Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Krascheninnikovia lanata


Introductory

SPECIES: Krascheninnikovia lanata
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Carey, Jennifer H. 1995. Krascheninnikovia lanata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ []. ABBREVIATION : KRALAN SYNONYMS : Ceratoides lanata (Pursh) J. T. Howell [38,97] Eurotia lanata (Pursh) Moq. [43,47] SCS PLANT CODE : KRLA2 COMMON NAMES : winterfat white sage wintersage TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for winterfat is Krascheninnikovia lanata (Pursh) A. D. J. Meeuse & Smit (Chenopodiaceae) [42]. Ecotypic variation is common and some varieties have been recognized. Welsh and others [97] recognize the following three varieties (but use the synonym Ceratoides). C. l. var. lanata C. l. var. subspinosa (Rydb.) J. T. Howell (bush winterfat) C. l. var. ruinina Welsh LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Krascheninnikovia lanata
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Winterfat occurs in arid regions of western North America.  It occurs east of the Cascade Range in Washington and Oregon, south to the Mojave Desert in California, east to the Trans Pecos and Panhandle region of Texas and adjacent Mexico, and north through the Great Plains to Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta [38,42,43,88].  An isolated population has been described from Kluane National Park in southern Yukon Territory [64].  Krascheninnikovia lanata var. subspinosa occurs from southern Utah and southern California south to Mexico, and K. lanata var. ruinina occurs in San Juan County, Utah [97]. ECOSYSTEMS :    FRES21  Ponderosa pine    FRES29  Sagebrush    FRES30  Desert shrub    FRES33  Southwestern shrubsteppe    FRES35  Pinyon-juniper    FRES38  Plains grasslands    FRES40  Desert grasslands STATES :      AZ  CA  CO  ID  KS  MT  NE  NV  NM  ND      OK  OR  SD  TX  UT  WA  WY  AB  BC  MB      SK  YT  MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :     3  Southern Pacific Border     4  Sierra Mountains     5  Columbia Plateau     6  Upper Basin and Range     7  Lower Basin and Range     8  Northern Rocky Mountains     9  Middle Rocky Mountains    10  Wyoming Basin    11  Southern Rocky Mountains    12  Colorado Plateau    13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont    14  Great Plains    15  Black Hills Uplift    16  Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :    K016  Eastern ponderosa forest    K023  Juniper-pinyon woodland    K038  Great Basin sagebrush    K039  Blackbrush    K040  Saltbush-greasewood    K041  Creosotebush    K042  Creosotebush-bursage    K053  Grama-galleta steppe    K055  Sagebrush steppe    K056  Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe    K058  Grama-tobosa shrubsteppe    K064  Grama-needlegrass-wheatgrass    K066  Wheatgrass-needlegrass SAF COVER TYPES :    237  Interior ponderosa pine    239  Pinyon-juniper SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES :    110  Ponderosa pine-grassland    211  Creosotebush scrub    212  Blackbush    314  Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass    320  Black sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass    401  Basin big sagebrush    402  Mountain big sagebrush    403  Wyoming big sagebrush    405  Black sagebrush    408  Other sagebrush types    412  Juniper-pinyon woodland    414  Salt desert shrub    501  Saltbush-greasewood    502  Grama-galleta    506  Creosotebush-bursage    608  Wheatgrass-grama-needlegrass    612  Sagebrush-grass    701  Alkali sacaton-tobosagrass    702  Black grama-alkali sacaton    703  Black grama-sideoats grama    704  Blue grama-western wheatgrass    705  Blue grama-galleta    706  Blue grama-sideoats grama    707  Blue grama-sideoats grama-black grama    712  Galleta-alkali sacaton    724  Sideoats grama-New Mexico feathergrass-winterfat    725  Vine mesquite-alkali sacaton HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Winterfat occurs in salt-desert shrub communities with other chenopod shrubs including shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia), fourwing saltbush (A. canescens), spiny hopsage (Grayia spinosa), greenmolly (Kochia americana), and black greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus). Winterfat-dominated communities exist in almost pure stands over extensive areas.  Associated species frequently include green rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus), Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides), galleta (Hilaria jamesii), and black sagebrush (Artemisia nova).  Winterfat is also a common component of grassland and sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities [9,62].  