SPECIES: Dasiphora floribunda
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION:
Anderson, Michelle D. 2001. Dasiphora floribunda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ .
Dasiphora fruticosa L. Rydb. [58,78,90,192]
Pentaphylloides floribunda (Pursh) Löve [78,87,103,187,191,192]
Pentaphylloides fruticosa (L.) O. Schwarz 
Potentilla floribunda Pursh [58,74,78,192]
Potentilla fruticosa L. [58,73,74,78,87,90,103,121,166,171,187,192]
Potentilla fruticosa L. ssp. floribunda (Pursh) Elkington [87,187]
Potentilla fruticosa var. tenuifolia Lehm. 
NRCS PLANT CODE [183,184]:
The currently accepted scientific name of shrubby cinquefoil is Dasiphora floribunda (Pursh) Kartesz (Rosaceae) .
FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
No special status
Shrubby cinquefoil is widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere. It is found in Europe, Asia, and North America . In North America, shrubby cinquefoil ranges from Alaska and the Northwest Territories east through Canada to Labrador, Newfoundland, and Greenland. Shrubby cinquefoil's distribution extends south to California, Arizona, New Mexico, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey [35,84,148,189,190]. The PLANTS database provides a map of shrubby cinquefoil's distribution in the United States.
FRES10 White-red-jack pine
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES26 Lodgepole pine
FRES28 Western hardwoods
FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe
FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub
FRES36 Mountain grasslands
FRES37 Mountain meadows
FRES38 Plains grasslands
BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :
1 Northern Pacific Border
2 Cascade Mountains
3 Southern Pacific Border
4 Sierra Mountains
5 Columbia Plateau
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
KUCHLER  PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:
K001 Spruce-cedar-hemlock forest
K002 Cedar-hemlock-Douglas-fir forest
K003 Silver fir-Douglas-fir forest
K004 Fir-hemlock forest
K005 Mixed conifer forest
K008 Lodgepole pine-subalpine forest
K010 Ponderosa shrub forest
K011 Western ponderosa forest
K012 Douglas-fir forest
K013 Cedar-hemlock-pine forest
K014 Grand fir-Douglas-fir forest
K015 Western spruce-fir forest
K016 Eastern ponderosa forest
K017 Black Hills pine forest
K018 Pine-Douglas-fir forest
K019 Arizona pine forest
K020 Spruce-fir-Douglas-fir forest
K021 Southwestern spruce-fir forest
K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland
K024 Juniper steppe woodland
K029 California mixed evergreen forest
K031 Oak-juniper woodland
K032 Transition between K031 and K037
K037 Mountain-mahogany-oak scrub
K038 Great Basin sagebrush
K052 Alpine meadows and barren
K055 Sagebrush steppe
K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe
K063 Foothills prairie
K069 Bluestem-grama prairie
K070 Sandsage-bluestem prairie
K074 Bluestem prairie
K081 Oak savanna
K086 Juniper-oak savanna
K093 Great Lakes spruce-fir forest
K094 Conifer bog
K095 Great Lakes pine forest
K096 Northeastern spruce-fir forest
K098 Northern floodplain forest
K100 Oak-hickory forest
K106 Northern hardwoods
K107 Northern hardwoods-fir forest
K108 Northern hardwoods-spruce forest
SAF COVER TYPES :
1 Jack pine
12 Black spruce
13 Black spruce-tamarack
14 Northern pin oak
18 Paper birch
35 Paper birch-red spruce-balsam fir
37 Northern white-cedar
39 Black ash-American elm-red maple
42 Bur oak
46 Eastern redcedar
52 White oak-black oak-northern red oak
53 White oak
55 Northern red oak
65 Pin oak-sweetgum
107 White spruce
110 Black oak
201 White spruce
202 White spruce-paper birch
203 Balsam poplar
204 Black spruce
206 Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir
208 Whitebark pine
210 Interior Douglas-fir
212 Western larch
213 Grand fir
215 Western white pine
216 Blue spruce
218 Lodgepole pine
219 Limber pine
220 Rocky Mountain juniper
221 Red alder
222 Black cottonwood-willow
229 Pacific Douglas-fir
230 Douglas-fir-western hemlock
233 Oregon white oak
234 Douglas-fir-tanoak-Pacific madrone
237 Interior ponderosa pine
238 Western juniper
243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer
244 Pacific ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir
245 Pacific ponderosa pine
246 California black oak
251 White spruce-aspen
252 Paper birch
253 Black spruce-white spruce
254 Black spruce-paper birch
256 California mixed subalpine
SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES :
102 Idaho fescue
104 Antelope bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
105 Antelope bitterbrush-Idaho fescue
107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass
108 Alpine Idaho fescue
109 Ponderosa pine shrubland
110 Ponderosa pine-grassland
203 Riparian woodland
204 North coastal shrub
205 Coastal sage shrub
209 Montane shrubland
213 Alpine grassland
216 Montane meadows
302 Bluebunch wheatgrass-Sandberg bluegrass
304 Idaho fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass
305 Idaho fescue-Richardson needlegrass
306 Idaho fescue-slender wheatgrass
307 Idaho fescue-threadleaf sedge
308 Idaho fescue-tufted hairgrass
309 Idaho fescue-western wheatgrass
311 Rough fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass
312 Rough fescue-Idaho fescue
313 Tufted hairgrass-sedge
314 Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
315 Big sagebrush-Idaho fescue
316 Big sagebrush-rough fescue
318 Bitterbrush-Idaho fescue
319 Bitterbrush-rough fescue
323 Shrubby cinquefoil-rough fescue
401 Basin big sagebrush
402 Mountain big sagebrush
403 Wyoming big sagebrush
406 Low sagebrush
408 Other sagebrush types
410 Alpine rangeland
411 Aspen woodland
412 Juniper-pinyon woodland
413 Gambel oak
504 Juniper-pinyon pine woodland
601 Bluestem prairie
613 Fescue grassland
804 Tall fescue
904 Black spruce-lichen
905 Bluejoint reedgrass
906 Broadleaf forest
909 Freshwater marsh
912 Low scrub shrub birch-ericaceous
913 Low scrub swamp
914 Mesic sedge-grass-herb meadow tundra
916 Sedge-shrub tundra
917 Tall shrub swamp
918 Tussock tundra
919 Wet meadow tundra
920 White spruce-paper birch
HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES:
Eastern North America:
Shrubby cinquefoil is common in fen and meadow vegetation in the eastern part of its range. In Newfoundland, shrubby cinquefoil occurs in fen larch (Larix spp.) forests with bog birch (Betula glandulosa), swamp birch (Betula pumila), yellow sedge (Carex pensylvanica), northern singlespike sedge (Carex scirpoidea), sweet gale (Myrica gale), and white meadowsweet (Spiraea alba var. latifolia) , and is an indicator species of rich fens . Shrubby cinquefoil is common in fens and bogs in Maine , may dominate peatland vegetation in Indiana , and is a typical indicator species of fens in Ohio . Shrubby cinquefoil occurs in bog meadow vegetation in Ohio with ninebark (Physocarpus malvaceus), dogwood (Cornus spp.), and swamp birch . It is common in wetland vegetation dominated by sedges (Carex spp.)  and is associated with mat muhly (Muhlenbergia richardsonis)  in Wisconsin. Shrubby cinquefoil occurs as a codominant with tussock sedge (Carex stricta), Ohio goldenrod (Solidago ohioensis), and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii) in Illinois fens .
