Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Garrya fremontii


Introductory

SPECIES: Garrya fremontii
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Howard, Janet L. 1992. Garrya fremontii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : GARFRE SYNONYMS : Garrya rigida Eastw. SCS PLANT CODE : GAFR COMMON NAMES : Fremont silktassel bear brush California fever bush flannel bush quinine bush silktassel bush TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of Fremont silktassel is Garrya fremontii Torr. Recognized varieties are as follows [11,15]: G. fremontii var. fremontii G. fremontii var. laxa Eastw. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : Washington has put Fremont silktassel on the state's monitor list under Group 3: more abundant and/or less threatened than previously assumed [24].


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Garrya fremontii
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Fremont silktassel occurs in Washington, Oregon, and California [11,15,22]. It is distributed along the Columbia River in Washington and Oregon, and in the Klamath Mountains and Coast Ranges from Josephine and Jackson counties, Oregon south to Monterey County, California. In the Cascade Range and Sierra Nevada, it occurs from from Lane County, Oregon south to Madera County, California [11,16]. A disjunct population occurs in the Transverse and Peninsular ranges in Riverside, Orange, and San Diego counties, California [16]. G. fremontii var. laxa occurs in Trinity County, California [11]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES22 Western white pine FRES27 Redwood FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub STATES : CA OR WA BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 3 Southern Pacific Border 4 Sierra Mountains 5 Columbian Plateau KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K005 Mixed conifer forest K006 Redwood forest K007 Red fir forest K010 Ponderosa shrub forest K011 Western ponderosa forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K026 Oregon oakwoods K028 Mosaic of K002 and K026 K029 California mixed evergreen forest K030 California oakwoods K033 Chaparral K034 Montane chaparral SAF COVER TYPES : 229 Pacific Douglas-fir 230 Douglas-fir - western hemlock 231 Port-Orford-cedar 232 Redwood 233 Oregon white oak 234 Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone 243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer 244 Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir 245 Pacific ponderosa pine 246 California black oak 247 Jeffrey pine 248 Knobcone pine 249 Canyon live oak 250 Blue oak - Digger pine 255 California coast live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Fremont silktassel usually occurs as scattered individuals throughout the chaparral zone, although it is dominant in some localities [25]. Fremont silktassel is listed as a dominant or codominant species in vegetation types (vts) in the following published classifications [17,24]: Area Classification Authority Ca:Marble Mts. montane chaparral vts Muth 1980 Ca:Santa Ana Mts. chamise chaparral Vogl 1976