Winterfat occurs in Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) communities in California [53]. Winterfat is described as a dominant or codominant species in plant communities in the following publications: Vegetation and soils of the Duckwater Watershed [6] Vegetation and soils of the Cow Creek Watershed [7] Vegetation and soils of the Churchill Canyon Watershed [8] Steppe vegetation of Washington [22] New Mexico vegetation: Past, present, and future [24] Phyto-edaphic communities of the Upper Rio Puerco Watershed, New Mexico [34] Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington [35] Forest and woodland habitat types (plant associations) of northern New   Mexico and northern Arizona [51]

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Krascheninnikovia lanata
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Winterfat is an important forage plant for livestock and wildlife in salt-desert shrub rangeland and subalkaline flats, especially during winter when forage is scarce [9,62].  A winterfat cultivar, `Hatch,' is taller than native winterfat and protrudes above snow, facilitating winter grazing [66]. Winterfat is a staple food for black-tailed jackrabbit [4,46].  It is a major forage item for Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep on winter ranges near Yellowstone National Park [48].  Winterfat contributes 60 to 70 percent of the winter diet of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep in the North Dakota badlands [32].  It contributed 6 percent of the diet (relative density in feces) of Nuttall's cottontail in southern Idaho [45].  Winterfat is probably eaten by desert tortoise [54].  Townsend's ground squirrels browse winterfat [107].  Other animals that browse winterfat include mule deer, white-tailed deer, Rocky Mountain elk, desert bighorn sheep, pronghorn, and Dall sheep [64,78,85,95].  Winterfat seeds are eaten by rodents including the chisel-toothed kangaroo rat and Great Basin pocket mouse [109]. Several passerine bird species breed in winterfat-dominated communities; these include horned lark, Brewer's sparrow, and sage thrasher in east-central Nevada [58], and horned lark, black-throated sparrow, and loggerhead shrike in Utah [57]. PALATABILITY : Winterfat palatability to browsing animals is above average during all seasons but greatest during periods of active growth [85].  Palatability varies year to year [56].  Winterfat palatability is rated as good for sheep, good to fair for horses, and fair for cattle [25]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Average nutrient content of winterfat herbage in winter (compiled from literature sources by Welch [96]) is as follows:  43.5 percent in vitro digestibility, 10.0 percent crude protein, 0.11 percent phosphorus, and 16.8 mg/kg carotene.  Crude protein contents in the spring and summer are 21.0 percent and 12.2 percent, respectively [96].  Cook and others [20] report nutrient content of the current year's growth during winter in Utah.  Winterfat is a good source of digestible protein and vitamin A [20]. Mineral element composition of winterfat stems and leaves is reported by month and for different soil salinity zones in the Mojave Desert in southern Nevada [744,92,93].  COVER VALUE : Winterfat is used for cover by rodents [95].  It is potential nesting cover for upland game birds, especially when grasses grow up through its crown [76]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Winterfat is a useful shrub for reclamation of surface coal and oil shale mines and revegetation of disturbed sites in arid climates. Winterfat adapts well to most site conditions, and its extensive root system stabilizes soil.  However, winterfat is intolerant of flooding, excess water, and acidic soils.  Planting and seeding methods are described [95].  Winterfat can be propagated by stem cuttings [30].  It has medium to good adaptation for seeding or transplanting in the subalpine zone in Utah [71].  Winterfat survived better on south-facing slopes than on north-facing slopes when planted from containers on arid roadcuts in Nevada [29]. Grass species planted with winterfat should be chosen for minimizing possible root competition.  In northern Colorado, bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata) and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) growing within 8 inches (20 cm) of winterfat significantly (P<0.05) reduced the extent of winterfat roots.  Winterfat had significantly (p<0.05) shallower rooting depth and area of root concentration when planted on disturbed soils than when planted on adjacent undisturbed soils, possibly because soil moisture was greater on disturbed soils [10].  Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda) did not interfere with winterfat seedling establishment in Idaho [60], but Rosentreter and Jorgensen [110] report that winterfat seedlings are not competitive with Sandberg bluegrass. Winterfat has genotypic variation in seed germination and seedling traits [59,61,80,105].  Seeds from populations on warm dry sites have shorter chill requirements than those collected from populations on colder, wetter sites [59].  Seeds used in revegetation projects should be collected from sources with similar site conditions [77].  It is a poor candidate for rapid colonization by natural seed dispersal because seeds are not dispersed far from the parent plant [44]. Winterfat grows well on salty or alkaline soils.  In Texas, winterfat seedlings transplanted on saline-sodic soils had 61 percent survival after 3 years.  Soils tested ranged from 13 to 46 percent exchangeable sodium [55]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Abusive grazing practices have reduced or eliminated winterfat on some areas even though it is fairly resistant to browsing [9].  Effects depend on severity and season of grazing.  Density, frequency, canopy cover, and basal cover were significantly (p<0.05) greater on areas protected from grazing than on grazed areas in the northern mixed prairie of Saskatchewan [75].  There, winterfat defoliated in late July or August produced significantly (p<0.05) less biomass the following year than undisturbed plants or plants browsed earlier in the summer [75].  Winterfat is a decreaser on moderately to heavily grazed native grasslands in Alberta [26].  Winterfat basal cover on lightly grazed needle-and-thread grass (Stipa comata)-blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) prairie in Alberta did not differ significantly from sites ungrazed for 33 years [79].  West [98] reported no significant difference (p<0.05) in winterfat survival between grazed and ungrazed plots in desert shrub communities in southwestern Utah [98]. Grazing season has more influence on winterfat than grazing intensity. Late winter or early spring grazing is detrimental [9,16,102].  However, early winter grazing may actually be beneficial.  Winterfat significantly increased (p<0.05) on light to moderate winter grazing in western Utah from 1933 to 1989 [108].  Light grazing and grazing during winter increased winterfat survival and recruitment during a drought in southwestern Utah.  Changes in plant morphology caused by grazing may encourage more effective use of soil moisture [16]. On some heavily grazed rangelands, other species are replacing winterfat.  Areas formerly dominated by winterfat in the Duckwater Watershed in Nevada have been converted to flixweed tansymustard (Descurainia sophia) or have been invaded by halogeton (Halogeton glomeratus) or Russian-thistle (Salsola kali) [6].  Broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae) has increased on degraded winterfat communities in the Upper Rio Puerco Watershed in New Mexico [34]. Blaisdell and Holmgren [9] recommend that browsing of winterfat be limited to 60 percent of its annual growth.  Grazing management strategies are presented [9].  Wilkin [103] has published a regression equation applicable to winterfat which predicts utilization of a particular shrub species from relative abundance, expected utilization of total forage, and relative palatability in the plant community.  Romo and others [75] suggest winterfat management strategies for the northern mixed prairie region in Saskatchewan.  Degraded rangeland can be improved by seeding winterfat although seedling establishment is not consistent.  Aerial broadcasting of winterfat fruits after light chaining of the surface is effective.  Late fall or winter seeding is most successful in Utah [41]. Land managers and livestock growers have been concerned about the effects of black-tailed jackrabbits on winterfat.  In southern Idaho, aboveground annual growth was completely eaten over in winter during peak population densities of black-tailed jackrabbit.  However, winterfat growth resumed in the spring and by July there was no significant (p<0.05) difference in total biomass between open and protected plots [4]. A shrub mortality (die-off) epidemic struck the Great Basin in the mid-1980s.  Winterfat was affected and declined despite protection from browsing.  Above-average precipitation is suspected to have altered soil-water relationships and perhaps facilitated the entry of root pathogens [40,65].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Krascheninnikovia lanata
