Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Ilex coriacea


Introductory

SPECIES: Ilex coriacea
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Coladonato, Milo 1991. Ilex coriacea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : ILECOR SYNONYMS : Prinos lucidus Ait. Prinos coriaceus Pursh Ilex lucida (Ait) Torr. & Gray ex Wats. SCS PLANT CODE : ILCO COMMON NAMES : large gallberry sweet gallberry bay-gallbush TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for large gallberry is Ilex coriacea (Pursh) Chapm. (Aquifoliaceae). The Ilex genus consists of 13 species [9,15]. LIFE FORM : Tree, Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Ilex coriacea
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Large gallberry grows along the Gulf and Southeastern coastal plains of the United States. Its range extends from southeastern Virginia south to northern and central Florida, and west to eastern Texas [2,3]. Large gallberry extends inland from the Atlantic coast to eastern Tennessee and from the Gulf coast to Arkansas [11]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress STATES : AL AR FL GA KY LA MS NC OK SC TN TX VA BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K089 Black Belt K090 Live oak - sea oats K097 Southeastern spruce - fir forest K100 Oak - hickory forest K104 Appalachian oak forest K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest K114 Pocosin K115 Sand pine - scrub SAF COVER TYPES : 40 Post oak - blackjack oak 44 Chestnut oak 45 Pitch pine 46 Eastern redcedar 50 Black locust 52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak 53 White oak 55 Northern red oak 57 Yellow-poplar 58 Yellow-poplar - eastern hemlock 59 Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak 61 River birch - sycamore 69 Sand pine 70 Longleaf pine 71 Longleaf pine - scrub oak 72 Southern scrub oak 73 Southern redcedar 74 Cabbage palmetto 75 Shortleaf pine 76 Shortleaf pine - oak 78 Virginia pine - oak 79 Virginia pine 80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine 81 Loblolly pine 82 Loblolly pine - hardwood 83 Longleaf pine - slash pine 84 Slash pine 85 Slash pine - hardwood 87 Sweetgum - yellow poplar 88 Willow oak - water oak - diamondleaf oak 89 Live oak 91 Swamp chestnut oak - cherrybark oak 92 Sweetgum - willow oak 96 Overcup oak - water hickory 97 Atlantic white-cedar 99 Pond pine 100 Pondcypress 101 Baldcypress 102 Baldcypress - tupelo 103 Water tupelo - swamp tupelo 104 Sweetbay - swamp tupelo - redbay SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Large gallberry is a dominant understory species in the longleaf-slash pine forest community [24].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Ilex coriacea
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Large gallberry is not a preferred livestock forage, but livestock will eat branches of young plants when other forage is scarce [14,23]. PALATABILITY : The palability of large gallberry to white-tailed deer is considered fair, although deer feed on more preferable forage when available [4,14]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : Large gallberry provides security cover for a variety of reptile and amphibian species in the southern coastal parts of its range [21]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Large gallberry presumably provides watershed protection and erosion control. OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Pine growth is reduced by overtopping of seedlings or proximity to large gallberry and other shrubs [28]. Large gallberry can be controlled by streamline basal application of the herbicide Garlon 4 [19].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Ilex coriacea
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Large gallberry is a small evergreen tree or large shrub, native to the southeastern United States. Its fruits are shiny black berries. Plants grow up to 7 feet (2.1 m) tall. The leaves are leathery. The flowers are usually unisexual; the plants are dioecious [7,9,11]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Undisturbed State: Phanerophyte (microphanerophyte) Undisturbed State: Phanerophyte (nanophanerophyte) Burned or Clipped State: Crytophyte (geophyte) REGENERATION PROCESSES : Large gallberry regenerates vegetatively by sprouting from rhizomes [5]. It also regenerates sexually, although the details have not been studied [27]. The nature of the fruit suggests that the seeds are dispersed by animals. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Large gallberry grows in pine savannas and flatwoods, shrub-tree bogs and bays, open bogs, seepage areas in woodlands, on lower slopes, wooded ravines, and depressions [7,11]. Typical soils are sandy, acidic, and low in organic matter. They are often poorly drained, and frequently or seasonally flooded [2,7]. Large gallberry is common on longleaf pine or longleaf pine-slash pine sites. Overstory associates include baldcypress and pondcypress (Taxodium spp.), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), and water tupelo (N. aquatica) [8,11]. Understory associates include saw-palmetto (Serenoa repens), sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana), swamp cyrilla (Cyrilla racemiflora), bitter gallberry (Ilex galbra), laurelleaf greenbrier (Smilax laurifolia), buckwheat-tree (Cliftonia monophyla), blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), and blackberries (Rubus spp.) [8,25]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Large gallberry is a mid to late seral species that grows well under a canopy. It tends toward a mature forest and competes with tree seedlings [6,19]. It typically does not on sites lacking the shade of a dense canopy [17,18]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Large gallberry flowers between April and May; its fruit ripens from September to October [7,11,27].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Ilex coriacea
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Large gallberry is sensitive to fire, but survives by resprouting from rhizomes [5,29] POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : survivor species; on site surviving rhizomes off site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; post fire yr 1&2

