Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Gaylussacia dumosa


Introductory

SPECIES: Gaylussacia dumosa
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Coladonato, Milo 1992. Gaylussacia dumosa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : GAYDUM SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : GADU COMMON NAMES : dwarf huckleberry bush huckleberry gopherberry TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for dwarf huckleberry is Gaylussacia dumosa (Andr.) Gray [11]. Two varieties based on morphological differences have been recognized: Bigelow dwarf huckleberry (G. dumosa var.bigelow Fern.) and hairy huckleberry (G. dumosa var. hirtella (Ait) Klotzsch) [24]. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Gaylussacia dumosa
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Dwarf huckleberry is distributed along the coastal regions of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia south to central Florida and east to western Mississippi and central Tennessee. Disjunct populations occur in the mountains of West Virginia, southwestern North Carolina, and western South Carolina [5,7,11,16]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES10 White - red - jack pine FRES11 Spruce - fir FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress STATES : AL CT DE FL GA KY LA ME MD MA MS NH NJ NY PA RI SC TN VT VA WV NF NS BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K096 Northeastern spruce - fir forest K097 Southeastern spruce fir - forest K098 Northern floodplain forest K100 Oak - hickory forest K103 Mixed mesophytic forest K104 Appalachian oak forest K106 Northern hardwoods K110 Northeastern oak - pine forest K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest K113 Southern floodpalin forest SAF COVER TYPES : 5 Balsam fir 21 Eastern white pine 23 Eastern hemlock 32 Red spruce 35 Paper birch - red spruce - balsam fir 40 Post oak - blackjack oak 43 Bear oak 44 Chestnut oak 45 Pitch pine 51 White pine - chestnut oak 69 Sand pine 70 Longleaf pine 71 Longleaf pine - scrub oak 72 Southern scrub oak 75 Shortleaf pine 76 Shortleaf pine - oak 79 Virginia pine 80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine 82 Loblolly pine - hardwood 83 Longleaf pine - slash pine 84 Slash pine 98 Pond pine SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : NO-ENTRY