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Winterfat is a native, low-growing, long-lived subshrub with a woody base and numerous annual branchlets growing 1 to 2 feet (0.3-0.6 m) tall.  Herbage is hairy giving the plant a silvery white appearance [62].  The narrow leaves remain on the plant during winter and are shed when new leaves grow in the spring or when the plant is water stressed [99].  The flowers are inconspicuous with no petals [62].  The fruit, 0.2-inch (0.5-cm) long, is a utricle enclosed in two bracts covered with fine, silky, pilose hairs [13].  The oldest winterfat plant in a community in southwestern Idaho was 136 years old [106]. Winterfat is polymorphic with short and tall ecotypes. The typical variety is low growing.  Krascheninnikovia lanata var. subspinosa has taller, woodier stems at the base than the typical variety, and K. l. var. ruinina is woody for 2.6 feet (0.8 m) from the base, with annual growth sometimes exceeding 3.9 feet (1.2 m) in height [97]. The root system consists of a deep taproot with numerous branched lateral roots.  Fibrous roots are contained within the upper meter of soil but may extend as deep as 57 inches (145 cm).  The taproot may grow as deep as 25 feet (7.6 m) [85].  In Saskatchewan, a winterfat taproot penetrated 6 feet (1.8 m) [21], and in western Colorado, winterfat root depth was 3.1 feet (0.95 m) [14]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :       Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Winterfat reproduces by seed and sprouts from buds near the plant's base when browsed or damaged [111].  Under favorable conditions, winterfat may produce seed in its first growing season, but it may require up to 5 years to produce seed in areas of low rainfall [85].  Seed production, especially in desert regions, is dependent on precipitation [101].  Good seed years occur when there is appreciable summer precipitation and little browsing [85].  Winterfat produced approximately 350 seeds per plant on a site in western North Dakota during a slightly drier than normal year [44]. Seeds are dispersed a short distance by wind.  In a study of seed dispersal, 67 percent of seed was found within 12 inches (30 cm) of the parent plant, and no seeds were farther than 35 inches (90 cm) away [44].  All seedlings observed on southwestern Idaho sites were within 3 feet (1 m) of a mature plant [60]. The hairy bracts help anchor seed to soil which in turn helps the radicle penetrate and begin growth.  Entire fruits have better seedling establishment and seedling vigor than threshed seed, which may be damaged [13]. An undetermined percent of winterfat seeds are dormant when fresh.  A 10-week afterripening period generally breaks dormancy [82].  In the laboratory, a 14-day prechill period at 41 degrees Fahrenheit (5 deg C) effectively breaks dormancy of fresh seed [3]. Germination generally occurs during warm, wet weather [1].  Germination occurs near the soil surface [104].  Seedlings emerged substantially better from a 0.06-inch (0.02-cm) depth than than from greater depths [81].  Germination is reduced as moisture stress increases, regardless of temperature [80].  However, seeds are sensitive to deficient aeration and have poor germination rates when soils approach saturation. Germination was best at field capacity soil moisture [81]. Germination of viable seeds generally exceeds 90 percent within a constant temperature range of 50 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit (10-27 deg C). Optimum temperatures for germination depend on seed source [105]. Germination is generally complete within 5 days at 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 deg C) or higher [83].  Dettori and others [23] achieved greater than 95 percent germination when they used an alternating temperature regime with a 32, 36, or 41 degree Fahrenheit (0, 2, or 5 deg C) cold period and a 59 or 68 degree Fahrenheit (15 or 20 deg C) warm period. For laboratory germination, a 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 deg C) constant temperature for 14 days without light is recommended [3].  Booth [11,12] reports that post germination growth is affected by mother-plant transpiration, imbibition temperature, windstress, and nutrition. As the level of soil salinity increases, germination decreases [17,105]. Choride salts reduce germination more than sulfide salts.  Germination was severely restricted by soil sodium chloride levels of 2 percent [17] and 3 percent [105]. Winterfat seeds stored in an open (temperature unregulated) warehouse in Utah maintained high germination rates (greater than 74%) for 4 years, but germination after 5 years was only 18 percent, and germination was 0 percent after 10 years of storage [86].  