Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Chimaphila menziesii


Introductory

SPECIES: Chimaphila menziesii
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Chimaphila menziesii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : CHIMEN SYNONYMS : Pyrola menziesii R. Br. ex D. Don [17,24,40] SCS PLANT CODE : CHME COMMON NAMES : little prince's-pine little prince's pine TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of little prince's-pine is Chimaphila menziesii (R. Br.) Sprengel [17,22,24,40]. There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms. Little prince's-pine is closely related to prince's-pine (C. umbellata) but is smaller in stature [14,33]. LIFE FORM : Shrub, Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Chimaphila menziesii
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Little prince's-pine is distributed from British Columbia south to the San Jacinto Mountains in southern California and east to Idaho, Montana, and Utah [16,17,22,24,25,40]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES22 Western white pine FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES24 Hemlock - Sitka spruce FRES25 Larch FRES26 Lodgepole pine FRES27 Redwood STATES : CA ID MT NV OR UT WA BC BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 3 Southern Pacific Border 4 Sierra Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K001 Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest K002 Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest K003 Silver fir - Douglas-fir forest K004 Fir - hemlock forest K005 Mixed conifer forest K006 Redwood forest K007 Red fir forest K008 Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest K010 Ponderosa shrub forest K011 Western ponderosa forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K013 Cedar - hemlock - pine forest K014 Grand fir - Douglas-fir forest K015 Western spruce - fir forest SAF COVER TYPES : 205 Mountain hemlock 206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir 207 Red fir 208 Whitebark pine 210 Interior Douglas-fir 211 White fir 212 Western larch 213 Grand fir 215 Western white pine 218 Lodgepole pine 223 Sitka spruce 224 Western hemlock 225 Western hemlock - Sitka spruce 226 Coastal true fir - hemlock 227 Western redcedar - western hemlock 228 Western redcedar 229 Pacific Douglas-fir 230 Douglas-fir - western hemlock 231 Port-Orford-cedar 232 Redwood 234 Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone 237 Interior ponderosa pine 238 Western juniper 243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer 244 Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir 245 Pacific ponderosa pine 247 Jeffrey pine 256 California mixed subalpine SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Little prince's-pine occurs in coniferous forests throughout its range but is not listed as a dominant or codominant understory species in available publications. In addition to tree species already mentioned, little prince's-pine also occurs under noble fir (Abies procera), Washoe pine (Pinus washoensis), sugar pine (P. lambertiana), incense-cedar (Libocedrus decurrens), and Alaska-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) [1,12,15,20,29]. Some species commonly associated with little prince's-pine include Rocky Mountain maple (Acer glabrum), Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia), Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.), currant (Ribes spp.), baldhip rose (Rosa gymnocarpa), huckleberry (Vaccinium spp.), salal (Gaultheria shallon), twinflower (Linnaea borealis), queencup beadlily (Clintonia uniflora), sweet-scented bedstraw (Galium trifolium), threeleaf foamflower (Tiarella trifoliata), oneleaf foamflower (T. unifoliata), starry Solomon-seal (Smilacina stellata), Pacific trillium (Trillium ovatum), violet (Viola spp.), white hawkweed (Hieracium albiflorum), whitevein shinleaf (Pyrola picta), sidebells shinleaf (P. secunda), western rattlesnake plantain (Goodyera oblongifolia), American trailplant (Adenocaulon bicolor), and Ross' sedge (Carex rossii) [5,23,27,37,38].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Chimaphila menziesii
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : NO-ENTRY PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : In the Vancouver Forest District, British Columbia, little prince's-pine is used as an indicator species in several biogeoclimatic units for which guidelines for site diagnosis, tree species selection, and slash burning have been developed [10].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Chimaphila menziesii
