Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Diervilla lonicera


Introductory

SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Diervilla lonicera. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : DIELON SYNONYMS : Diervilla diervilla (L.) MacM. SCS PLANT CODE : DILO COMMON NAMES : bush-honeysuckle dwarf bush-honeysuckle herbe bleue TAXONOMY : The accepted scientific name for bush-honeysuckle is Diervilla lonicera Mill. It is a member of the honeysuckle family (Caprifoliaceae). There are no accepted subspecies. A variety with hairy leaf undersides occurs in Ontario, northern Wisconsin, and northern Minnesota: D. l. var. hypomalaca Fern. [13,15]. Bush-honeysuckle is closely related to southern bush-honeysuckle (D. sessifolia), from which it may not be specifically distinct [36]. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Bush-honeysuckle occurs from Newfoundland west to Saskatchewan; south to Nova Scotia, New England, Delaware; and in the mountains to Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee; and west to Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa [13,15,36]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES10 White - red - jack pine FRES11 Spruce - fir FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood FRES18 Maple - beech - birch FRES19 Aspen - birch FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine STATES : CT DE IL IN IA KY ME MD MA MI MN NH NJ NY NC OH PA RI TN VT VA WV WI MB NB NF NS ON PE PQ SK BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K093 Great Lakes spruce - fir forest K095 Great Lakes pine forest K096 Northeastern spruce - fir forest K099 Maple - basswood forest K102 Beech - maple forest K103 Mixed mesophytic forest K104 Appalachian oak forest K106 Northern hardwoods K107 Northern hardwoods - fir forest K108 Northern hardwoods - spruce forest K110 Northeastern oak - pine forest SAF COVER TYPES : 1 Jack pine 5 Balsam fir 12 Black spruce 14 Northern pin oak 15 Red pine 16 Aspen 17 Pin cherry 18 Paper birch 20 White pine - northern red oak - red maple 22 White pine - hemlock 23 Eastern hemlock 24 Hemlock - yellow birch 25 Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch 26 Sugar maple - basswood 27 Sugar maple 37 Northern white-cedar 39 Black ash - American elm - red maple 51 White pine - chestnut oak 52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak 55 Northern red oak 59 Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak 60 Beech - sugar maple 107 White spruce 108 Red maple SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Bush-honeysuckle is not named as an understory dominant or indicator in published classifications. It is found in a variety of cover types and has a number of plant associates. The most widely distributed shrub associates of bush-honeysuckle include beaked hazel (Corylus cornuta), alternate-leaf dogwood (Cornus alternifolia), speckled alder (Alnus rugosa), American green alder (A. viridis ssp. crispa), checkerberry wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), and blueberries (Vaccinium spp.). Herbaceous associates include wild lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum canadense), bigleaf aster (Aster macrophyllus), and wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis). Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is often associated with bush-honeysuckle in the understory of some cover types; bush-honeysuckle is also found on bracken fern-dominated grasslands in northeastern Wisconsin [23,27,35,42,48].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Bush-honeysuckle provides winter browse for moose, and winter and summer browse for white-tailed deer [18]. Leaves and twigs are eaten by woodland caribou, but bush-honeysuckle is not an important component of the woodland caribou diet [10]. Sharp-tailed grouse consume the vegetative buds. Bush-honeysuckle provides brood cover for sharp-tailed grouse in Wisconsin [16]. PALATABILITY : Bush-honeysuckle is preferred by white-tailed deer in late summer [18]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Seed-tree cuts or clearcuts in red pine (Pinus resinosa) communities often result in a dense growth of shrubs, including bush-honeysuckle. Bush-honeysuckle increased in density following logging in a balsam fir (Abies balsamea)-paper birch (Betula papyrifera) stand near Duluth, Minnesota [34]. Leaving more of the canopy when logging reduces the amount of shrub growth [12]. Bush-honeysuckle competes with lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) after fire-pruning of lowbush blueberry fields [17]. Bush-honeysuckle is susceptible to foliar sprays of 2,4-D [6]. Bush-honeysuckle is probably resistant to browsing; on Isle Royale, Michigan, it was found in higher densities in control plots than in moose exclosures [38].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Bush-honeysuckle is a native, deciduous small shrub that usually grows from 2 to 4 feet (0.6-1.2 m) tall [15]. The branches run close to the ground, ascending slightly. The fruit is a dry, woody, dehiscent capsule [8]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Chamaephyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Asexual: Bush-honeysuckle reproduces from rhizomes, forming widely-scattered clumps or patches [3,40,44]. Sexual: Bush-honeysuckle is insect pollinated. Its most important pollinators in Michigan are bumblebees. It is self-incompatible; successful seed set requires pollination by insects that have travelled from another clonal patch, which is usually some distance away [40,44]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Bush-honeysuckle is common on exposed, rocky sites and on dry to mesic, well-drained soils [15,22]. In northern Michigan, it is found in open, sandy thickets, woodlands, and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) plains [40]. It is best developed on dry, infertile soils in cool climates [7]. In the Adirondack Mountains of New York, bush-honeysuckle is found from elevations of 100 feet (30 m) to 4,050 feet (1,234 m) [22]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative seral species Bush-honeysuckle is relatively insensitive to differences in light intensity [3]. Its abundance in jack pine communities usually remains relatively constant for a long time but declines in older (approximately 80 years of age) stands [3]. In jack pine-balsam fir community types, bush-honeysuckle is most common on sites that have been cleared and/or burned within the past 30 to 50 years [31,40]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : The peak flowering season for bush-honeysuckle is from early June to early July, but flowers have opened as late as August in Michigan [15,40]. The fruit matures and releases seeds in September [8].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Bush-honeysuckle sprouts from the rhizomes following top-kill by fire. Regeneration depends on initiation of growth from dormant buds on protected stem portions and rhizomes [9]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Cool surface fires top-kill bush-honeysuckle [9]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Bush-honeysuckle rapidly regenerates after fire, though no sexual structures are produced the first postfire growing season [9]. Seeds of bush-honeysuckle were found only on old burns in Petersham, Massachusetts, which suggested a possible period of heavy fruit production approximately 13 years after fire [5,25]. Bush-honeysuckle abundance is usually unchanged by fire; abundance in postfire communities is dependent on bush-honeysuckle prefire density and the response of its competitors [3,20]. Bush-honeysuckle increased slightly in cover (from 1 to 2.2 percent) after a prescribed fire in a jack pine community in Minnesota [2]. In a Minnesota jack pine stand where both logging and prescribed fire were conducted, bush-honeysuckle frequency decreased the first postfire year but returned to prefire levels by the second growing season. Its frequency declined slightly in the fourth year [1]. Following prescribed fire in a red pine-white pine (Pinus strobus) community in Ontario, bush-honeysuckle increased in stem number but not frequency, with an overall increase in biomass [30]. After wildfire in jack pine types in northern Minnesota, bush-honeysuckle regenerated better on sites that had burned in summer as compared to sites that had experienced a spring wildfire [33]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : The Research Project Summary Effects of surface fires in a mixed red and eastern white pine stand in Michigan provides information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species, including bush-honeysuckle, that was not available when this species review was written. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Loomis and others [26] measured the moisture content of a number of upper Midwest understory shrubs and herbs, including bush-honeysuckle; this information can be used for a number of fire management considerations.