After 8 years of refrigerated storage at 34 to 42 degrees Fahrenheit (1-6 deg C), viability ranged from 51 to 80 percent [84]. Natural reproduction in central New Mexico had greatest survival on disturbed soils with low-growing vegetation that afforded some shelter but little shade.  By July, when summer rains began, the only seedlings surviving were either close to mature winterfat, in grass clumps, or in litter.  The seedling roots penetrated beneath those of the grasses. Seedlings were successful on land protected from grazing or lightly grazed range dominated by grasses, but did not survive heavy grazing [104].  Seedling survival was poor in the Mojave Desert.  Of the 44 seedlings that established on plots during a 5-year period, none lived to a second growing season [1]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Winterfat occurs in dry valley bottoms, on flat mesas, and on hillsides. It occurs on well-drained, calcareous soils with low to moderate salt concentrations [19,88].  It is a halophytic species which excludes salt at the roots [19,100].  It often occurs over compact and indurated calcic horizons [9].  Soil texture apparently does not influence the distribution of winterfat [95]. Winterfat occurs in arid to semiarid climates with mean annual precipitation ranging from 5 to 20 inches (130-510 mm) [95]. Elevational ranges for some states are as follows: Arizona    2,000-7,000 feet   (600-2,100 m) [47] California   300-8,900 feet   (100-2,700 m) [42] Colorado   3,800-9,500 feet     (1,160-2,900 m) [25] Montana    3,800-5,000 feet     (1,160-1,520 m) [25] Wyoming    4,000-7,300 feet     (1,200-2,200 m) [25] Utah       2,400-9,300 feet   (730-2,840 m) [97] In northern climates, winterfat is often found on south- or west-facing slopes.  It occurs on ridgetops and south- and west-facing slopes in the Gros Ventre River drainage in northwestern Wyoming [39], and on southern aspects in coulees in Alberta [52].  In the Kluane Range in Yukon Territory, winterfat occurs on open, xeric gravelly hillsides [64]. Winterfat is tolerant of cold temperatures.  Lethal temperatures for winterfat shoots (measured in laboratory tests) were -112 degrees Fahrenheit (-80 deg C) in winter and -31 degrees Fahrenheit (-35 deg C) in April [94].  However, newly germinated seedlings are susceptible to freezing temperatures [85]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Winterfat is a component of stable arid shrub communities.  Winterfat communities have very little change in population over time [16]. Winterfat is intolerant of shade; it decreases as juniper (Juniperus spp.) cover increases [112]. Winterfat is generally not favored by disturbance.  It had only 4.3 percent cover on formerly cultivated, ungrazed lands, whereas cover was 21 percent on undisturbed sites in Alberta [26].  Winterfat significantly (p<0.01) increased in desert grasslands protected from grazing for 10 years in southern Utah [49].  In southwestern Nevada, winterfat had greater mean density in undisturbed communities than in communities disturbed by Nevada Test Site activities [36].  Winterfat was not present on mined sites abandoned from 1 to 13 years previously, but was present on adjacent unmined plots in northwestern New Mexico [91].  Although winterfat is susceptible to disturbance, it establishes on disturbed sites if seeds are present [104]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : In the Mojave Desert, winterfat flowers and puts out new growth following adequate spring, summer, or fall rains [2].  Germination occurs between October and March after rains of at least 0.6 inch (16 mm) [1].  Bud, leaf, flower, and fruiting phenology is reported for a 2-year period in the Mojave Desert [2]. In Saskatchewan, average first flowering date of winterfat over a 5-year period was June 27.  The mean flowering period was 45 days [15].  In western Colorado, flowers bloom in late May to early June [14].  The average phenology of winterfat in the Curlew Valley in northern Utah over a 7-year period follows [101]: Stage average date leaf buds swell April 8 twigs elongate April 29 floral buds develop May 28 flowers open June 7 fruits develop  July 8 fruit dissemination begins August 27 summer dormancy begins September 10 Winterfat root growth was primarily in the upper soil layers early in the growing season in the Curlew Valley.  Later in the season, root growth began in the deeper soil layers [33].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Krascheninnikovia lanata