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Little prince's-pine is a native, evergreen, low rhizomatous shrub or perennial forb. The woody stems are usually 2 to 6 inches (5-15 cm) tall and the leathery, whorled leaves are sharply serrate. The plant has one to three flowers. Fruits are depressed, globose capsules that often persist through the winter [17,22,24,40]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Chamaephyte Geophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Little prince's-pine reproduces both sexually and vegetatively. It develops numerous, minute seeds [24]. Their dispersal mechanism has not been documented. Little prince's-pine rhizomes have not been described in the literature. They are probably, however, like those of prince's-pine, confined to the duff near or above the mineral soil surface [36]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Little prince's-pine is found in montane to subalpine coniferous forests [16,17,20,22,26]. In coastal regions of British Columbia little prince's-pine is an indicator of moderately dry to moist soils within maritime to submaritime, cool mesothermal climates [19]. On peaks of the Santa Lucia and Diablo ranges of California, little prince's-pine is confined to steep, rocky slopes above 4,000 feet (1,200 m) [11]. On the Mount Hood and Willamette National Forests, it occurs on moist to wet, imperfectly to well-drained sites at elevations from 2,700 to 6,100 feet (800-1,850 m). Soils range from deep sandy, silty, or clay loams developed from volcanic tephra to shallow, stony loams developed from colluvium or glacial till [15]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Little prince's-pine is present in all stages of succession [4,5,18,30]. It is shade tolerant [10,19] and is an indicator of low light levels in some plant associations of the southern Oregon Cascade Mountain Province [2]. It occurs in the late stages of postfire succession in white fir (Abies concolor) stands of the northern Sierra Nevada, probably in response to low light levels [4]. In mixed conifer stands in the Siskiyou Mountains of southwestern Oregon, little prince's-pine develops highest cover at intermediate light levels [6]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Little prince's-pine flowers from June to August in California [24].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Chimaphila menziesii
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Since little prince's-pine is similar to prince's-pine, it probably is a fire-sensitive species that is very susceptible to damage and usually shows a strong decline following fire [32,34,36]. Survival is most likely dependent on depth of rhizomes, fire severity, and consumption of duff [8,31,36]. Postfire vegetative recovery probably depends primarily on scattered individuals surviving in undisturbed microsites [13]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Rhizomatous low woody plant, rhizome in organic mantle Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Chimaphila menziesii
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Most little prince's-pine is probably killed by fire, although low-severity fire may only top-kill it. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Woodard [41] stated that little prince's-pine is known to grow from deep rhizomes or to sprout following fire. He found that it was absent, however, 1 year after a prescribed crown fire in an old stand dominated by Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) in eastern Washington. It was still present in the unburned control [41]. No other information was found regarding specific responses of little prince's-pine to fire. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Little prince's-pine was not present on burned or unburned clearcut sites in grand fir (Abies grandis)/pachistima (Pachistima myrsinites) habitat types in Oregon. It was present, however, in 175-year-old, unlogged, adjacent stands [5]. In the same habitat type in Idaho, prince's-pine was present in 70 percent of near-climax control stands but only 10 percent of 1-year-old clearcut and burned stands. It was also absent from 3, 8, 12, and 23-year-old clearcut and burned stands [42].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Chimaphila menziesii
REFERENCES : 1. Aller, Alvin R. 1956. A taxonomic and ecological study of the flora of Monument Peak, Oregon. American Midland Naturalist. 56(2): 454-472. [6385] 2. Atzet, Thomas; McCrimmon, Lisa A. 1990. Preliminary plant associations of the southern Oregon Cascade Mountain Province. Grants Pass, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siskiyou National Forest. 330 p. [12977] 3. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 4. Conard, S. G.; Radosevich, S. R. 1982. Post-fire succession in white fir (Abies concolor) vegetation of the northern Sierra Nevada. Madrono. 29(1): 42-56. [4931] 5. Edgerton, Paul J. 1987. Influence of ungulates on the development of the shrub understory of an upper slope mixed conifer forest. In: Provenza, Frederick D.; Flinders, Jerran T.; McArthur, E. Durant, compilers. Proceedings--symposium on plant-herbivore interactions; 1985 August 7-9; Snowbird, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-222. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 162-167. [7411] 6. Emmingham, W. H. 1972. Conifer growth and plant distribution under different light environments in the Siskiyou Mountains of southwestern Oregon. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 50 p. Thesis. [9651] 7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 8. Fischer, William C.; Bradley, Anne F. 1987. Fire ecology of western Montana forest habitat types. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-223. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 95 p. [633] 9. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 10. Green, R. N.; Courtin, P. J.; Klinka, K.; [and others]. 1984. Site diagnosis, tree species selection, and slashburning guidelines for the Vancouver Forest Region. Land Management Handbook Number 8. Abridged version. Burnaby, BC: Ministry of Forests, Vancouver Forest Region. 