Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Fendlera rupicola


Introductory

SPECIES: Fendlera rupicola
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Tesky, Julie L. 1993. Fendlera rupicola. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : FENRUP SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : FERU COMMON NAMES : fendlerbush cliff fendlerbush false mockorange fendlera TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for fendlerbush is Fendlera rupicola Gray. There are three recognized varieties [12,16,22]: F. rupicola var. rupicola F. rupicola var. falcata Gray (sickle-leaf fendlerbush) F. rupicola var. wrightii Gray (Wright fendlerbush) LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Fendlera rupicola
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Fendlerbush is found from the Sabinal River to the Pecos River in scattered locations in Texas. It is common in the higher mountains of the Trans-Pecos region. It also occurs in the Davis, Chisos, and Guadalupe mountains; northward and westward into New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, and Arizona; and southward into Mexico [12,22]. Sickle-leaf fendlerbush is distributed through New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, and sparsely in Texas in the Trans-Pecos mountains. Wright fendlerbush is distributed through west Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and Chihuahua, Mexico [22]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES29 Sagebrush FRES30 Desert shrub FRES32 Texas savanna FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe FRES35 Pinyon - juniper FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub FRES40 Desert grasslands STATES : AZ CO NM TX UT MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 7 Lower Basin and Range 12 Colorado Plateau 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland K024 Juniper steppe woodland K031 Oak - juniper woodlands K032 Transition between K031 and K037 K037 Mountain-mahogany - oak scrub K053 Grama - galleta steppe K054 Grama - tobosa prairie K058 Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe K086 Juniper - oak savanna SAF COVER TYPES : 238 Western juniper 239 Pinyon - juniper SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Fendlerbush is often found in desert shrub, pinyon-juniper (Pinus-Juniperus spp.)/mountain shrub and blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) communities throughout its range [7,15]. Fendlerbush is often found associated with oneseed juniper (Juniperus monosperma), alligator juniper (J. deppeana), true pinyon (Pinus edulis), wavyleaf oak (Quercus undulata), skunkbush sumac (Rhus trilobata), mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus breviflorus), and antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) [7,15].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Fendlera rupicola
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Fendlerbush is browsed by goats, deer, bighorn sheep, and cattle [12]. In the San Cayetano Mountains, Arizona, fendlerbush made up 11 percent of the white-tailed deer diet during the hot, dry season (April- June); this season appears to be the most critical period of the year for deer herds in the desert southwest [1,2]. PALATABILITY : Fendlerbush palatability is high for goats in New Mexico. It is closely grazed by cattle in central Arizona [21], and is a frequent diet item of white-tailed deer in the San Cayetano Mountains, Arizona [1,2]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : Fendlerbush is grown as an ornamental. It is suitable for rock gardens in well-drained, sunny situations, and has been grown as far north as New England [4,12,18]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Fendlerbush decreases in response to grazing [25]. Fendlerbush has vesicular-arbuscular endomycorrhizal associations [6,26]. These fungi increase fendlerbush growth by increasing phosphorus absorption [26].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Fendlera rupicola
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Fendlerbush is a native, deciduous, widely-branched shrub [12,22,24]. It grows 3 to 9 feet (1-3 m) high [4,12,22,24]. The leaves are thick, twisted, 0.2 to 1.6 inches (5-40 mm) long and 0.08 to 0.28 inches (2-7 mm) wide [13,24]. The flowers are solitary or two to three together at the ends of short branches [24]. The fruit is a four-celled capsule which remains on the plant all year [11,13]. Fendlerbush bark is shreddy [11]. It generally has deep roots [4]. Fendlerbush can endure intense heat and considerable drought [21]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Fendlerbush reproduces by seed [4,22]. Commercial production is accomplished through seed that is stratified at 41 degrees Fahrenheit (5 deg C) for 60 to 90 days [4]. Fendlerbush can also reproduce via branch cuttings [4,22]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Fendlerbush is commonly found on rocky ledges and steep slopes of cliffs and canyons at elevations of 3,000 to 7,000 feet (914-2,133 m) [16,22,23]. Fendlerbush thrives on very dry, well-drained, poor soils that may be rocky and/or alkaline [4,21,22]. Less than 15 inches (38.1 cm) of annual precipitation have been measured in its natural habitat [4]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Fendlerbush occurs in nearly all stages of succession. It is most common in mid- to late-seral communities. In Mesa Verde National Park, fendlerbush maximum cover and frequency was not reached until 80 years after a fire in a pinyon-juniper community. In an adjacent 400-year-old climax pinyon-juniper stand, fendlerbush cover was only 2 percent; frequency was 8 percent [7]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Fendlerbush generally flowers from March through June, depending on the location [12,22]. In the Trans-Pecos, Texas, fendlerbush sometimes flowers through August [16]. Fendlerbush fruits mature in July and August [22].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Fendlera rupicola