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Prior to the invasion of exotic annuals, fire was an uncommon component of salt-desert shrub communities.  Salt-desert communities dominated by winterfat produced little fine fuel.  The introduction of annual grasses, including the highly flammable cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), into these communities has altered fuel loads and fuel distribution. After wet years when annual grass production is high, salt-desert shrub communities are susceptible to fire.  Fire drastically alters the community composition because salt-desert shrubs are not adapted to periodic fire [28,67,70,100]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :    Small shrub, adventitious-bud root crown

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Krascheninnikovia lanata
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Winterfat is either killed or top-killed by fire, depending on fire severity.  Severe fire can kill the perennating buds located several inches above the ground surface and thus kills the plant.  In addition, severe fire usually destroys seed on the plant.  Low-severity fire scorches or only partially consumes the aboveground portions of winterfat and thus does not cause high mortality. On a winterfat-dominated rangeland on the Snake River Plain in southwestern Idaho, a severe wildfire in September 1981 resulted in 100 percent mortality of winterfat.  Herbage production was well above normal that year and fuel levels were high.  Winterfat was consumed to within 1 inch (2.5 cm) of ground level [68]. Pellant and Reichert [68] observed that on other severe burns on the Snake River Plain, winterfat mortality is often about 95 percent, and that surviving winterfat plants have at least 20 percent annual leader growth remaining [68]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : There are conflicting reports in the literature about the response of winterfat to fire.  In one of the first published descriptions (1967), Dwyer and Pieper [27] reported that winterfat sprouts vigorously after fire.  This observation was frequently cited in subsequent literature, but recent observations have suggested that winterfat can be completely killed by fire [68].  The response is apparently dependent on fire severity.  Winterfat is able to sprout from buds near the base of the plant.  However, if these buds are destroyed, winterfat will not sprout. Winterfat sprouted vigorously after a "relatively" low-severity, April fire on a true pinyon (Pinus edulis)-oneseed juniper (Juniperus monosperma)-blue grama rangeland in New Mexico.  The surface fire moved 1,250 feet per hour (380 m/hr) through the dry grass fuel.  There was less than 750 pounds of fuel per acre (840 kg/ha) in the open grasslands [27]. Scorched winterfat sprouted after a July fire in a salt-desert shrub community in the Curlew Valley of northwestern Utah.  Bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides) was the major fuel.  Subsequent populations of winterfat on the site appeared "reduced" [100]. Pellant and Reichert [68] observed that regeneration of winterfat from seed is rare after fire on the Snake River Plain, Idaho. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : The Research Project Summary Nonnative annual grass fuels and fire in California's Mojave Desert provides information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species, including winterfat, that was not available when this species review was written. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : In order for the salt-desert shrub communities to persist in the presence of flammable annual grasses, either fire has to be prevented or extensive rehabilitation has to follow each fire.  The costs of rehabilitation after a cheatgrass fire can exceed 100 dollars per acre [73].  Winterfat has been successfully seeded on burns [18,60], but the price may be prohibitive.  In order to protect salt-desert shrub communities from fire, greenstrip vegetative fuel breaks have been created in some areas [67]. Burned sites should be seeded before cheatgrass is able to establish or gain dominance.  On the Snake River Birds of Prey Area in southwestern Idaho, winterfat was seeded with various perennial grasses on three separate burns in the early 1980s.  Winterfat seedlings established and matured, and by 1987, mature plants began producing seeds and new seedlings established in 1988.  Seedlings were able to establish amid considerable perennial herbaceous competition from primarily Sandberg bluegrass.  Most winterfat seedlings occurred in areas where cheatgrass cover was less than 10 percent.  Sandberg bluegrass controlled the invasion of annual weeds and allowed for winterfat establishment [60]. Winterfat was seeded in December on a burn in Utah.  Nearly 1 percent of winterfat seeds became established seedlings for an average density of 4,200 seedlings per acre (10,374/ha) [18].