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
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St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 47 p. [18412] 6. Bovey, Rodney W. 1977. Response of selected woody plants in the United States to herbicides. Agric. Handb. 493. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 101 p. [8899] 7. Brand, Gary J. 1985. Environmental indices for common Michigan trees and shrubs. Res. Pap. NC-261. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northcentral Forest Experiment Station. 5 p. [14465] 8. Chapman, William K.; Bessette, Alan E. 1990. Trees and shrubs of the Adirondacks. Utica, NY: North Country Books, Inc. 131 p. [12766] 9. Chapman, Rachel Ross; Crow, Garrett E. 1981. Application of Raunkiaer's life form system to plant species survival after fire. Torrey Botanical Club. 108(4): 472-478. [7432] 10. Cringan, Alexander Thom. 1957. History, food habits and range requirements of the woodland caribou of continental North America. Transactions, North American Wildlife Conference. 22: 485-501. [15651] 11. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 12. Eyre, F. H.; Zehngraff, Paul. 1948. Red pine management in Minnesota. Circular No. 778. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 70 p. [12177] 13. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p. (Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny Series; vol. 2). [14935] 14. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 15. Moran, G. F.; Marshall, D. R.; Muller, W. J. 1981. Phenotypic variation and plasticity in the colonizing species Xanthium strumarium L. 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