Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Fraxinus anomala

Introductory

SPECIES: Fraxinus anomala
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Reed, William R. 1993. Fraxinus anomala. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ []. ABBREVIATION : FRAANO SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY NRCS PLANT CODE : [24] FRAN2 COMMON NAMES : singleleaf ash dwarf ash Fresno ash Lowell ash TAXONOMY : The scientific name of singleleaf ash is Fraxinus anomala Torr. ex. Wats [11,13,14,24]. There are 2 varieties [24]: Fraxinus anomala Torr. ex S. Watson, singleleaf ash Fraxinus anomala Torr. ex S. Watson var. lowellii (Sarg.) Little, Lowell ash LIFE FORM : Tree, Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Fraxinus anomala
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Singleleaf ash is found predominantly in the southwestern United States. It occurs from southeastern California west to Colorado and south into Texas and northern Mexico [10,14,25]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES29 Sagebrush FRES30 Desert shrub FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub FRES35 Pinyon - juniper STATES : AZ CA CO NV NM TX UT MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 7 Lower Basin and Range 12 Colorado Plateau KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland K027 Mesquite bosques (Prosopis) K031 Oak - juniper woodlands K032 Transition between K031 and K037 K033 Chaparral K037 Mountain-mahogany - oak scrub K038 Great Basin sagebrush K039 Blackbrush K040 Saltbush - greasewood K041 Creosotebush K042 Creosotebush - bursage K043 Paloverde - cactus shrub K044 Creosotebush - tarbush K058 Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe K059 Trans-Pecos shrub savanna K071 Shinnery K085 Mesquite - buffalograss SAF COVER TYPES : 66 Ashe juniper - redberry (Pinchot) juniper 68 Mesquite 220 Rocky Mountain juniper 239 Pinyon - juniper 240 Arizona cypress 241 Western live oak 242 Mesquite SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : NO-ENTRY