Shrubby cinquefoil is common in prairie dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis)-little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) grasslands  and is a common understory species of black oak (Quercus velutina) communities on sand dunes  in Michigan.
Western North America:
Shrubby cinquefoil is associated with willows (Salix spp.), alders (Alnus spp.), birch (Betula spp.), sedges, rushes (Juncus spp.), and tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia cespitosa) , and is a common shrub associate of blue spruce (Picea pungens)  in western North America. It is common in open taiga spruce (Picea spp.) forests [1,94,131]. In northern Rockies peatlands, shrubby cinquefoil occurs in the water sedge (Carex aquatilis) community type . In the northern Rockies and the Intermountain West, shrubby cinquefoil is common in mountain brush and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) communities [127,141,193]. It occurs in the central Rockies in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests with Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), limber pine (Pinus flexilis), blue spruce, quaking aspen, cliffbush (Jamesia americana), common juniper (Juniperus communis), bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), wax currant (Ribes cereum), and Wood's rose (Rosa woodsii) .
Western Canada and Alaska:
In northwestern Canada, shrubby cinquefoil is common in the medium shrub/entire leaf mountainavens (Dryas integrifolia) plant association and prominent in the white spruce (Picea glauca)/shrub/mountainavens plant association . In the Yukon Territory, it occurs with American green alder (Alnus viridis ssp. crispa) and prickly rose (Rosa acicularis) . In western Canada, shrubby cinquefoil commonly occurs in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forests [23,41]; in the black spruce (Picea mariana) forests with bog Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum), blueberry willow (Salix myrtillifolia), and prickly rose [23,41,117]; and in the white spruce-willow-birch plant association, with grayleaf willow (Salix glauca), planeleaf willow (S. planifolia ssp. planifolia), Scouler willow (S. scouleriana), Bebb willow (S. bebbiana), bog birch, and russet buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) [116,117,142]. It may occur as a shrub dominant in some black spruce and white spruce communities in British Columbia . It is common in the whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)/common juniper plant association in British Columbia and Alberta, occurring with russet buffaloberry and bearberry ; and in the limber pine forests with common juniper, Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), creeping juniper (J. horizontalis), bearberry, prickly rose, common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), and Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia) . Shrubby cinquefoil is common in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands  and in the prairie Junegrass (Koeleria macrantha)-creeping juniper shrub savannah plant association  in the Canadian Rockies. It is an important constituent in the grasslands of the Canadian Rockies, occurring in the rough fescue (Festuca altaica) grasslands [19,29,109,125,151,195]. It is commonly found in the rough fescue/Parry's danthonia (Danthonia parryi) plant association of Alberta . It may codominate grasslands with bearberry and prickly rose in western Canada . Shrubby cinquefoil is common in riparian and forest wetland vegetation [83,91].
Shrubby cinquefoil occurs in the open willow shrub communities of interior Alaska [67,196]. It is a common understory shrub in white spruce stands  and in the open black spruce forests of Alaska, occurring with bog blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum), mountain cranberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), Labrador tea, black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum), and red bearberry (Arctostaphylos rubra) [55,79]. It may form a dense shrub layer with russet buffaloberry, diamondleaf willow (Salix planifolia ssp. pulchra), prickly rose, and saplings of white spruce and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) in upland taiga vegetation . Shrubby cinquefoil is a common understory species in Alaska willow (Salix alaxensis) and American green alder stands . Shrubby cinquefoil is common in freshwater marshes and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and bluejoint reedgrass (Calamagrostis canadensis) grasslands , and may occur as a dominant in arctic alpine plant communities .
Western United States:
Shrubby cinquefoil is a codominant in the montane grasslands of north-central Montana, occurring with Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis) and rough fescue [110,178]. In some areas shrubby cinquefoil has become established in large continuous stands . It is also a codominant with rough fescue in a tundra-like plant community of subalpine grassland above timberline . It is a common associate of bearberry, rockdwelling sedge (Carex rupestris), and russet buffaloberry on subalpine sites . Shrubby cinquefoil commonly occurs with creeping juniper in the juniper (Juniperus spp.)/cinquefoil (Potentilla spp.)/fescue (Festuca spp.) and juniper/cinquefoil/sedgeplant associations. It is also common in juniper/alpineoatgrass (Helictotrichon spp.) and juniper/little bluestem/fescue plant associations . It may also occur with big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) or silver sagebrush (Artemisia cana) in eastern and southwestern Montana [126,128,134,135]; and with willow , onespike danthonia (Danthonia unispicata), and mountain brome (Bromus carinatus)  in southwestern Montana. Shrubby cinquefoil also forms a major riparian or wetland vegetation type in Montana [62,64,65,66]. It is common in Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine forests  and in the Douglas-fir/common snowberry habitat type .
Shrubby cinquefoil occurs sparsely in Rocky Mountain juniper stands  and in the wooded draws of upland grass communities  in the badlands of North Dakota. It occurs commonly in this region with skunkbush sumac (Rhus trilobata) and Saskatoon serviceberry [159,200]. In the Black Hills of South Dakota, shrubby cinquefoil is the most common understory species in the ponderosa pine/shrubby cinquefoil/common snowberry/woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) plant community [39,177].