143 p. [9475] 11. Griffin, James R. 1975. Plants of the highest Santa Lucia and Diablo Range peaks, California. Res. Pap. PSW-110. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 50 p. [22108] 12. Griffin, James R. 1978. The Marble-Cone fire ten months later. Fremontia. 6: 8-14. [19081] 13. Halpern, C. B. 1989. Early successional patterns of forest species: interactions of life history traits and disturbance. Ecology. 70(3): 704-720. [6829] 14. Halverson, Nancy M., compiler. 1986. Major indicator shrubs and herbs on National Forests of western Oregon and southwestern Washington. R6-TM-229. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 180 p. [3233] 15. Hemstrom, Miles A.; Emmingham, W. H.; Halverson, Nancy M.; [and others]. 1982. Plant association and management guide for the Pacific silver fir zone, Mt. Hood and Willamette National Forests. R6-Ecol 100-1982a. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 104 p. [5784] 16. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992] 17. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168] 18. Ingersoll, Cheryl A.; Wilson, Mark V. 1990. Buried propagules in an old-growth forest and their response to experimental disturbances. Canadian Journal of Botany. 68: 1156-1162. [11767] 19. Klinka, K.; Krajina, V. J.; Ceska, A.; Scagel, A. M. 1989. Indicator plants of coastal British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press. 288 p. [10703] 20. Kricher, John C. 1993. A field guide to the ecology of western forests. The Peterson Field Guide Series No. 45. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. 554 p. [21729] 21. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 22. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798] 23. Long, James N. 1977. Trends in plant species diversity associated with development in a series of Pseudotsuga menziesii/Gaultheria shallon stands. Northwest Science. 51(2): 119-130. [10152] 24. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155] 25. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924] 26. Pase, Charles P. 1982. Sierran montane conifer forest. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 49-51. [8884] 27. Pyke, David A.; Zamora, Benjamin A. 1982. Relationships between overstory structure and understory production in the grand fir/myrtle boxwood habitat type of northcentral Idaho. Journal of Range Management. 35(6): 769-773. [7263] 28. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 29. Riegel, Gregg M.; Thornburgh, Dale A.; Sawyer, John O. 1990. Forest habitat types of the South Warner Mountains, Modoc County, California. Madrono. 37(2): 88-112. [11466] 30. Ruggiero, Leonard F.; Jones, Lawrence L. C.; Aubry, Keith B. 1991. Plant and animal habitat associations in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest: an overview. In: Ruggiero, Leonard F.; Aubry, Keith B.; Carey, Andrew B.; Huff, Mark H., technical coordinators. Wildlife and vegetation of unmanaged Douglas-fir forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 447-462. [17334] 31. Shearer, Raymond C.; Stickney, Peter F. 1991. Natural revegetation of burned and unburned clearcuts in western larch forests of northwest Montana. In: Nodvin, Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the environment: ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-69. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 66-74. [16635] 32. Spies, Thomas A. 1991. Plant species diversity and occurrence in young, mature, and old-growth Douglas-fir stands in western Oregon and Washington. In: Ruggiero, Leonard F.; Aubry, Keith B.; Carey, Andrew B.; Huff, Mark H., technical coordinators. Wildlife and vegetation of unmanaged Douglas-fir forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 111-121. [17309] 33. Standley, Lisa A.; Kim, Sarah S. -H.; Hjersted, Ingrid M. 1988. Reproductive biology of two sympatric species of Chimaphila. Rhodora. 90(863): 233-244. [22263] 34. Stickney, Peter F. 1986. First decade plant succession following the Sundance Forest Fire, northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-197. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 26 p. [2255] 35. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 36. Stickney, Peter F. 1991. Effects of fire on flora: Northern Rocky Mountain forest plants. Unpublished paper on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Missoula, MT: 10 p. [21628] 37. Strickler, Gerald S.; Edgerton, Paul J. 1976. Emergent seedlings from coniferous litter and soil in eastern Oregon. Ecology. 57: 801-807. [2039] 38. Taylor, Alan H.; Halpern, Charles B. 1991. The structure and dynamics of Abies magnifica forests in the southern Cascade Range, USA. Journal of Vegetation Science. 2(2): 189-200. [15768] 39. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 40. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944] 41. Woodard, Paul Michael. 1977. Effects of prescribed burning on two different-aged high-elevation plant communities in eastern Washington. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. 228 p. Dissertation. [5350] 42. Zamora, Benjamin Abel. 1975. Secondary succession on broadcast-burned clearcuts of the Abies grandis - Pachistima myrsinites habitat type in northcentral Idaho. Pullman, WA: Washington State University. 127 p. Dissertation. [5154]


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