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Gaylussacia dumosa
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Mammals such as raccoon, gray fox, red fox, skunk, chipmunk, and squirrel feed on the fruit of dwarf huckleberry [23,24]. Dwarf huckleberry is also eaten by roughed grouse, wild turkey, and quail [15]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Gaylussacia dumosa
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Dwarf huckleberry is a small, deciduous, erect, much-branched, rhizomatous shrub which grows from 12 to 30 inches (30-75 cm) in height [7,11]. Many stems ascend from the base, forming a low, dense, rounded crown. The twigs are usually copiously pubescent with short, curly hairs. The small deciduous leaves are simple, leathery, obovate to elliptical with the lower surface typically glandular. The bell-shaped tubular flowers are borne on racemes at the end of the branchlets. The fruit is a berry with 10 nutlets, each carrying one seed [11,23,24]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte (nanophanerophyte) Chamaephyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Dwarf huckleberry can reproduce through seed, although details have not been described [12,14]. Seeds are dispersed by a variety of birds and mammals [23,24]. Dwarf huckleberry sprouts from underground rhizomes or runners after aboveground vegetation is removed by fire or other types of disturbance [1,2,12]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Dwarf huckleberry commonly grows in pine forest or pine barrens, and at the edge of shrub-tree bogs, pitcher plant bogs, and bays [7,8,11]. Dwarf huckleberry grows on xeric to mesic sites with well-drained sandy to clayey soils [11,15]. Common overstory associates of dwarf huckleberry include eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana), tamarack (Larix laracina), redbay (Persea borbonia), sweetbay (Magnolia virginia), and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida). Common understory associates include dangleberry (Gaylussacia frondosa), yaupon (Ilex vomitoria), fetterbush (Leucothoe racemosa), and blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) [3,6,15,21]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Fire is an integral part of pine barrens, pine flatwoods, and sand pine scrub communities in which dwarf huckleberry grows [2]. These communities have been described as "pyric disclimax" or fire climax communities. Fire in these communities does not initiate multistage succession but instead rejuvenates species which were present in the preburn community, such as dwarf huckleberry [4,13,19]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Dwarf huckleberry flowers in early spring; the fruit ripens in late summer or early fall [11].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Gaylussacia dumosa
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Dwarf huckleberry is well able to persist despite periodic fire [12,14]. Abrahamson [2] reports that dwarf huckleberry "exhibits a 'sit and wait' strategy, in that plants apparently survive with little aboveground biomass for long periods of time before fire causes release from shading and/or nutrient depletion." Dwarf huckleberry typically sprouts from underground rhizomes after the foliage is consumed by fire [2]. Birds and mammals may transport some seed to burned sites. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : survivor species; on-site surviving rhizomes off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Gaylussacia dumosa
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire typically kills aboveground portions of dwarf huckleberry [1,19]. Underground rhizomes are generally protected from the damaging effects of heat and apparently survive most fires. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Fire stimulates the growth of dwarf huckleberry [1,2]. Density and cover of dwarf huckleberry reached peak levels 1 year after a January prescribed burn in central Florida [2] Plants will typically sprout from underground rhizomes after aboveground vegetation is consumed [19]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Fruit production of dwarf huckleberry was higher on burned sites than on unburned sites [1,2]. Fire exclusion greatly reduced density and cover of dwarf huckleberry on slash pine (Pinus elliottii) plantations in Georgia [14].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Gaylussacia dumosa
REFERENCES : 1. Abrahamson, Warren G. 1984. Post-fire recovery of Florida Lake Wales Ridge vegetation. American Journal of Botany. 71(1): 9-21. [9509] 2. Abrahamson, Warren G. 1984. Species response to fire on the Florida Lake Wales Ridge. American Journal of Botany. 71(1): 35-43. [9608] 3. Ash, A. N.; McDonald, C. B.; Kane, E. S.; Pories, C. A. 1983. Natural and modified pocosins: literature synthesis and management options. FWS/OBS-83/04. Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Biological Sciences. 156 p. [16178] 4. Christensen, Norman L. 1988. Vegetation of the southeastern Coastal Plain. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Billings, William Dwight, eds. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 317-363. [17414] 5. Clewell, Andre F. 1985. Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press. 605 p. [13124] 6. Conde, Louis F.; Swindel, Benee F.; Smith, Joel E. 1983. Plant species cover, frequency, and biomass: Early responses to clearcutting, chopping, and bedding in Pinus elliottii flatwoods. Forest Ecology and Management. 6: 307-317. [9661] 7. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 409 p. [12906] 8. Wilson, Mark V. 1990. Estimating demographic rates of long-lived trees. Northwest Science. 64(4): 187-192. [14560] 9. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 10. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 11. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239] 12. Hon, Tip. 1981. Effects of prescribed fire on furbearers in the South. In: Wood, Gene W., ed. Prescribed fire and wildlife in southern forests: Proceedings of a symposium; 1981 April 6-8; Myrtle Beach, SC. Georgetown, SC: Clemson University, Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute: 121-128. [14818] 13. Hartnett, David C.; Richardson, Donald R. 1989. Population biology of Bonamia grandiflora (Convolvulaceae): Effects of fire on plant and seed bank dynamics. American Journal of Botany. 76(3): 361-369. [9647] 14. Johnson, A. Sydney; Landers, J. Larry. 1978. Fruit production in slash pine plantations in Georgia. Journal of Wildlife Management. 42(3): 606-613. [9855] 15. Jones, Steven M. 1990. Application of landscape ecosystem classification within the southeastern United States. In: Forestry on the frontier: Proceedings of the 1989 Society of American Foresters National Convention; 1989 September 24-27; Spokane, WA. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters: 79-83. [11566] 16. Keeler, Harriet L. 1969. Vacciniaceae--huckleberry family. In: Our northern shrubs and how to identify them. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.: 315-342. [9272] 17. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 18. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 19. Moore, William H.; Swindel, Benee F.; Terry, W. Stephen. 1982. Vegetative response to prescribed fire in a north Florida flatwoods forest. Journal of Range Management. 35(3): 386-389. [9783] 20. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 21. Tanner, George W. 1987. Soils and vegetation of the longleaf/slash pine forest type, Apalachicola National Forest, Florida. In: Pearson, Henry A.; Smeins, Fred E.; Thill, Ronald E., compilers. Ecological, physical, and socioeconomic relationships within southern National Forests; 1987 May 26-27; Long Beach, MS. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-68. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 186-200. [10173] 22. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 23. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240] 24. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]


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