In western Wyoming, shrubby cinquefoil occurs in silver sagebrush, shrub swamp communities, and occasionally in riparian and aspen forests [7,99,149,198]. It is common in big sagebrush/bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata)  and big sagebrush/Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda)  plant associations. Shrubby cinquefoil is a characteristic shrub of the spruce (Picea spp.)-fir (Abies spp.) zone . It is commonly found with Englemann spruce (Picea engelmannii), blue spruce, lodgepole pine, subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia), common snowberry, pachistima (Pachistima myrsinites), red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), common juniper, Oregon-grape (Mahonia repens), russet buffaloberry , big sagebrush, silver sagebrush , timber oatgrass (Danthonia intermedia) , tufted hairgrass, Wolf's trisetum (Trisetum wolfii), alpine timothy (Phleum alpinum), varileaf cinquefoil (Potentilla diversifolia), and meadow thistle (Cirsium scariosum) . Shrubby cinquefoil is common in limber pine habitat types in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho [14,54].
In Idaho wetland and riparian communities, shrubby cinquefoil commonly occurs with quaking aspen, sedges, and willows [26,27,144]. The shrubby cinquefoil/timber oatgrass plant association forms riparian complexes with sedge and willow communities .
In Nevada, shrubby cinquefoil commonly occurs with Gray's licoriceroot (Ligusticum grayii), slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus), rosy pussytoes (Antennaria microphylla), northwest cinquefoil (Potentilla gracilis), California false hellebore (Veratrum californicum), and Fendler's meadowrue (Thalictrum fendleri) .
In Utah, shrubby cinquefoil commonly occurs with silver sagebrush or mountain snowberry (Symphoricarpos oreophilus) and bog birch, Wolf's willow (Salix wolfii), smallwing sedge (Carex microptera), clustered field sedge (C. praegracilis), and Baltic rush (Juncus balticus) [132,199]. It is also common in quaking aspen stands , lodgepole pine forests , and with narrowleaf cottonwood, common juniper, and bearberry . Shrubby cinquefoil occurs as a prominent shrub layer associate in the spruce-fir zone of Utah .
Shrubby cinquefoil is also common in the spruce-fir zone of Colorado , and is a common understory species in aspen stands, ponderosa pine, and lodgepole pine forests, occurring with Engelmann spruce, subalpine fir, Douglas-fir, rose (Rosa spp.), russet buffaloberry, and common juniper [31,32,105].
Shrubby cinquefoil is a dominant species in the following plant associations:
white spruce/shrubby cinquefoil/bearberry 
cinquefoil/Campylietum stellati 
water birch (Betula occidentalis)/shrubby cinquefoil
shrubby cinquefoil/tufted hairgrass
shrubby cinquefoil/dry alkaline graminoid
shrubby cinquefoil/Idaho fescue 
shrubby cinquefoil/timber oatgrass [28,81]
Shrubby cinquefoil is a dominant species in the following community types:
black spruce/dwarf arctic birch (Betula nana)-shrubby cinquefoil/sedge
black spruce/willow/shrubby cinquefoil/red bearberry/felt lichen (Peltigera spp.)
shrubby cinquefoil-sweet gale-bog birch/black crowberry (Empetrum nigra)/marsh sphagnum moss (Sphagnum spp.)
shrubby cinquefoil-sweet gale-bog birch-narrow leaf Labrador tea (Ledum palustre ssp. decumbens)/feathermoss
sweet gale-shrubby cinquefoil-dwarf arctic birch/narrow leaf Labrador tea-cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) 
shrubby conifer/shrubby cinquefoil 
shrubby cinquefoil/timber oatgrass [113,180]
shrubby cinquefoil 
shrubby cinquefoil/Idaho fescue 
shrubby cinquefoil/tufted hairgrass [16,132,140,199]
shrubby cinquefoil/Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) [16,132,199]
Shrubby cinquefoil is a dominant species in the following habitat types:
Shrubby cinquefoil has also been identified as "dominance type" in Montana, with understory species including tufted hairgrass, Baltic rush, clustered field sedge, and smallwing sedge .
Classifications describing plant communities in which shrubby cinquefoil is a dominant species are as follows:Alaska 
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE:
Though it has low forage value , shrubby cinquefoil's widespread distribution, persistent leaves, and low spreading growth form make it an important source of forage for ungulates [13,34,65,182].
Sites abundant in shrubby cinquefoil in New Mexico generally have a low potential for grazing . Shrubby cinquefoil is grazed in some areas by domestic goats, sheep, and cattle [92,125,148,190,194].
Though it is not preferred forage for deer in Utah , shrubby cinquefoil is lightly browsed by mule deer, elk, mountain goats, and bighorn sheep throughout its range [55,101,125,148,161,190]. Winter use of shrubby cinquefoil by deer and elk is also typically light [13,65]. It is a low preference shrub for bighorn sheep, though it receives moderate to heavy use when new growth begins . Shrubby cinquefoil stems are important elk winter browse in Colorado .
Small birds and mammals consume shrubby cinquefoil seeds .
Shrubby cinquefoil is of low palatability for livestock [13,65,126,181,189,190] and big game animals [13,65,68,177,181,189,190,193]. Leaves have a coarse texture and astringent taste . Young seedlings are more palatable than mature plants, and the seeds are palatable to small mammals [46,189].
The palatability of shrubby cinquefoil has been rated as follows :
|Small nongame birds||---||---||---||---||Fair||Good|
|Upland game birds||---||---||---||---||Poor||Fair|
Shrubby cinquefoil has fair food value for elk, mule deer, white-tailed deer, nongame birds, and small mammals. It has poor food value for antelope, upland game birds, and waterfowl [13,65].
Shrubby cinquefoil provides a fair amount of usable energy and a poor amount of digestible protein . Digestible protein increases with seasonal development, from 0.1% at leaf stage to 0.8% at heading and 0.9% at seed ripening . Specific nutritional information is as follows :
|Leaf stage||Heading||Seed ripe|
|Dry matter (%)||92.17||90.80||91.24|
|Crude fat (%)||3.53||4.35||4.43|
|Crude fiber (%)||19.20||20.55||20.50|
|Digestible protein (%)||0.1||0.8||0.9|
Shrubby cinquefoil provides fair cover for mule deer and has a high cover value for upland game birds and small mammals . It is also an important source of nesting and hiding cover for numerous songbirds [13,61,64,65].
