature, and age of existing creosotebush may affect the ability of creosotebush to sprout.  White [108] noted that burning creosotebush during different seasons at the Sant Rita Experimental Range near Tucson, Arizona, resulted in significant differences in sprout production.  The most sprouts were produced following February and August fires.  The least sprouts were produced following June and July fires.  The seasonal pattern of sprout production closely followed trends in growth of terminal shoots. Sprouting in creosotebush decreased with increasing fuel quantity and decreased as soil temperature and duration of heating increased [108,109].  Young plants produced fewer sprouts after burning than mature plants [108]. The Research Project Summary Nonnative annual grass fuels and fire in California's Mojave Desert provides information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species, including creosotebush, that was not available when this species review was written. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Fire can be used to control creosotebush and promote the growth of grasses in desert grasslands and shrublands.  Prescribed burning should be conducted in spring or early fall following 2 years of above average plant growth.  Britton and Wright [20] describe specific procedures for burning shrub-invaded grasslands. Soils under some creosotebush are water repellant because of associated soil microorganisms.  The hydrophobic characteristic of such soils precludes the establishment of annuals normally occurring under creosotebush.  The degree to which the soils are hydrophobic may be intensified by fire [5]. Standing biomass, deadwood, and leaf litter from creosotebush can fuel desert fires.  Dead fuels are increased by drought, and live fuels are increased after rainy seasons.  The shoot volume, dry weight, and biomass production of creosotebush all increase in sigmoid fashion with age.  The period of most rapid increase is from 20 to 50 years of age. From 20 years onward, leaves average 53 percent of total shoot cumulative production, stems with leaves average 13 percent, and the stem trunk averages 4 percent [28].  Woody remains of creosotebush take about 60 years to decay beyond the point of recognition [71].

References for species: Larrea tridentata

1. Ackerman, T. L.; Romney, E. M.; Wallace, A.; Kinnear, J. E. 1980. Phenology of desert shrubs in southern Nye County, Nevada. In: The Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs No. 4. Nevada desert ecology. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University: 4-23. [3197]
2. Ackerman, Thomas L. 1979. Germination and survival of perennial plant species in the Mojave Desert. The Southwestern Naturalist. 24(3): 399-408. [12219]
3. Ackerman, Thomas L.; Bamberg, Sam A. 1974. Phenological studies in the Mojave Desert at Rock Valley (Nevada Test Site). In: Lieth, Helmut, ed. Phenology and seasonality modeling. New York: Springer-Verlag: 215-226. (Ecological studies; Analysis and synthesis, volume 8). [21506]
4. Adams, David W. 1970. A study of the possibilities of treating creosotebush with NaOH to make a good livestock feed. Alpine, TX: Sul Ross State University. 51 p. Thesis. [5066]
5. Adams, Susan; Strain, B. R.; Adams, M. S. 1970. Water-repellent soils, fire, and annual plant cover in a desert scrub community of southeastern California. Ecology. 51(4): 696-700. [5407]
6. Ahlstrand, Gary M. 1979. Preliminary report on the ecology of fire study, Guadalupe Mountains and Carlsbad Caverns National Parks. In: Genoways, Hugh H.; Baker, Robert J., eds. Biological investigations in the Guadalupe Mountains National Park: Proceedings of a symposium; 1975 April 4-5; Lubbock, TX. Proceedings and Transactions Series No. 4. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service: 31-44. [16015]
7. Albert, Steven K.; Krausman, Paul R. 1993. Desert mule deer and forage resources in southwest Arizona. The Southwestern Naturalist. 38(3): 198-205. [22140]
8. Bainbridge, David A.; Virginia, Ross A. 1990. Restoration in the Sonoran Desert of California. Restoration and Management Notes. 8(1): 3-14. [14975]
9. Barbour, M. G.; MacMahon, J. A.; Bamberg, S. A.; Ludwig, J. A. 1977. The structure and distribution of Larrea communities. In: Mabry, T. J.; Hunziker, J. H.; DiFeo, D. R., Jr., eds. Creosote bush: Biology and chemistry of Larrea in New World deserts. U.S./IBP Synthesis Series 6. Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc.: 227-251. [7172]
10. Barbour, Michael G. 1968. Germination requirements of the desert shrub Larrea divaricata. Ecology. 49: 915-923. [4212]
11. Barbour, Michael G. 1969. Age and space distribution of the desert shrub Larrea divaricata. Ecology. 50(4): 679-685. [3989]
12. Baxter, Ronald J. 1988. Spatial distribution of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at Twentynine Palms, California: implications for relocations. In: Szaro, Robert C.; Severson, Kieth E.; Patton, David R., technical coordinators. Management of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals in North America: Proceedings of the symposium; 1988 July 19-21; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-166. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 180-189. [7112]
13. Beatley, Janice C. 1974. Effects of rainfall and temperature on the distribution and behavior of Larrea tridentata (creosote-bush) in the Mojave Desert of Nevada. Ecology. 55: 245-261. [197]
14. Bennett, Peter S.; Kunzmann, Michael R.; Johnson, R. Roy. 1989. Relative nature of wetlands: riparian and vegetational considerations. In: Abell, Dana L., technical coordinator. Protection, management, and restoration for the 1990's: Proceedings of the California riparian systems conference; 1988 September 22-24; Davis, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-110. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 140-142. [13516]
15. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]
16. Blackburn, W. H. 1983. Influence of brush control on hydrologic characteristics. In: McDaniel, Kirk C., ed. Proceedings--brush management symposium; 1983 February 16; Albuquerque, NM. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management; 1983: 73-88. [452]
17. Blydenstein, John; Hungerford, C. Roger; Day, Gerald I.; Humphrey, R. 1957. Effect of domestic livestock exclusion on vegetation in the Sonoran Desert. Ecology. 38(3): 522-526. [4570]
18. Bowers, Michael A. 1987. Precipitation and the relative abundances of desert winter annuals: a 6-year study in the northern Mohave Desert. Journal of Arid Environments. 12: 141-149. [4850]
19. Boyd, Robert S.; Brum, Gilbert D. 1983. Predispersal reproductive attrition in a Mojave Desert population of Larrea tridentata (Zygophyllaceae). The American Midland Naturalist. 110(1): 4-24. [3968]
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