Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Krameria parvifolia


Introductory

SPECIES: Krameria parvifolia
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Griffith, Randy Scott. 1991. Krameria parvifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : KRAPAR SYNONYMS : Krameria glandulosa Rose & Painter SCS PLANT CODE : KRPA KRPAG KRPAI COMMON NAMES : range ratany chacate littleleaf krameria little-leaf krameria littleleaf ratany pima ratany sticky little-leaf krameria (KRPAG) spiny little-leaf krameria (KRPAI) wood ratany TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of range ratany is Krameria parvifolia Benth. [22]. There are two recognized varieties: Krameria parvifolia var. glandulosa (Rose & Painter) J.F. Macbr. and K. p. var. imparata J.F. Macbr. Variety glandulosa is differentiated from var. imparata by its stipitate glands on the pedicels [22] Various authors have included the genus Krameria in the families Leguminosae, Polygalaceae, and Krameriaceae [15]. Dhillon [10] concluded that, based on the vascular anatomy of the flower, range ratany belongs in the family Polygalaceae. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Krameria parvifolia
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Range ratany is found in the arid regions of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It occurs from southern California east to western Texas and from southern Nevada and Utah south to northern Mexico [17,34]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES30 Desert shrub FRES32 Texas savanna FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub FRES35 Pinyon - juniper FRES40 Desert grasslands STATES : AZ CA NV NM TX UT MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 12 Colorado Plateau 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : KO23 Juniper - pinyon woodland KO31 Oak - juniper woodland KO33 Chaparral KO39 Blackbrush K041 Creosotebush K042 Creosotebush - bursage K043 Paloverde - cactus shrub KO44 Creosote bush - tarbush KO45 Ceniza shrub KO58 Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe KO59 Trans-Pecos shrub savanna SAF COVER TYPES : 66 Ashe juniper - redberry (Pinchot) juniper 67 Mohrs ("shin") oak 68 Mesquite 220 Rocky Mountain juniper 239 Pinyon - juniper 241 Western live oak 242 Mesquite SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Range ratany commonly occurs in the understory of catclaw acacia (Acacia greggii), Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia), juniper (Juniperus spp.), pinyon pine (Pinus edulis), and shrub live oak (Quercus turbinella) [9,28,31]. In the shrub layer, range ratany is associated with creosotebush (Larrea spp.) and white bursage (Ambrosia dumosa) [5]. Range ratany is listed as a dominant in the chaparral plant association classification of Arizona by Carmichael and others [9].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Krameria parvifolia
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Range ratany is an important forage species for all classes of livestock and for deer (Odocoileus spp.) [6]. It also provides cover for small mammals and reptiles [25,26]. In Arizona range ratany is an important component in the diet of deer. It comprises approximately 10 percent of white-tailed deer's (O. virginianus) diet and 23 percent of mule deer's (O. hemionus) diet [2,3]. PALATABILITY : Palatability of range ratany is rated fair to good for cattle and sheep [16]. Mule and white-tailed deer browse range ratany year-long with seasonal peaks. Mule deer peak use is from February to April and from August to October, and white-tailed deer peak use is from August to October [2,3]. The relish and degree of use shown by livestock and wildlife species for range ratany in several western states is rated as follows [2,16,24,29,30]: AZ NM NV TX UT Cattle fair fair fair fair fair Sheep good good good good good Mule deer good good good good good White-tailed deer fair fair fair fair fair NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Krausman and others [18] reported the bimonthly nutritional value (percent composition) of range ratany as follows: Dry Cell Hemi- matter Protein Lignin soluble Cellulose cellulose Jan. 66.11 5.81 10.33 37.63 31.60 20.62 March 58.75 5.79 9.63 39.14 29.65 21.62 May 58.42 6.58 9.36 45.64 23.69 21.09 July 62.35 7.87 11.74 40.68 27.84 19.57 Sept. 52.37 7.30 11.16 39.46 29.67 19.86 Nov. 60.63 6.28 11.16 39.34 24.52 23.28 The in-vitro digestibility of range ratany varies with the species of deer. Mule deer are able to utilize 40 percent of it while white-tailed deer only utilize 31 percent [30]. COVER VALUE : Range ratany provides thermal cover for rattlesnakes (Crotalus spp.) and the western whiptail (Cnemidophorus tigris) [25]. Small mammals, such as the Bailey's pocket mouse (Perognathus baileyi), use range ratany for hiding cover [26]. For large mammals it provides poor to fair hiding cover. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : The Papago Indians used an infusion of the twigs externally for treating sore eyes and internally for dysentery. The roots provided them with a red dye for wool and other materials. The dye was also used as an ink [19,24]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Range ratany decreases in response to heavy grazing [7]. Judd [16] suggests that 25 to 50 percent of the current year's growth be used on a well-grazed range. Beyond 50 percent range ratany is receiving too much grazing pressure.