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Garrya fremontii
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Fremont silktassel is browsed by livestock and mule deer in winter and spring [2,3]. It is one of the principal winter browse species on some Oregon ranges [26]. The fruit is eaten by various chaparral animals including songbirds, mountain quail, gray fox, and rodents [18,22]. PALATABILITY : Fremont silktassel fruit is palatable to birds and various mammals. Older leaves and twigs contain a bitter alkaloid that makes them unpalatable to some browsers. Sprouts, however, are highly palatable to mule deer and all classes of livestock. The relish and degree of use shown by livestock and wildlife species for Fremont silktassel leaves and twigs in California is rated as follows [22]: mule deer - good cattle - poor horses - poor goats - good sheep - fair to good NUTRITIONAL VALUE : The protein content of Fremont silktassel varies from 12.0 percent in May and June to 5.1 percent in August [2]. COVER VALUE : Fremont silktassel provides good cover for black bear, mule deer, and various birds and small mammals [18]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Fremont silktassel can be used for wildlife habitat and watershed rehabilitation. It is easily cultivated from stem cuttings or seed, and transplants well. Nursery-grown seedlings transplanted in the Klamath River Canyon, California showed an 84 percent survival rate after 17 years [8]. Seed can be obtained by harvesting native plants. Cultivation methods have been detailed [21]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Fremont silktassel's shiny, yellow-green leaves, showy yellow panicles, and purple berries make it an attractive landscaping oramental [21,22]. Garryine, an alkaloid extracted from Fremont silktassel, was used by early settlers as a tonic [22]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Timber: Because Fremont silktassel occurs as widely scattered individuals in most areas, it is usually not a serious competitor of timber species. Fremont silktassel is difficult to control where it grows in dominant stands, however. It will sprout following hand release or contolled burning. Some chemical treatments may not be effective, since Garrya species show resistance to many foliar sprays. Phenoxy compounds, rated as intermediate in effectiveness for this genus, may be the best choice for timberland spraying. Application methods have been detailed. Fremont silktassel may sprout following die-back from chemical spraying [4].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Garrya fremontii
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Fremont silktassel is a dioecious, erect, many-branched, native evergreen shrub from 5 to 15 feet (1.5-4.5 m) in height. The leaves and fruits are glabrous to thickly pubescent. The small flowers are borne on racemes. Garrya fremontii var. fremontii is distinguished by thickly pubescent leaves and fruits and thick, crowded racemes. G. fremontii var. laxa has glabrous to finely pubescent leaves and fruits, and thinner, less compact racemes. The fruit is a berry with from one to four thin-coated seeds [11,14,15,22]. Details concerning the rooting habits of this species or this genus are lacking. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Sexual: Fremont silktassel reproduces by seed [8,15,21,22]. Plants produce seed at eight years of age. Seed falls under the parent plant or is dispersed by animals [3]. Germination requires overwinter stratification. Fresh seed viability is 85 to 99 percent, but viability decreases with age. Mirov [14] reported a germination success rate of 24 percent for 3-year-old seeds under laboratory conditions. Fremont silktassel seedlings are poor competitors, and their survival rate is low. First-year nursery seedlings have shown 69 percent mortality [8]. Vegetative: Fremont silktassel sprouts from the root crown or stump [3,8,22]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Soil and topography: Fremont silktassel grows in well-drained, slightly acidic, typic Xerochrept soil with 50 to 60 percent coarse fragment [12]. Soil nutrient levels are low, and moisture is low from mid-spring to mid-fall [3,18,19]. The species will tolerate serpentine soil [7,24]. Typical topography includes rocky slopes, rolling hills, or steep canyons [19]. Climate: Fremont silktassel grows in a Mediterranean climate with cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers [18]. Elevation: Fremont silktassel occurs from 2,500 to 7,000 feet (762-2,134 m) [22]. Associated species: The associated species of Fremont silktassel include Colter pine (Pinus coulteri), white fir (Abies concolor), deer oak (Quercus sadleriana), scrub oak (Q. dumosa), manzanita (Arctostaphylos spp.), buckbrush (Ceanothus cuneatus), redbud (Cercis occidentalis), birchleaf mountain-mahogany (Cerocarpus betuloides), toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia), poison-oak (Toxicodendron diversilobium), chamise (Adenostoma fasiculatum), soft chess (Bromus mollis), foxtail fescue (Festuca magalura), cutleaf filaree (Erodium cicutarium), and various clovers (Trifolium spp.) [5,17,18,19,23]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Fremont silktassel is found in all stages of succession. Pioneer seedlings grew in a clear-cut area of a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forest near Blue River, Oregon [28]. The plant is a sprouting survivor in initial and early seral communities [3,8]. It is shade tolerant [22] and persists until late seral stages in foothill woodland and forest communities, where it may be replaced by oaks, ponderosa or Jeffrey pine (Pinus ponderosa; P. jeffreyi), western white pine (P. monticola), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), or Douglas-fir. Fremont silktassel is most common, however, in chaparral communities. These communities are maintained through lack of soil build-up or frequent fire, which prevents permanent invasion of trees. In chaparral, Fremont silktassel is classified as a climax or pyric-climax species [17]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : The following seasonal development has been reported for plants in Washington and California [15,21]: growth starts - January to May flowering - January to May seed ripe - August to December dissemination begins - September to December dissemination over - November to January

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Garrya fremontii
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Fremont silktassel sprouts from the root crown following fire [3,8,22]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : survivor species; on-site surviving root crown off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Garrya fremontii
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Severe fire top-kills Fremont silktassel. Severe fire also kills the thin-coated seed unless it is buried 1 inch (0.4 cm) or more below the soil surface [8,21]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Fremont silktassel recovers from fire rapidly. Everett [8] reported a 92 percent survival rate for plants that were scorched or burned to ground level following a severe fire in Humbolt County, California. Top-killed plants sprout vigorously in the first postfire growing season. Partially burned plants grow new shoots from the unburned portions of their branches. New shoots produce flowers and fruits at the second postfire growing season. By postfire year 3, plants have regained or exceeded their original heights [3,8,22]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Prescribed burning will not significantly affect Fremont silktassel populations. Fire does not stimulate germination of this species, but fire-damaged plants usually regain or exceed their preburn biomass within a few years.

