Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Ilex vomitoria


SPECIES: Ilex vomitoria
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Coladonato, Milo 1992. Ilex vomitoria. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].

ABBREVIATION : ILEVOM SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : ILVO COMMON NAMES : yaupon cassena cassine evergreen cassena emetic holly evergreen holly Indian Blackdrink Christmas berry TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for yaupon is Ilex vomitoria Ait. [9]. There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms. LIFE FORM : Tree, Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Ilex vomitoria
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Yaupon grows along the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plains of the southeastern United States. Its range extends from the northern coast of Virginia south to central Florida and west to Oklahoma and eastern Texas [2,6,38] ECOSYSTEMS : FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress STATES : AL AR FL GA KY LA MS NC OK SC TN TX VA BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K090 Live oak - sea oats K091 Cypress savanna K100 Oak - hickory forest K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest K113 Southern floodplain forest K114 Pocosin SAF COVER TYPES : 68 Mesquite 70 Longleaf pine 73 Southern redcedar 80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine 81 Loblolly pine 82 Loblolly pine - hardwood 83 Longleaf pine - slash pine 84 Slash pine 89 Live oak 100 Pondcypress 101 Baldcypress 102 Baldcypress - tupelo 103 Water tupelo - swamp tupelo 104 Sweetbay - swamp tupelo - redbay SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Ilex vomitoria
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : The wood of yaupon is heavy, hard, strong, and close grained. It is sometimes used for turnery, inlay work, and woodenware [38]. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Yaupon fruit and seed are eaten by a variety of animals such as wild turkey, racoon, squirrel, and wild hog [10,14,33]. Yaupon leaves are a high choice browse of white-tailed deer [10]. PALATABILITY : The leaves of yaupon are considered highly palatable to white-tailed deer [10]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Percent dry weight nutrient values for yaupon are as follows [18]. spring summer fall winter protein 9.36 8.71 8.85 6.94 fat 3.09 3.12 3.67 4.84 fiber 17.33 26.69 21.85 21.62 N-free extract 46.34 42.40 46.34 48.53 ash 8.88 4.07 4.28 3.07 phosphorus 0.11 0.07 0.06 0.07 calcium 0.27 0.23 0.62 0.41 COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Because of yaupon's ability to survive the combined effects of salt spray, constant wind, full sunlight, and high temperatures, it has been planted on the beaches and dunes of the Southeastern Coastal Plain [4,14]. In Texas, yaupon was planted to restore borrow pits for wildlife use [22]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Yaupon leaves were used by Native Americans for their emetic and purgative qualities [38]. Yaupon is often cultivated as an ornamental because of its bright red berries and evergreen leaves [38]. It is used extensively for hedges and is also planted on seaside resorts [14,39]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Yaupon is undesirable in understories of southern pine plantations. It competes with pine seedlings and contributes to an accumulation of understory fuels, which increases the potential for wildfires [12,23,34]. Aerial applications of tebuthiuron were found to control yaupon and other hardwoods effectively in eastern Texas [19,25].


SPECIES: Ilex vomitoria
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Yaupon is an erect, slow-growing, native evergreen shrub or small tree. It forms dense thickets about 25 feet (8 m) tall. Many stems ascend from the base, forming a low, dense, rounded crown [9]. The thick evergreen leaves are simple, alternate, leathery, and vary in size and shape on the different plants. The inconspicuous flowers are dioecious and are borne in short-stalked axils at the base of the leaves. The bark is thin, gray, and smooth. The small, shiny red fruit is a drupe [6,36,38]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte (microphanerophyte) Phanerophyte (nanophanerophyte) REGENERATION PROCESSES : Yaupon reproduces sexually, and vegetatively by root sprouting [9,38]. Details on the regenerative processes of this species are lacking. Birds are the primary mode of seed dispersal [31]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Yaupon grows best in climates with mild winters and long, hot, humid summers. It is found on coastal dunes, maritime forests, upland woodlands of various mixtures, and pine flatwoods. For the most part, yaupon inhabits well-drained sites but also occurs on streambanks, in wet woodlands, and floodplains. Yaupon commonly forms shrub thickets on coastal dunes where it is a component of the slanting, salt-spray-pruned, dense masses of shrubs characteristic of seaside communities [6,9,29,32]. Common overstory associates include flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), sweetbay (Persea borbonia), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), loblolly-bay (Gordonia lasianthus), hickory (Carya spp.), and oak (Quercus spp.). Understory associates include American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), southern bayberry (Myrica cerifera), swamp fetterbush (Leucothoe racemosa), greenbrier (Smilax spp.), and poor-man's soap (Clethra alnifolia) [3,4,21,24]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Yaupon occurs in early- to mid-seral communities. It grows best in sunny sites but also grows well in light shade [26]. Young [41] describes yaupon as an early invader in south-central Texas rangelands. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Yaupon flowers from April through May, and its fruit ripens in September and October [1].