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Krameria parvifolia
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Range ratany is a native, long-lived, deciduous, perennial shrub that grows from 12 to 24 inches (30-60 cm) tall. It is densely branched, thorny, and drought resistant. The leaves are alternate and pubesent; flowers are irregular and purple in color; and the fruit is globose, indehiscent, thick walled, and spiny [14,17,22,33]. The root system is shallow, with 40 percent of the root mass in the top 4 inches (10 cm) of the soil, and spreads horizontally and radially [36]. The roots form grafts with members of the same or different species forming protocooperation or a parasitic relationship. These relationships and the hypothesis that range ratany obtains atmospheric moisture through its foliage may explain how it can maintain active growth after soil moisture has dropped below 3 percent [35]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Undisturbed State: Phanerophyte (nanophanerophyte) Burned or Clipped State: Cryptophyte (geophyte) REGENERATION PROCESSES : Range ratany reproduces sexually by seed. In years with high soil moisture it will flower twice, in the spring and again in the fall [31]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Range ratany's habitat is the desert environs, where it occupies open, sandy to rocky flats, bajadas, and playas [17,31]. Soil: Range ratany occurs in Alfisol, Aridisol, and Entisol soil orders [12]. Climate: Range ratany inhabits areas where the winters are short and mild, and the summers are long and hot. Precipitation is received primarily in the fall and winter in the northern portion of its range and in the summer in the southern portion. The annual precipitation is 8 to 25 inches (20-65 cm) [8,9]. Elevation: Range ratany generally grows at elevations ranging from 500 to 5,000 feet (150-1,500 m) [34]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Range ratany is a component of some climax desert shrub communities [37]. It is a dominant in the shrub live oak-mixed shrub and shrub live oak-birchleaf mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus betuloides) plant associations [9]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Compared to associated species, range ratany remains dormant for at least a month longer in the spring and retains its leaves for up to 2 months longer in the fall [1,35]. The mean dates and one standard deviation [(SD) in days] of the phenological developement of range ratany are as follows [27]: Development Date SD --------------------------------------------------------------- Leaf budding April 7 +/- 4.5 flowering May 5 +/- 4.6 Fruiting May 22 +/- 4.6 The phenological development of range ratany is based primarily on the temperature regime and secondarily on the moisture regime [4,27]. It does not go dormant during the summer no matter how dry the soil. Range ratany can photosynthesize when its water potential is at negative 72 bars. Dormancy starts when night temperatures consistently drop below 40 degrees F (4 deg C) [1].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Krameria parvifolia
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Range ratany resprouts from the root crown after fire [9]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : survivor species; on-site surviving root crown or caudex off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Krameria parvifolia
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Range ratany is top-killed by fire [9]. Information on fire effects on this species is lacking. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Range ratany resprouts from the root crown following top-kill by fire [9]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Krameria parvifolia
REFERENCES : 1. Ackerman, T. L.; Romney, E. M.; Wallace, A.; Kinnear, J. E. 1980. Phenology of desert shrubs in southern Nye County, Nevada. In: Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs No. 4. Nevada desert ecology. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University: 4-23. [3197] 2. Anthony, Robert G. 1976. Influence of drought on diets and numbers of desert deer. Journal of Wildlife Management. 40(1): 140-144. [11558] 3. Anthony, Robert G.; Smith, Norman S. 1977. Ecological relationships between mule deer and white-tailed deer in southeastern Arizona. Ecological Monographs. 47: 255-277. [9890] 4. Bamberg, Samuel A.; Vollmer, Arthur T.; Kleinkopf, Gale E.; Ackerman, Thomas L. 1976. A comparison of seasonal primary production of Mojave Desert shrubs during wet and dry years. American Midland Naturalist. 