Cover value of shrubby cinquefoil has been rated as follows :
|Small nongame birds||---||Poor||---||---||Fair||Good|
|Upland game birds||Poor||Poor||---||---||Fair||Fair|
VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES:
Shrubby cinquefoil has been found to successfully revegetate disturbed lands [53,111,141,182]. It establishes poorly from seed but very well if transplanted . One study of nursery stock survival on disturbed sites in Alaska found 97% survival of seedlings after 2 years and 100% survival of rooted cuttings after 1 year. Planting nursery stock also provides visual amelioration on disturbed sites . Five years or more may be required for full stands to develop from seed . Shrubby cinquefoil has been rated high for biomass production, moderate for erosion control potential, low to moderate for short-term revegetation potential, and moderate to high for long-term revegetation potential [13,40,61,64,65,66].
Shrubby cinquefoil sometimes occurs as a dominant plant species on dry, unstable cut slopes and is recommended for revegetating dry, disturbed sites [37,53] and roadsides [182,190]. It colonizes oil spills , seismic lines , and abandoned coal mining sites  in Canada. Shrubby cinquefoil is successful in revegetating mining-disturbed lands [17,190], and has shown good potential for growth and survival on amended mine tailings , achieving a 67-100% survival rate [51,52]. Because shrubby cinquefoil readily establishes from nursery grown stock, grows quickly, and provides excellent soil stability, it is well adapted for revegetating disturbed streambank and moist meadow sites [13,61,64,65,66].
OTHER USES AND VALUES:
On northern and western grasslands, shrubby cinquefoil commonly occurs with rough fescue, which may benefit from the protection afforded by shrubby cinquefoil. Rough fescue may experience increased vigor as a result, and on some sites may fail to set seed without the presence of shrubby cinquefoil .
Due to its virtually continuous summer blooming, shrubby cinquefoil is a valuable landscape ornamental [33,37,46,182,189,190], and is recommended for landscaping in deer winter range areas because it is seldom browsed .
The dried leaves of shrubby cinquefoil were commonly used by Native Americans to make tea. Dried leaves were also made into a mixture considered an arrow poison that was thought to go directly to the heart. Dried, finely powdered leaves were believed to protect the body from severe, temporary heat .
OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Canopy cover of shrubby cinquefoil increases in response to moderate grazing, while heavy grazing decreases canopy cover. Shrubby cinquefoil is tolerant to moderate defoliation by grazing but is injured by repeated defoliation, especially when accompanied by drought conditions [13,61,64,65,189,190]. Shrubby cinquefoil may be killed by browsing [20,47] or trampling; in a Wisconsin study, significantly fewer (p<0.05) shrubby cinquefoil plants were found on or near animal trails than in the surrounding vegetation . On study sites in New York, invasion by shrubby cinquefoil corresponds to the cessation of grazing activities .
The spread of continuous stands of shrubby cinquefoil in western grasslands may be associated with excessive grazing [126,148,164,181]. On bighorn sheep range in western Canada, shrubby cinquefoil was positively correlated with total forage utilization and stocking rates but negatively correlated with forage production. The proportion of shrubby cinquefoil in the vegetation increased as forage utilization increased and the stocking rate increased, but the proportion decreased as forage production/ha increased. Study results indicated that in using shrubby cinquefoil as an index to range condition, grasslands containing more than 5% shrubby cinquefoil, and especially those containing more than 10%, were overgrazed . However, another study in fescue grassland of western Canada found no significant difference in shrubby cinquefoil percent cover at different stocking rates, which ranged from low to very high , and other authors report that extensive grazing may substantially decrease the density of shrubby cinquefoil [163,194].
Shrubby cinquefoil may limit forage production on some high elevation grasslands. The density of shrubby cinquefoil has been negatively correlated with forage production , and continuous stands of shrubby cinquefoil in particular may limit production and availability of herbaceous forage .
Effective control of shrubby cinquefoil has been achieved with herbicide treatments of 2,4-D, 2,4-DE/dichlorprop E, and hexazinone. Little regrowth occurred after treatment, and shrubby cinquefoil control resulted in increased forage production and utilization . Picloram is also effective in controlling shrubby cinquefoil, with higher concentrations causing greater mortality .
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Shrubby cinquefoil is native to North America, Asia, and Europe [5,45,189] and is cold tolerant and winter hardy . It is a deciduous, multi-stemmed  and many branched shrub [46,171,182,190] reaching heights of 1 to 6.5 feet (0.3-2 m) [46,92,103,171,182,189,190], but occurring as a cushion plant in alpine areas . Shrubby cinquefoil branches are pubescent in the 1st year, becoming brown and glabrous in the 2nd year [46,103,171]. Bark becomes fibrous on branches in the 2nd and 3rd years [46,92,148,171,189]. Mature plants have both erect and prostrate branches [46,78,189], the latter able to root adventitiously . The growth form of shrubby cinquefoil varies; it occurs as a low mat and as an erect shrub [125,148,190].
Shrubby cinquefoil flowers are terminal, occasionally with solitary flowers but usually with many flowers in close clusters [46,103,171]. Varieties of shrubby cinquefoil from North America are monoecious [45,46]. In pollination experiments, shrubby cinquefoil from North America was found self-incompatible . Shrubby cinquefoil produces a compact head of hairy achenes that may persist in winter months [103,171,189].
Shrubby cinquefoil regenerates from wind-dispersed seed and by sprouting from the root crown [38,46,72,148,189,190]. The number of flowers on each plant varies, so seed production is also variable among individuals . Generally, shrubby cinquefoil produces approximately 50 seeds per flower . Seed undergoes a dormancy period; there is no evidence that frost is required to break dormancy . In laboratory experiments, seed germination rates range from 55% to 82%. Growth is slow and 5 years may be required for full stands to develop .
Though the normal means of reproduction is through seed, shrubby cinquefoil also spreads vegetatively from adventitious rooting of prostrate stems [46,148]. Elkington and Woodell  note that on some sites, particularly those periodically inundated, this type of vegetative reproduction may be highly effective.
Shrubby cinquefoil grows well under greenhouse conditions from both seed and cuttings . It is easily propagated from softwood cuttings, and establishes well from rooted cuttings [42,104]. Shrubby cinquefoil transplants readily from the wild and from bare-root or container nursery stock. Seeding sites must be moist for good establishment; shrubby cinquefoil seedlings are durable and persistent once established [182,189].