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Little information is available regarding fendlerbush fire ecology and adaptations. Erdman [7] suggested that fendlerbush probably recovers after fire by sprouting from the root crown. Pinyon-juniper communities where fendlerbush is commonly found historically burned every 10 to 30 years, which favored dominance by grasses. However, for the last 70 years, heavy livestock grazing has reduced grass competition and fuel, and shrub cover has increased. This has decreased fire occurrence and lowered the intensity of fires that do occur [27,28]. On 23 grazed transects in desert shrub communities where fendlerbush occurs in the Guadelupe Mountains, New Mexico, shrubs had only 6.4 to 6.6 percent cover. Bare ground cover was 33.8 to 42.4 percent, and litter cover was 6.1 to 12 percent [25]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Small shrub, adventitious-bud root crown Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Fendlera rupicola
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Information was not available regarding the immediate effects of fire on fendlerbush. Fendlerbush is probably top-killed or killed by most fires. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : In Mesa Verde National Park, 4 years after a July/August, 1959 natural fire in a pinyon-juniper community, fendlerbush had no significant cover. Fendlerbush frequency was 2 percent. Twenty-nine years following a July fire in a nearby pinyon-juniper community, fendlerbush made up 1 percent of the cover and had 6 percent frequency. Fendlerbush maximum cover and frequency was not reached until almost 80 years after a pinyon-juniper fire in Mesa Verde National Park. At this time fendlerbush made up 14 percent of the cover and had 48 percent frequency [7]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Fendlera rupicola
REFERENCES : 1. Anthony, Robert G. 1976. Influence of drought on diets and numbers of desert deer. Journal of Wildlife Management. 40(1): 140-144. [11558] 2. Anthony, Robert G.; Smith, Norman S. 1977. Ecological relationships between mule deer and white-tailed deer in southeastern Arizona. Ecological Monographs. 47: 255-277. [9890] 3. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 4. Borland, Jim. 1989. Fendlera rupicola. American Nurseryman. 169(5): 146. [21970] 5. Dick-Peddie, W. A.; Moir, W. H. 1970. Vegetation of the Organ Mountains, New Mexico. Science Series No. 4. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University, Range Science Department. 28 p. [6699] 6. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 7. Erdman, James A. 1970. Pinyon-juniper succession after natural fires on residual soils of Mesa Verde, Colorado. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin. Biological Series. 11(2): 1-26. [11987] 8. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 9. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 10. Goodrich, Sherel. 1985. Utah flora: Saxifragaceae. Great Basin Naturalist. 45(2): 155-172. [15656] 11. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851] 12. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563] 13. Kelly, George W. 1970. A guide to the woody plants of Colorado. Boulder, CO: Pruett Publishing Co. 180 p. [6379] 14. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 15. Pieper, Rex D.; Montoya, James R.; Groce, V. Lynn. 1971. Site characteristics on pinyon-juniper and blue grama in south-central New Mexico. Bulletin 573. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 21 p. [4540] 16. Powell, A. Michael. 1988. Trees & shrubs of Trans-Pecos Texas including Big Bend and Guadalupe Mountains National Parks. Big Bend National Park, TX: Big Bend Natural History Association. 536 p. [6130] 17. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 18. Steger, Robert E.; Beck, Reldon F. 1973. Range plants as ornamentals. Journal of Range Management. 26: 72-74. [12038] 19. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 20. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 21. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240] 22. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707] 23. Weber, William A. 1987. Colorado flora: western slope. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press. 530 p. [7706] 24. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944] 25. Wester, David B.; Wright, Henry A. 1987. Ordination of vegetation change Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, USA. Vegetatio. 72: 27-33. [11167] 26. Williams, Stephen E.; Aldon, Earl F. 1976. Endomycorrhizal (vesicular arbuscular) associations of some arid zone shrubs. Southwestern Naturalist. 20(4): 437-444. [5517] 27. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620] 28. Leopold, Aldo. 1924. Grass, brush, timber, and fire in southern Arizona. Journal of Forestry. 22(6): 1-10. [5056]


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