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Fraxinus anomala
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : NO-ENTRY PALATABILITY : In Utah, singleleaf ash is rated poor in palatability for cattle and horses and fair for domestic sheep [4]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Singleleaf ash is rated poor in nutritional value for waterfowl, upland game birds, small nongame birds, small mammals, white-tailed deer, and elk. It is rated fair for mule deer [4]. COVER VALUE : Singleleaf ash is rated good in cover value for mule deer, pronghorn, upland game birds, and small mammals. It is rated poor for elk and waterfowl [4]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : Singleleaf ash has potential for use as an ornamental within its natural range [12]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Singleleaf ash seeds may be sown in fall without stratification or sown in the spring after stratification [3].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Fraxinus anomala
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Singleleaf ash is a native, deciduous, shrub or small tree ranging from 6.5 to 16.5 feet (2-5 m) tall with a maximum d.b.h of 5 to 7 inches (12.5-17.8 cm) at maturity [10,14,25]. Leaves are simple to compound, and are 1.5 to 2 inches (4-5 cm) long and 1 to 2 inches (3-4 cm) wide. The fruit is an indehiscent samara 0.6 to 1.0 inch (1.5 to 2.5 cm) long and 0.24 to 0.32 inch (6-8 mm) wide. The bark is thin, and divided by shallow fissures into narrow, scaly ridges [10,14,19,25]. In tree form, singleleaf ash typically has a crooked trunk and rounded crown [25]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Sexual: Singleleaf ash samaras are mature by late summer or fall and are dispersed by wind shortly thereafter. Samaras are dormant, requiring warm, then cold stratification. Germination is epigeal and may occur the spring following dispersal. Samaras, however, can remain viable in leaf litter or humus for several years [3]. Vegetative: Most ash species sprout from the root crown after logging or fire has removed aboveground portions of the plant [1,9,17,21]. It is probable that singleleaf ash responds in such a manner. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Singleleaf ash grows well on a variety of soil types, ranging from gravel to clay loams. It occurs more often on poorly-developed soils with 0.5 to 2.0 percent organic matter content [18]. Sites are typically dry canyons or gulches with full exposure to sunlight and range from 3,000 to 11,000 feet (910-3,300 m) elevation [14]. Singleleaf ash also colonizes talus slopes, dry hillsides, and alluvial deposits [12,16,25]. Common plant associates of singleleaf ash include skunkbush sumac (Rhus trilobata), desert ceanothus (Ceanothus greggii), Arizona rosewood (Vequelinia californica), desert barberry (Mahonia fremontii), chokecherry (Prunus virginianus), and mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus spp.) [7,18]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Singleleaf ash is shade intolerant [19]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Singleleaf ash flowers from April to May [14]. Flowers usually appear either before or with leaves [12].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Fraxinus anomala
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Specific information concerning the effects of fire on singleleaf ash is lacking. It probably sprouts vigorously following fire, as do most Fraxinus species. Samaras may remain viable in the soil for several years, making them important in the colonization of burned sites. Wind-dispersed samaras may also play an important role in fire ecology. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/soboliferous species root sucker Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community) Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Fraxinus anomala
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire likely top-kills singleleaf ash. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Most ash species sprout from the root crown after top-kill by fire or logging [1,9,17,21]. Singleleaf ash likely responds in such a manner. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Fraxinus anomala
REFERENCES : 1. Barnes, W. J. 1985. Population dynamics of woody plants on a river island. Canadian Journal of Botany. 63: 647-655. [2855] 2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 3. Noble, Ian R. 1981. Predicting successional change. In: Mooney, H. A. [and others], tech coords. Proc. of the conference: fire regimes and ecosystem properties; 1978; Honolulu, HI. General Technical Report WO-26. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 278-200. [1768] 4. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 5. England, A. Sidney; Foreman, Larry D.; Laudenslayer, William F., Jr. 1984. Composition and abundance of bird populations in riparian systems of the California deserts. In: Warner, Richard E.; Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology, conservation, and productive management. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press: 694-705. [5870] 6. Erdman, James Allen. 1969. Pinyon-juniper succession after fires on residual soils of the Mesa Verde, Colorado. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado. 81 p. Dissertation. [11437] 7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 8. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 9. Girard, Michele M.; Goetz, Harold; Bjugstad, Ardell J. 1984. Upland hardwood habitat types in southwestern North Dakota. In: Noble, Daniel L; Winokur, Robert P.,eds. Wooded draws: characteristics and values for the Northern Great Plains: Symposium proceedings; 1984 June 12-13; Rapid City, SD. Great Plains Agricultural Council Publication No. 111. Rapid City, SD: South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Biology Department: 10-14. [1024] 10. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563] 11. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 12. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1950. Southwestern trees: A guide to the native species of New Mexico and Arizona. Agriculture Handbook No. 9. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 109 p. [20330] 13. McCulloch, Clay Y. 1973. Part I: Seasonal diets of mule and white-tailed deer. In: Deer nutrition in Arizona chaparral and desert habitats. Special Report No. 3. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Game and Fish Department: 1-37. [9894] 14. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155] 15. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924] 16. Northcutt, Bennett Earl. 1978. The plant ecology of Butler Wash, southeastern Utah. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado. 135 p. Thesis. [8846] 17. Schlesinger, Richard C. 1990. Fraxinus americana L. white ash. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Vol. 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 333-338. [13965] 18. Pase, Charles P.; Brown, David E. 1982. Interior chaparral. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 95-99. [1826] 19. Preston, Richard J., Jr. 1948. North American trees. Ames, IA: The Iowa State College Press. 371 p. [1913] 20. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 21. Schlesinger, Richard C. 1990. Fraxinus americana L. white ash. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Vol. 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 333-338. [13965] 22. Shultz, L. M.; Neely, E. E.; Tuhy, J. S. 1987. Flora of the Orange Cliffs of Utah. Great Basin Naturalist. 47(2): 287-298. [4056] 23. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 24. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2014. PLANTS Database, [Online]. Available: http://plants.usda.gov/. [34262] 25. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707] 26. Wells, Philip V.; Woodcock, Deborah. 1985. Full-glacial vegetation of Death Valley, California: juniper woodland opening to Yucca semidesert. Madrono. 32(1): 11-23. [2493]


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