Shrubby cinquefoil occupies a wide variety of sites and is distributed from low valleys to mountain peaks [148,182], growing in riparian communities [13,21,27,61,81,113,139,163,182,198], around springs [16,64,65,66,144], wetland sites [13,81,83,115,139], upland sites [6,61,168,194], rock ledges [1,124], and subalpine and alpine sites [8,9,37,122,124]. In Alberta alone, shrubby cinquefoil occurs on low, moist riparian sites, prairies, dry rock ledges, open mountain valleys, and boreal forests where it is confined to swamps and riparian areas [164,190]. In intermountain areas, it is well adapted to wet meadows and subalpine areas . In western Montana, shrubby cinquefoil is likely to occur in mountain stream bottoms; on the east side of the Continental Divide it is more widespread, occurring in large open areas, particularly subalpine meadows [148,178].
Shrubby cinquefoil often occurs as transitional vegetation from wetland sites to drier upland sites [115,199] and from foothills to mountains  in the western part of its range. Though present next to rivers, shrubby cinquefoil may contribute more to shrub cover 65 to 130 feet (20-40 m) from riverbanks .
Shrubby cinquefoil has fair to weakly moderate drought tolerance in the western United States , and has been rated moderate to high drought tolerance in Alberta . Shrubby cinquefoil prefers open sites but will grow under light shade [125,134,182,190]. Though it is moderately shade tolerant, shrubby cinquefoil flowers more abundantly in nearly full sun .
Topography: Shrubby cinquefoil occupies toeslopes, mid-slopes, and upper slopes, as well as old stream terraces of steep-sided valleys [81,113,116,117,131,132]. In the Black Hills of South Dakota, shrubby cinquefoil grows on exposed ridges . Shrubby cinquefoil is also found on gently rolling or sloping topography [16,81,126,168,181], in broad meadows [64,65,66,81,132], and on broad terraces adjacent to streams [13,16,64,65,66,132,149]. It grows on slopes ranging from 1-20% [113,132].
Elevation: Shrubby cinquefoil grows in the subarctic zone of northern Canada , occurring from 4760 to 5413 feet (1450-1650 m) in the Yukon Territory . It grows up to at least 4920 feet (1500 m) in Alaska . In the Rocky Mountain States, shrubby cinquefoil's distribution ranges from the prairie and foothills to the alpine regions. In Montana, it grows from 2820 to 9500 feet (859-2895 m) [6,13,64,65,66,103,119,126,128,134,139]; in Idaho, from 4820 to12000 feet (1469-3658 m) [26,61,81,124]; in Wyoming from 6500 to 8600 feet (1981-2621 m) ; in Utah, from 6000 to 10000 feet (1828-3048 m) ; in Colorado, from 9000 to 11000 feet (2743-3353 m) . In New Mexico, it is common in the alpine zone above 11,500 feet (3505 m) . In Nevada, shrubby cinquefoil grows in the subalpine zone, 8500-8800 feet (2591-2682 m) .
Soils: Shrubby cinquefoil grows on depositional substrates including alluvial, morainal, glaciofluvial, and colluvial [26,76,81,116,132,144]. Parent materials vary  and include limestone, sandstone, granite, and basalt [16,26,84,107,126,145]. Soils may be poorly to well-drained; shrubby cinquefoil is tolerant of wet conditions and flooding, and calcareous substrates [1,26,120,127,150,190].
In the western part of its range, shrubby cinquefoil is found on a wide range of soil classes , from clay, fine loam, sandy loam, and loamy skeletal soils [16,26,61,64,65,66,113,132,133,169,190,199] to coarse textured soils [144,177,182,190,198]. It grows well on most textural classes, except dense clay and loose sand . Soils supporting shrubby cinquefoil are moderately deep [26,117,126,181] to very deep [181,199], often with humus layers . Confining rock layers may be present beneath the soil . Shrubby cinquefoil occurs on xerophytic sites [1,133] and on mesic sites [29,105,124,125,168,177,181] with moderate to high estimated water holding capacity that dry out early in the growing season [113,132,199]. In Idaho, shrubby cinquefoil occurs in calcareous fens, phreatophytic woodlands, and spring-fed meadows .
In the eastern part of its range, shrubby cinquefoil is found primarily on moist lowland forest sites , occurring on dry or wet sites of river banks, lakeshores, fens and marshes [80,82,84,156,157,171]. It occurs on sandy, rocky, and gravelly soils including sand dunes and rock ledges [30,130,171], and on poorly drained soils, occurring in mesotrophic and eutrophic fens [49,154]. Fen sites are often calcareous [20,44,162] with a pH of 5.5-8.0 . Shrubby cinquefoil dominates peatland vegetation in Indiana where pH is 6.9 . Shrubby cinquefoil may dominate the vegetation around calcareous seeps in Illinois where soil is maintained in a saturated condition . In New York, shrubby cinquefoil often occurs on moist marl beds . In Michigan grasslands, shrubby cinquefoil increases in abundance at the lower end of drainage gradients and may dominate vegetation on associated wetland sites .
Shrubby cinquefoil is tolerant of weakly saline and moderately acid to moderately basic soils; it is often found on calcareous sites [6,16,19,49,141,144,145,169,177,179,189]. Shrubby cinquefoil is tolerant of poor soil , and it has been found on depleted, unproductive sites .
Shrubby cinquefoil occurs as both a dominant species and a minor understory species in a variety of vegetation types, and occurs in both early and late seral stages. Shrubby cinquefoil occurs on forest edges and in openings created by disturbance . It colonizes disturbed sites [84,95,145] and may be vigorous due to reduced competition from canopy species . Shrubby cinquefoil occurs as a dominant in vegetation on dry, disturbed sites in Alaska . Shrubby cinquefoil is common in both slowly and rapidly progressing successional vegetation of riparian areas, and persists through the successional stages . Shrubby cinquefoil may occur as part of climax or subclimax vegetation on seral floodplains in Wyoming . In Alaskan taiga vegetation, shrubby cinquefoil occurs on surfaces disturbed annually by flooding, ice scouring and sediment deposition/erosion. On these sites, shrubby cinquefoil forms a dense shrub layer with russet buffaloberry, prickly rose, willow, and white spruce and balsam poplar saplings . The presence of shrubby cinquefoil in big sagebrush/Sandberg bluegrass communities in Wyoming may indicate an unstable plant community, seral to a subalpine climax forest .