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Garrya fremontii
REFERENCES : 1. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 2. Bissell, Harold D.; Strong, Helen. 1955. The crude protein variations in the browse diet of California deer. California Fish and Game. 41(2): 145-155. [10524] 3. Biswell, H. H.; Gilman, J. H. 1961. Brush management in relation to fire and other environmental factors on the Tehama deer winter range. California Fish and Game. 47(4): 357-389. [6275] 4. Bovey, Rodney W. 1977. Response of selected woody plants in the United States to herbicides. Agric. Handb. 493. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 101 p. [8899] 5. Conard, S. G.; Radosevich, S. R. 1982. Post-fire succession in white fir (Abies concolor) vegetation of the northern Sierra Nevada. Madrono. 29(1): 42-56. [4931] 6. Dasmann, Raymond Fredric. 1954. Ecology and social behavior of a population of the Columbian black-tailed deer. Berkeley, CA: University of California. 155 p. Dissertation. [17402] 7. Dodd, Richard S. 1992. Noteworthy collections: California. Madrono. 39(1): 79. [17536] 8. Everett, Percy C. 1957. A summary of the culture of California plants at the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden 1927-1950. Claremont, CA: The Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 223 p. [7191] 9. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 10. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 11. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1961. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 3: Saxifragaceae to Ericaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 614 p. [1167] 12. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 13. Mirov, N. T.; Kraebel, C. J. 1937. Collecting and propagating the seeds of California wild plants. Res. Note No. 18. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, California Forest and Range Experiment Station. 27 p. [9787] 14. Mooney, H. A.; Dunn, E. L.; Shropshire, Frances; Song, Leo. 1970. Vegetation comparisons between the Mediterranean climatic areas of California and Chile. Flora. 159: 480-496. [13591] 15. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155] 16. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924] 17. Muth, Gilbert Jerome. 1980. Quercus saderiana R. Br. Campst., its distribution, ecology, and relationships to other oaks. In: Plumb, Timothy R., technical coordinator. Proceedings of the symposium on the ecology, management and utilization of California oaks; 1979 June 26-28; Claremont, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-44. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 75-80. [7017] 18. Pase, Charles P. 1982. Californian (coastal) chaparral. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 91-94. [8891] 19. Powers, Robert F. 1990. Pinus sabiniana Dougl. Digger pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 463-469. [13406] 20. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 21. Reynolds, Hudson G.; Alexander, Robert R. 1974. Garrya Dougl. silktassel. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 420-421. [7670] 22. Sampson, Arthur W.; Jespersen, Beryl S. 1963. California range brushlands and browse plants. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, California Agricultural Experiment Station, Extension Service. 162 p. [3240] 23. Vogl, Richard J. 1973. Ecology of knobcone pine in the Santa Ana Mountains, California. Ecological Monographs. 43: 125-143. [4815] 24. Vogl, Richard J. 1976. An introduction to the plant communities of the Santa Ana and San Jacinto Mountains. In: Latting, June, ed. Symposium proceedings: plant communities of southern California; 1974 May 4; Fullerton, CA. Special Publication No. 2. Berkeley, CA: California Native Plant Society: 77-98. [4230] 25. Washington Natural Heritage Program. 1990. Endangered, threatened and sensitive vascular plants of Washington. Olympia, WA: Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Land and Water Conservation. 52 p. [13211] 26. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1937. Range plant handbook. Washington, DC. 532 p. [2387] 27. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 28. Yerkes, Vern P. 1960. Occurrence of shrubs and herbaceous vegetation after clear cutting old-growth Douglas-fir. Res. Pap. PNW-34. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 12 p. [8937]


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