References for species: Krascheninnikovia lanata


1. Ackerman, Thomas L. 1979. Germination and survival of perennial plant species in the Mojave Desert. The Southwestern Naturalist. 24(3): 399-408. [12219]
2. Ackerman, T. L.; Romney, E. M.; Wallace, A.; Kinnear, J. E. 1980. Phenology of desert shrubs in southern Nye County, Nevada. In: The Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs No. 4. Nevada desert ecology. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University: 4-23. [3197]
3. Allen, Phil S.; Meyer, Susan E.; Davis, Tim D. 1987. Determining seed quality of winterfat [Ceratoides lanata (Pursh) J.T. Howell]. Journal of Seed Ecology. 11(1): 7-14. [3257]
4. Anderson, Jay E.; Shumar, Mark L. 1986. Impacts of black-tailed jackrabbits at peak population densities on sagebrush vegetation. Journal of Range Management. 39(2): 152-155. [322]
5. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]
6. Blackburn, Wilbert H.; Tueller, Paul T.; Eckert, Richard E., Jr. 1968. Vegetation and soils of the Duckwater Watershed. Reno, NV: University of Nevada, College of Agriculture. 81 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. [7439]
7. Blackburn, Wilbert H.; Tueller, Paul T.; Eckert, Richard E., Jr. 1969. Vegetation and soils of the Churchill Canyon Watershed. R-45. Reno, NV: University of Nevada, Agricultural Experiment Station. 155 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. [460]
8. Blackburn, Wilbert H.; Eckert, Richard E., Jr.; Tueller, Paul T. 1969. Vegetation and soils of the Cow Creek Watershed. R-49. Reno, NV: University of Nevada, Agricultural Experiment Station. 77 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. [458]
9. Blaisdell, James P.; Holmgren, Ralph C. 1984. Managing Intermountain rangelands--salt-desert shrub ranges. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-163. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 52 p. [464]
10. Bonham, Charles D.; Mack, Steven E. 1990. Root distributions of Eurotia lanata in assoication with two species of Agropyron on disturbed soils. Botanical Gazette. 151(4): 522-527. [15464]
11. Booth, D. Terrance. 1990. Seedbed ecology of winterfat: effects of mother-plant transpiration, wind stress, and nutrition on seedling vigor. Journal of Range Management. 43(1): 20-24. [9879]
12. Booth, D. Terrance. 1992. Seedbed ecology of winterfat: imbibition temperature affects post-germination growth. Journal of Range Management. 45(2): 159-164. [18057]
13. Booth, D. Terrance; Schuman, Gerald E. 1983. Seedbed ecology of winterfat: fruits versus threshed seeds. Journal of Range Management. 36(3): 387-390. [490]
14. Branson, Farrel A.; Miller, Reuben F.; McQueen, I. S. 1976. Moisture relationships in twelve northern desert shrub communities near Grand Junction, Colorado. Ecology. 57(6): 1104-1124. [510]
15. Budd, A. C.; Campbell, J. B. 1959. Flowering sequence of a local flora. Journal of Range Management. 12: 127-132. [552]
16. Chambers, Jeanne C.; Norton, Brien E. 1993. Effects of grazing and drought on population dynamics of salt desert species on the Desert Experimental Range, Utah. Journal of Arid Environments. 24: 261-275. [22099]
17. Clark, Lesley D.; West, Neil E. 1971. Further studies of Eurotia lanata germination in relation to salinity. The Southwestern Naturalist. 15(3): 371-375. [630]
18. Clary, Warren P.; Tiedemann, Arthur R. 1984. Development of `Rincon' fourwing saltbush, winterfat, and other shrubs from seed following fire. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R.; McArthur, E. Durant; Stutz, Howard C.; [and others], compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 273-280. [646]
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