Shrubby cinquefoil may be an indicator of climax vegetation on moderately moist Montana grassland and shrub foothill communities east of the Continental Divide . It is a major shrub component on undisturbed sites in fescue grassland . In the shrubby cinquefoil/tufted hairgrass habitat type, canopy cover of shrubby cinquefoil averages 20-29% [13,61,66], and may form pure stands with more than 7500 plants per acre on sites in Montana . In western Wyoming, stands of shrubby cinquefoil/tufted hairgrass may be mid-seral, while stands of shrubby cinquefoil/Idaho fescue are relatively stable .
In North America, shrubby cinquefoil resumes growth in early spring to early summer [172,189]. Shrubby cinquefoil flowers from late May to late September [56,171,189]. The main flowering of shrubby cinquefoil occurs in July on older growth and in August on current year growth . Seed maturation occurs in late summer to early fall [171,189].
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS:
Shrubby cinquefoil is susceptible to damage by fire [7,14,15,98,128,189]; however, if the root crown remains undamaged individual plants readily resprout [13,14,15,64,65,92,126,128,131,181,189]. Shrubby cinquefoil also re-establishes from off-site seed sources [46,189].
The fibrous bark of shrubby cinquefoil results in very flashing, high intensity fuel [92,148]. The high density of shrubby cinquefoil growing in pure stands (up to 7,500 plants/acre or 18,750 plants/ha) may increase fire spread and intensity; when growing in conjunction with shrubby cinquefoil, bunchgrasses may contribute to shrubby cinquefoil's flammability .
Fire reutrn intervals for plant communities and ecosystems in which shrubby cinquefoil occurs are summarized below. Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".
|Community or Ecosystem||Dominant Species||Fire Return Interval Range (years)|
|sagebrush steppe||Artemisia tridentata/Pseudoroegneria spicata||20-70 |
|basin big sagebrush||A. t. var. tridentata||12-43 |
|mountain big sagebrush||A. t. var. vaseyana||20-60 [4,18]|
|Wyoming big sagebrush||A. t. var. wyomingensis||10-70 (40**) [186,197]|
|plains grasslands||Bouteloua spp.||< 35|
|mountain-mahogany-Gambel oak scrub||Cercocarpus ledifolius-Quercus gambelii||< 35 to < 100|
|California steppe||Festuca-Danthonia spp.||< 35|
|western juniper||Juniperus occidentalis||20-70|
|Rocky Mountain juniper||J. scopulorum||< 35|
|tamarack||Larix laricina||35-200 |
|western larch||L. occidentalis||25-100 |
|Great Lakes spruce-fir||Picea-Abies spp.||35 to > 200|
|northeastern spruce-fir||Picea-Abies spp.||35-200 |
|Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir||P. engelmannii-A. lasiocarpa||35 to > 200 |
|black spruce||P. mariana||35-200|
|conifer bog*||P. m.-L. laricina||35-200 |
|blue spruce*||P. pungens||35-200 |
|pinyon-juniper||Pinus-Juniperus spp.||< 35 |
|whitebark pine*||P. albicaulis||50-200 |
|jack pine||P. banksiana||<35 to 200 |
|Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine*||P. contorta var. latifolia||25-300+ [2,3,155]|
|Sierra lodgepole pine*||P. c. var. murrayana||35-200|
|western white pine*||P. monticola||50-200|
|Pacific ponderosa pine*||P. ponderosa var. ponderosa||1-47|
|Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine*||P. p. var. scopulorum||2-10|
|Arizona pine||P. p. var. arizonica||2-10 |
|red-white-jack pine*||P. resinosa-P. strobus-P. banksiana||10-300 [43,71]|
|aspen-birch||Populus tremuloides-Betula papyrifera||35-200 [43,188]|
|quaking aspen (west of the Great Plains)||P. tremuloides||7-120 [3,60,118]|
|mountain grasslands||Pseudoroegneria spicata||3-40 (10**) [2,3]|
|Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir*||Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca||25-100 |
|coastal Douglas-fir*||P. m. var. menziesii||40-240 [3,123,153]|
|California mixed evergreen||P. m. var. m.-Lithocarpus densiflorus-Arbutus menziesii||< 35 |
|northeastern oak-pine||Quercus-Pinus spp.||10 to < 35|
|white oak-black oak-northern red oak||Q. alba-Q. velutina-Q. rubra||< 35|
|northern red oak||Q. rubra||10 to < 35|
|black oak||Q. velutina||< 35 |
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT:
Shrubby cinquefoil is susceptible to fire top-kill [7,14,15,98,128,189], but may survive low- to moderate-severity fires [14,15,189] and resprout vigorously . Fischer and Clayton  found shrubby cinquefoil susceptible to fire in eastern Montana, and Kessell and Potter  found that even a low-intensity fire removed shrubby cinquefoil from Douglas-fir/common snowberry habitat types in Montana.
Research suggests that spring burns are less damaging to shrubby cinquefoil and cause less mortality than do summer or fall burns .
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT:
Though spring burns are reported to be less damaging, research results are conflicting. A spring burn in central Montana resulted in little mortality of shrubby cinquefoil because most plants readily resprouted . Wet or saturated soil moisture levels on these sites were high enough to prevent damage to the root crown. Nimir and Payne  found higher rates of mortality and little resprouting on another spring burn in Montana; shrubby cinquefoil was clearly damaged by fire on these sites.
PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE:
Following fire, shrubby cinquefoil readily resprouts from the surviving root crown [13,14,15,64,65,92,126,128,131,181,189]. When the root crown is damaged by fire, re-establishment occurs from off-site seed . If resprouting occurs, recovery of shrubby cinquefoil is relatively rapid, but seedling growth is slower and full stand development may take up to 5 years .
FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Due to the ability of shrubby cinquefoil to readily resprout, burning to reduce shrubby cinquefoil density is normally ineffective [13,61,64,66,148]. Percent cover of shrubby cinquefoil remained at preburn levels in response to a relatively "cool" prescribed burn in Maine [156,157]. However, burning in sagebrush vegetation in southwestern Montana significantly reduced (p<0.01) basal cover of shrubby cinquefoil , and percent cover has also been reduced by fire in Illinois fens .