95(2): 398-405. [4190] 5. Barbour, Michael G.; Billings, William Dwight, eds. 1988. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. 434 p. [13876] 6. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 7. Brown, Albert L. 1950. Shrub invasion of southern Arizona desert grassland. Journal of Range Management. 3: 172-177. [4452] 8. Brown, David E. 1982. Chihuahuan desertscrub. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 169-179. [3607] 9. Carmichael, R. S.; Knipe, O. D.; Pase, C. P.; Brady, W. W. 1978. Arizona chaparral: plant associations and ecology. Res. Pap. RM-202. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 16 p. [3038] 10. Dhillon, M. 1976. Vascular anatomy of the flower of Krameria parvifolia var. glandulosa Macbr. and its bearing on its taxonomic status. Journal of Research. 13(2): 197-201. [14009] 11. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 12. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 13. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 14. Goldberg, Deborah E.; Turner, Raymond M. 1986. Vegetation change and plant demography in permanent plots in the Sonoran Desert. Ecology. 67(3): 695-712. [4410] 15. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603] 16. Judd, B. Ira. 1962. Principal forage plants of southwestern ranges. Stn. Pap. No. 69. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 93 p. [1302] 17. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563] 18. Krausman, Paul R.; Ordway, Leonard L.; Whiting, Frank M.; Brown, William H. 1990. Nutritional compostition of desert mule deer forage in the Picacho Mountains, Arizona. Desert Plants. 10(1): 32-34. [7259] 19. Krochmal, A.; Paur, S.; Duisberg, P. 1954. Useful native plants in the American Southwestern deserts. Economic Botany. 8: 3-20. [2766] 20. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 21. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 22. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155] 23. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 24. Stubbendieck, J.; Hatch, Stephan L.; Hirsch, Kathie J. 1986. North American range plants. 3rd ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 465 p. [2270] 25. Szaro, Robert C.; Belfit, Scott C. 1986. Herpetofaunal use of a desert riparian island and its adjacent scrub habitat. Journal of Wildlife Management. 50(4): 752-761. [3773] 26. Szaro, Robert C.; Belfit, Scott C. 1987. Small mammal use of a desert riparian island and its adjacent scrub habitat. Res. Note RM-473. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 5 p. [3843] 27. Turner, Frederick B.; Randall, David C. 1987. The phenology of desert shrubs in southern Nevada. Journal of Arid Environments. 13: 119-128. [2764] 28. Thorne, Robert F.; Prigge, Barry A.; Henrickson, James. 1981. A flora of the higher ranges and the Kelso Dunes of the eastern Mojave Desert in California. Aliso. 10(1): 71-186. [3767] 29. Urness, P. J.; McCulloch, C. Y. 1973. Part III: Nutritional value of seasonal deer diets. In: Special Report 3. Deer nutrition in Arizona chaparral and desert habitats. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Game and Fish Department: 53-68. [12223] 30. Urness, Philip J. 1973. Part II: Chemical analyses and in vitro digestibility of seasonal deer forages. In: Deer nutrition in Arizona chaparral and desert habitats. Special Report 3. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Game and Fish Department: 39-52. [93] 31. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1937. Range plant handbook. Washington, DC. 532 p. [2387] 32. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 33. Vasek, Frank C. 1979. Early successional stages in Mojave Desert scrub vegetation. Israel Journal of Botany. 28: 133-148. [4579] 34. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707] 35. Wallace, A.; Romney, E. M. 1972. Radioecology and ecophysiology of desert plants at the Nevada Test Site. Rep. TID-25954. [Washington, DC]: U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Office of Information Services. 439 p. [15000] 36. Wallace, A.; Romney, E. M.; Cha, J. W. 1980. Depth distribution of roots of some perennial plants in the Nevada Test Site area of the northern Mojave Desert. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs. 4: 201-207. [4210] 37. Wells, Philip V. 1961. Succession in desert vegetation on streets of a Nevada ghost town. Science. 134: 670-671. [4959]


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