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Ilex coriacea
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Large gallberry has very flammable foliage. Most fires top-kill the plant [18]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Large gallberry sprouts from underground rhizomes after fire [29]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Prescribed burning on a 1- to 3-year cycle effectively controls large gallberry [29].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Ilex coriacea
REFERENCES : 1. Allen, Charles M.; Stagg, Charles H.; Parris, Stephen D. 1988. Analysis of the vegetation in pitcher plant bogs in two baygalls at Ft. Polk in west central Louisiana. The Proceedings of the Louisiana Academy of Sciences. 50: 1-6. [12118] 2. Boyer, W. D. 1990. Pinus palustris Mill. longleaf pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 405-412. [13398] 3. Bramlett, David L. 1990. Pinus serotina Michx. pond pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 470-475. [13407] 4. Conover, M. R.; Kania, G. S. 1988. Browsing preference of white-tailed deer for different ornamental species. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 16: 175-179. [8933] 5. Cypert, Eugene. 1961. The effects of fires in the Okefenokee Swamp in 1954 and 1955. American Midland Naturalist. 66(2): 485-503. [11018] 6. Duever, Michael J.; Riopelle, Lawrence A. 1983. Successional sequences and rates on tree islands in the Okefenokee Swamp. American Midland Naturalist. 110(1): 186-191. [14590] 7. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764] 8. Furniss, Malcolm M.; Leege, Thomas A.; Naskali, Richard J. 1978. Insects that reduce redstem Ceanothus seed production in Idaho. In: Hyder, Donald N., ed. Proceedings of the First Internationl Rangeland Congress; 1978 August 14-18; Denver, CO. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management: 355-358. [985] 9. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p. (Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny Series; vol. 2). [14935] 10. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 11. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239] 12. Kirkman, W. Benson; Wentworth, Thomas R.; Ballington, James R. 1989. The ecology and phytosociology of the creeping blueberries, Vaccinium section Herpothamnus. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 116(2): 114-133. [9645] 13. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 14. Lay, Daniel W. 1957. Browse quality and the effects of prescribed burning in southern pine forests. Journal of Forestry. 55: 342-347. [7633] 15. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952] 16. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 17. Matos, J. A.; Rudolph, D. C. 1985. The vegetation of the Roy E. Larsen Sandylands Sanctuary in the Big Thicket of Texas. Castanea. 50(4): 228-249. [10114] 18. McKinley, Carol E.; Day, Frank P., Jr. 1979. Herb. prod. in cut-burned, uncut-burned & contl areas of a Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) BSP (Cupressaceae) stand in the Great Dismal Swamp. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 106(1): 20-28. [14089] 19. Miller, James H. 1990. Streamline basal application of herbicide for small-stem hardwood control. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 14(4): 161-165. [13538] 20. Pearson, Henry A.; Grelen, Harold E.; Parresol, Bernie R.; Wright, Vernon L. 1987. Detailed vegetative description of the longleaf-slash pine type, Vernon District, Kisatchie National Forest, Louisiana. In: Pearson, Henry A.; Smeins, Fred E.; Thill, Ronald E., compilers. Ecological, physical, and socioeconomic relationships within southern National Forests: Proceedings of the southern evaluation project workshop; 1987 May 26-27; Long Beach, MS. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-68. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 107-115. [11574] 21. Pearson, Henry A.; Lohoefener, Renne R.; Wolfe, James L. 1987. Amphibians and reptiles on longleaf-slash pine forests in southern Mississippi. In: Pearson, Henry A.; Smeins, Fred E.; Thill, Ronald E., compilers. Ecological, physical, & socioeconomic relat. within southern National Forests: Proceedings, Southern Eval. Proj. workshop; 1987 May 26-27; Longbeach, MS. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-68. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 157-165. [14733] 22. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 23. Shepherd, W. O.; Dillard, E. U.; Lucas, H. L. 1951. Grazing and fire influences in pond pine forests. Tech. Bull. No. 97. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State College, Agricultural Experiment Station. 56 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. [14546] 24. Stewart, Aberdeen, W.; Hurst, George A. 1987. Vegetation in the longleaf-slash pine forest, Biloxi District, Desoto National Forest, Mississippi. In: Pearson, Henry A.; Smeins, Fred E.; Thill, Ronald E., compilers. Ecological, physical, and socioeconomic relationships within southern National Forests; 1987 May 26-27; Long Beach, MS. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-68. New Orleans, LA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Experiment Station: 149-155. [10172] 25. Streng, D. R.; Harcombe, P. A. 1982. Why don't east Texas savannas grow up to forest?. American Midland Naturalist. 108(2): 278-294. [10120] 26. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 27. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240] 28. Wade, Dale P.; Wilhite, Lawrence P. 1981. Low intensity burn prior to bedding and planting slash pine is of little value. In: Barnett, James P., ed. Proceedings, 1st biennial southern silviculture research conference; 1980 November 6-7; Atlanta, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-34. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 70-74. [7332] 29. Watson, Geraldine E. 1986. Influence of fire on the longleaf pine - bluestem range in the Big Thicket region. In: Kulhavy, D. L.; Conner, R. N., eds. Wilderness and natural areas in the eastern United States: a management challenge. Nacogdoches, TX: Stephen F. Austin University: 181-185. [10334]


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