The fibrous, highly flammable bark of shrubby cinquefoil may result in high intensity prescribed burns in stands of shrubby cinquefoil. In one study in central Montana, defoliation of overstory conifers was common due to high intensity burning of shrubby cinquefoil in the understory, resulting in 90% mortality of trees .
On one southwestern Montana site, browsing of shrubby cinquefoil after prescribed burning was substantially greater than browsing prior to burning .
For more information about fire effects and management considerations of shrubby cinquefoil, see the "Fire Case Studies" section of this FEIS summary.
FIRE CASE STUDY CITATION:
Tirmenstein, D., compiler. 1987. Shrubby cinquefoil response to prescribed burning in light, flashy fuels of Blacktail Hills, Montana. In: Dasiphora floribunda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [ ].
Keown, L. D. 1977. Interim report: Black Tail Hills Prescribed Fire Project: implementation and results. Great Falls, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Lewis and Clark National Forest. 9 p. .
This prescribed fire was conducted in the Blacktail Hills near Stanford, Montana.
PREFIRE VEGETATIVE COMMUNITY:
The burn units in this study included sites that were grass- or shrub-dominated, as well as ecotonal areas where forest communities intermixed with grass or shrub communities. The general vegetative composition of these units was:
1) shrub dominated
2) shrubs and scattered limber pine (Pinus flexilis)
3) shrub dominated
4) shrub/forest ecotone
5) grass/forest ecotone
6) grass and scattered limber pine; bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) well represented
Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), limber pine, and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) occurred on most units, and one quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) was present on one burn unit. Common shrubs included shrubby cinquefoil (Dasiphora floribunda), bearberry, gooseberry and currant (Ribes spp.), Wood's rose (Rosa woodsii), russet buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis), comon snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), and creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis). Burn units also had unspecified bunchgrasses and forbs.
Nearly pure stands of shrubby cinquefoil occurring in the shrub-dominated vegetation grew 1 to 3 feet (0.3-1 m) tall and reached densities of 7,500 plants/acre (18,750 plants/ha).
The grazing history of these units was not fully documented, varying between sites and within individual sites. One shrub dominated site was noted as heavily grazed.
TARGET SPECIES PHENOLOGICAL STATE:
The phenological state of shrubby cinquefoil was not specified, but plants were probably experiencing current season growth and beginning to flower.
The overall topography of the area was gentle. Some relatively flat units were bordered by a slope on one side.
Air temperature: 55 to 65 oFahrenheit (13-18 oC)
Relative humidity: 20 to 40%
Wind: calm to 25 mph
Fuel moisture: 7%
Soil moisture: wet or saturated
Snow cover: present in parts of some units
Fuels were classified as "Model C", with herbaceous vegetation as the primary carrier of fire, or "Model D", with most fuels 1 inch (2.5 cm) or less in diameter. Fuels varied according to the vegetative composition of each unit. All of the burn units had light, flashy fuels mixed with trees, shrubs, or slash. Douglas-fir and limber pine had basal limbs which extended to the ground and were very flammable. These trees burned at "fairly high" intensities. With its fibrous bark, shrubby cinquefoil also constituted a high-intensity, flashy fuel. Fuel volumes determined for two of the burn units were as follows:
|Type of unit:||Fuel volume:|
|2) shrub with scattered limber pine||4,170 lbs/acre|
|4) shrub/forest ecotone||3,177 lbs/acre|
This prescribed burn was conducted during the spring. Two methods of firing were used in this prescribed burn, strip-head and backing. The strip-head method was intended to achieve a rapid rate of spread with maximum scorch height and minimum soil heating, and was found to be preferable to the backing method. The backing method was slow and worked poorly, producing irregular burn patterns and going out easily.
Fire in the grass-dominated unit was characterized by a rapid rate of spread. In places, patches of bearberry inhibited the rate of spread and created a mosaic of burned and unburned vegetation. On many ungrazed sites, a "ladder effect" was noted, which resulted in severe defoliation of trees as fire moved upward from the tall grass to the lower tree branches. In grazed areas, fuels were reduced and trees were less seriously damaged.
A rate of spread ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 feet (0.2-0.5 m) per second was typical in the shrub-dominated units. Flame heights of 4 feet (1.2 m) were common. Flame depths at maximum rates of spread were 30 to 40 feet (9-12 m). Shrubby cinquefoil, with its fibrous bark, was largely responsible for heightened fire intensity in these shrub communities. Defoliation of scattered trees on these shrub units was common, resulting in up to 90% mortality of these trees.
Highest severity fires with the lowest rates of spread occurred in the ecotonal areas. Crowning was common at the forest-shrub boundary. Pruning of the lower 50% of the crown was more typical where shrubs were absent.
FIRE EFFECTS ON TARGET SPECIES:
This spring burn caused little shrubby cinquefoil mortality. Soil moisture was high enough to prevent heat from penetrating to the root crown, and shrubby cinquefoil commonly resprouted. However, canopy coverage of shrubby cinquefoil was reduced by an average of 75%.
Preburn percent coverage of shrubby cinquefoil averaged 26%, decreasing to 12% after fire.
FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS:
Domestic cattle and deer were observed feeding preferentially in burned areas. Cattle use of shrubby cinquefoil was estimated at 24% of available plants. In the following winter, snow depths on burned plots were generally much lower than on similar unburned areas, possibly due to shorter and smaller crowns of shrubby cinquefoil in the burned areas. Elk and deer utilized these burned areas to a greater degree due to relative ease of movement and an increase in available food.
FIRE CASE STUDY CITATION:
Tirmenstein, D., compiler. 1987. Prescribed burning of shrubby cinquefoil on mountain range of the Gallatin National Forest. In: Dasiphora floribunda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [ ].
The burn site was located in southwestern Montana on the Taylor Fork of the Gallatin River, immediately southwest of the junction of Taylor Fork and Wapiti Creek.
PREFIRE VEGETATIVE COMMUNITY:
Dominant shrubs on the site included big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), silver sagebrush (Artemisia cana), and shrubby cinquefoil (Dasiphora floribunda). Onespike danthonia (Danthonia unispicata) was the dominant grass, occurring with Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis), slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus), alpine bluegrass (Poa alpina), green needlegrass (Nassella viridula), and sedges (Carex spp.). Common forbs on the site included slender cinquefoil (Potentilla gracilis), old man's whiskers (Geum triflorum), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), sticky geranium (Geranium viscosissimum), lava aster (Ionactis alpina), velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus), rose pussytoes (Antennaria rosea), Virginia strawberry (Fragaria viginiana), false dandelion (Agoseris glauca), western yarrow (Achillea millefolium), tufted phlox (Phlox caespitosa), and forget-me-not (Myosotis sylvatica).