SPECIES: Ilex vomitoria
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Yaupon is only moderately well adapted to fire [28,30]. Presumably, it survives fire by sprouting from the root crown. Dense thickets of yaupon are a primary fuel source, promoting fire spread in many parts of the Southeast [23,37]. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : survivor species; on-site survivng root crown or caudex off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire year 1&2


SPECIES: Ilex vomitoria
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Mild fires probably top-kill yaupon [5,11,15]. Yaupon may be killed by fires severe enough to consume the soil's organic layer. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Sprouting and increased fruit production in yaupon following fire have been reported, but details have not been described [13,28]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : A fire management program that precludes a build up of understory yaupon is recommended [11,40]. In Kisatchie Hill Wilderness of Louisana, crown scorch of pine resulting from 25- to 30-foot (7.5-12 m) flame heights was associated with the combustion of understory yaupon. The size and density of yaupon was a result of 30 years of fire exclusion in the area [23].


SPECIES: Ilex vomitoria
REFERENCES : 1. Bonner, F. T. 1974. Ilex L. holly. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 450-453. [7683] 2. Boyer, W. D. 1990. Pinus palustris Mill. longleaf pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 405-412. [13398] 3. Brendemuehl, R. H. 1990. Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng. redbay. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 503-506. [15361] 4. Christensen, Norman L. 1988. Vegetation of the southeastern Coastal Plain. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Billings, William Dwight, eds. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 317-363. [17414] 5. Dickson, James G. 1981. Effects of forest burning on songbirds. In: Wood, Gene W., ed. Prescribed fire and wildlife in southern forests: Proceedings of a symposium; 1981 April 6-8; Myrtle Beach, SC. Georgetown, SC: Clemson University, Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute: 67-72. [14811] 6. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 409 p. [12906] 7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 8. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 9. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239] 10. Goodrum, Phil D.; Reid, Vincent H. 1958. Deer browsing in the longleaf pine belt. In: Proceedings, 58th annual meeting of the Society of American Foresters; [Date of meeting unknown]; [Place of meeeting unknown]. Washington, DC: [Society of American Foresters]: 139-143. [17023] 11. Hodgkins, Earl J. 1958. Effects of fire on undergrowth vegetation in upland southern pine forests. Ecology. 39(1): 36-46. [7632] 12. Hough, Walter A. 1969. Caloric value of some forest fuels of the southern United States. Res. Note SE-120. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 6 p. [10517] 13. Hurst, George A. 1981. Effects of prescribed burning on the eastern wild turkey. In: Wood, Gene W., ed. Prescribed fire and wildlife in southern forests: Proceedings of a symposium; 1981 April 6-8; Myrtle Beach, SC. Georgetown, SC: Clemson University, Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute: 81-88. [14813] 14. Johnson, A. Sydney; Hillestad, Hilburn O.; Shanholtzer, Sheryl Fanning; Shanholtzer, G. Frederick. 1974. An ecological survey of the coastal region of Georgia. Scientific Monograph Series No 3, NPS 116. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 233 p. [16102] 15. Kirkpatrick, Roy L.; Mosby, Henry S. 1981. Effect of prescribed burning on tree squirrels. In: Wood, Gene W., ed. Prescribed fire and wildlife in southern forests: Proceedings of a symposium; 1981 April 6-8; Myrtle Beach, SC. Georgetown, SC: Clemson University, Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute: 99-101. [14815] 16. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 17. Lay, Daniel W. 1956. Effects of prescribed burning on forage and mast production in southern pine forests. Journal of Forestry. 54: 582-584. [13828] 18. Lay, Daniel W. 1957. Browse quality and the effects of prescribed burning in southern pine forests. Journal of Forestry. 55: 342-347. [7633] 19. Lloyd-Reilley, J.; Scifres, C. J.; Blackburn, W. H. 1984. Hydrologic impacts of brush management with tebuthiuron and prescribed burning on post oak savannah watersheds, Texas. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 11: 213-224. [8613] 20. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 21. MacRoberts, B. R.; MacRoberts, M. H. 1988. Floristic composition of two west Louisiana pitcher plant pogs. Phytologia. 65(3): 184-190. [10128] 22. Mahler, David. 1991. Power plant borrow pit restored for wildlife use. Restoration & Management Notes. 9(1): 57. [15450] 23. Mann, James F.; Fischer, William C. 1987. Wilderness fire review: Region 8, Kisatchie NF. Unpublished report on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 6 p. [18120] 24. Matos, J. A.; Rudolph, D. C. 1985. The vegetation of the Roy E. Larsen Sandylands Sanctuary in the Big Thicket of Texas. Castanea. 50(4): 228-249. [10114] 25. Melgoza, A.; Morton, H. L.; Sierra, J. S.; Melgoza, G. 1984. Botanical changes associated with applications of tebuthiuron in creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) communities. Proceedings, Western Society of Weed Science. 37: 98-113. [4399] 26. Nixon, Elray S. 1975. Successional stages in a hardwood bottomland forest near Dallas, Texas. Southwestern Naturalist. 20: 323-335. [12250] 27. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 28. Shrauder, Paul A.; Miller, Howard A. 1969. On deer food and cover. In: White-tailed deer in the southern forest habitat: Proceedings of a symposium; [Date unknown]; [Location unknown]. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: 1-16. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, ForestService, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [17173] 29. Silker, T. H. 1955. Prescribed burning for the control of undesirable hardwoods in pine-hardwood stands and slash pine plantations. Bulletin No. 46. Kirbyville, TX: Texas A & M College, Texas Forest Service. 19 p. [15422] 30. Silker, T. H. 1957. Prescribed burning in the silviculture and management of southern pine-hardwood and slash pine stands. In: Society of American Foresters: Proceedings of the 1956 annual meeting; [Date of conference unknown]; [Location of conference unknown]. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters: 94-99. [15279] 31. Silker, T. H. 1961. Prescribed burning to control undesirable hardwoods in southern pine stands. Bulletin No. 51. Kirbyville, TX: Texas Forest Service. 44 p. [16898] 32. Smeins, Fred E., Hinton, Johnny Z. 1987. Vegetation of the loblolly-shortleaf pine-hardwood type, Angelina National Forest, Texas. In: Pearson, Henry A.; Smeins, Fred E.; Thill, Ronald E, compilers. Ecological, physical, and socioeconomic relationships within southern National Forests; 1987 May 26 - May 27; Long Beach, MS. General Technical Report SO-68. New Orleans, LA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 31-38. [10174] 33. Stransky, John J.; Harlow, Richard F. 1981. Effects of fire on deer habitat in the Southwest. In: Wood, Gene W., ed. Prescribed fire and wildlife in southern forests: Proceedings of a symposium; 1981 April 6-8; Myrtle Beach, SC. Georgetown, SC: Clemson University, Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute: 135-142. [14820] 34. Stransky, John J.; Huntley, Jimmy C.; Risner, Wanda J. 1986. Net community production dynamics in the herb-shrub stratum of a loblolly pine-hardwood forest: effects of clearcutting and site prepar. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-61. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 11 p. [9835] 35. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 36. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240] 37. Villarrubia, Charles R.; Chambers, Jim L. 1978. Fire: its effects on growth and survival of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. Louisiana Academy of Sciences. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University; 41: 85-93. [13812] 38. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707] 39. Walker, Laurence C. 1991. The southern forest: A chronicle. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 322 p. [17597] 40. Watson, Geraldine E. 1986. Influence of fire on the longleaf pine - bluestem range in the Big Thicket region. In: Kulhavy, D. L.; Conner, R. N., eds. Wilderness and natural areas in the eastern United States: a management challenge. Nacogdoches, TX: Stephen F. Austin University: 181-185. [10334] 41. Young, Vernon A.; Anderwald, Frank R.; McCully, Wayne G. 1948. Brush problems on Texas ranges. Miscellaneous Publication 21. College Station, TX: Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. 19 p. [5996]