TARGET SPECIES PHENOLOGICAL STATE:
The phenological state of shrubby cinquefoil was not specified, but plants were probably beginning to flower.
Elevation: 6,900 feet (2,105 m)
Topography: gently sloping to the east
The soils on the burn site were well-drained, with 6 inches (15 cm) of very dark brown loam surface layer, a grayish brown blocky structured clay loam subsoil, and a calcareous loam substratum resting on partially weathered sandstone.
Average annual precipitation on the site is 16 to 20 inches (400-500 mm), mostly occurring in the form of snow. During the summer, the monthly average maximum temperatures range between 60 and 80 oFahrenheit (15-27 oC), while the monthly average minimum temperatures range between 26 and 39 oFahrenheit (-3-4 oC).
Maximum temperatures at soil surface: 347 to 401 oFahrenheit (175-205 oC)
Maximum temperatures at 0.4 inches (1 cm) depth: 149 to 176 oFahrenheit (65-80 oC)
The prescribed burn was conducted on May 30, 1973, with approximately 140 acres (56 ha) burned. The burn was patchy with some areas completely burned, others partially burned, and still others unburned. Fire consumed most of the available mulch (2.8 g/dm2). Small localized areas within the burn site were "severely burned".
FIRE EFFECTS ON TARGET SPECIES:
Shrubby cinquefoil was reduced significantly (p<0.01) by this burn, decreasing in basal cover from 0.65 dm2/20 dm2 to 0.15 dm2/20 dm2. Though damaged by fire, shrubby cinquefoil experienced some resprouting.
FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS:
FIRE CASE STUDY CITATION:
Anderson, M., compiler. 2001. Prescribed burning of shrubby cinquefoil stands in the Little Belt Mountains, Montana. In: Dasiphora floribunda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [ ].
Redfern, Samuel P. 1984. The effects of burning on the mortality and vigor of shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa) in central Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 28 p. M.S. thesis. .
The two prescribed burn sites were located in the Wolf Creek drainage in the Little Belt Mountains of central Montana, south of Stanford, Montana.
PREFIRE VEGETATIVE COMMUNITY:
The site was located in the rough fescue (Festuca altaica) phase of the limber pine (Pinus flexilis)/Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis) habitat type. Shrubby cinquefoil (Dasiphora floribunda) was the dominant plant species on the site. Common grasses included Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratense), Idaho fescue, rough fescue, and timber oatgrass (Danthonia intermedia). Forbs included pussytoes (Antennaria spp.), western yarrow (Achillea millefolium), old man's whiskers (Geum triflorum), and chickweed (Cerastium arvense).
TARGET SPECIES PHENOLOGICAL STATE:
Summer treatment: flowering complete, few flowers remaining, seeds not yet formed
Fall treatment: leaves shed, plants dormant
Spring treatment: buds unbroken, no swelling occurring
Site 1 has an elevation of 5413 feet (1650 m), 5% slope, and a northwest exposure. Site 2 has an elevation of 5413 feet (1650 m), 10% slope, and a northeast exposure.
Annual precipitation on both sites is 20.5 inches (520 mm) per year. Soils are a well-drained stony clay loam with a strongly calcareous subsoil and fair to good moisture-holding capacity.
Both sites have been grazed by livestock and were burned approximately 7 years prior to this study.
Site 1 had fine fuel loads (grasses) of 700 kg/ha and shrubby cinquefoil fuel loads of 2150 kg/ha.
Site 2 had fine fuel loads of 800 kg/ha and shrubby cinquefoil fuel loads of 2300 kg/ha.
The prescription called for a minimum consumption of 75% of the shrubby cinquefoil to a stub height of 3 to 4.3 inches (8-11 cm). Target flame lengths were 23.6 to 70.9 inches (60-180 cm) and target fireline intensity was 14-240 Kcal/m/second.
The following table lists average burning conditions for each treatment on the 2 sites:
|Spring (April 1984)||Summer (August 1983)||Fall (October 1983)|
|Soil moisture (%)||15||17||10|
|Vegetation moisture (%)|
|10 hour fuel sticks||6||6||12|
|Relative humidity (%)||30||25||1|
|Wind speed (km/hr)||14||8-11||8-11|
|Time of day (p.m.)||2-4||5-6||1-2|
|Average flame length (inches)||39.4-59||23.6|
|Average rate of spread (m/min.)||13||4|
Summer treatment; August 16, 1983: The summer burn was less intense because fuel moistures were high, resulting in flame lengths less than 23.6 inches (60 cm), low rates of spread, and patchy burning.
Fall treatment; October 8, 1983: Though not as intense as desired, the fall burn was more intense than the summer burn and was within the prescription.
Spring treatment; April 16, 1984: Flame lengths in the spring burn reached 59 inches (150 cm). Very dry conditions and the resulting low fine fuel moisture contributed to high fire spreads and good fuel consumption.
FIRE EFFECTS ON TARGET SPECIES:
In response to burning, there was an almost complete lack of shrubby cinquefoil mortality. Essentially all burned plants studied, regardless of the season of burning or the amount of plant consumed by the fire, sprouted from the root crown after burning.
Vigor of shrubby cinquefoil plants was measured as a function of the number, length, and weight of spouts on sampled plants. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) between the two sites for the mean number of sprouts or the mean total length of sprouts. However, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) for the mean total weight of the sprouts between sites. Site 2, with its northeast aspect, was a slightly moister and therefore more productive site than site 1. The control plots (no treatment) had significantly lower (p<0.05) vigor than the treated plots, but there was no significant difference in the vigor measurements between treatments. Plants in the control did not actively resprout, while plants in the burned plots resprouted with equal vigor regardless of the season of burning. A nonsignificant trend suggested that the summer-treated plants were the least vigorous of the treated plants.
FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS:
Vigor of resprouting shrubby cinquefoil following burning treatments indicates it is a species suited to surviving fire. Due to this response, burning may not be a viable practice for the control of shrubby cinquefoil.
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