Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Ceratiola ericoides


Introductory

SPECIES: Ceratiola ericoides
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ceratiola ericoides. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : CERERI SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : CEER3 COMMON NAMES : rosemary TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for rosemary is Ceratiola ericoides Michx. [11]. There are no subspecies, varieties, or forms. Rosemary is a monotypic genus placed with two other genera (Empetrum and Corema) in the Empetraceae or Crowberry family, which is closely related to Ericaceae [14]. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Ceratiola ericoides
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Rosemary is distributed along the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains from southeastern South Carolina to the Escambia River in the Florida Panhandle. Continuous populations exist in northern and central Florida. Discontinous populations occur in the coastal counties of Georgia and Mississippi [3,5,28]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress STATES : FL GA MS SC BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K089 Black Belt K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest K113 Southern floodplain forest K115 Sand pine scrub SAF COVER TYPES : 69 Sand pine 71 Longleaf pine - scrub oak 74 Cabbage palmetto 80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine 83 Longleaf pine - slash pine 89 Live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : In addition to overstory associates mentioned above, common associates include loblolly-bay (Gordonia lasianthus), myrtle oak (Quercus myrtifolia), sand live oak (Q. virginiana var. geminata), chapman oak (Q. chapmanii), hickory (Carya spp.), and red bay (Persea borbonia). Shrub species found with rosemary include rusty lyonia (Lyonia ferruginea), yaupon (Ilex vomitoria), gallberry (I. glabra), fetterbush (L. lucida), saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), cabbage palmetto (Sabal palmetto), and wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera) [5,6,8].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Ceratiola ericoides
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Lesser scaup and occasionally black bear eat the fruit of rosemary [12,28]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : Rosemary stands provide nesting sites for the northern cardinal, yellow-rumped warbler, gray catbird, common yellow throat, mourning dove, and the federally threatened Florida scrub jay [4,29]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : In the Florida scrub, rosemary does not present any management problems because it does not compete or hinder the growth of pines (Pinus spp.) or evergreen scrub oaks (Quercus spp.) [25]. The seeds of rosemary are attacked primarily by fungi and insects [14].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Ceratiola ericoides
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Rosemary is a native, evergreen, dioecious, needle-leaved shrub that grows to about 8 feet (2.5 m) tall. It has bushy branches and a distinct, erect form. The slender stems are straight, and the small leaves are alternate or whorled on the twigs. The buds are at the stem tips. The very small sessile flowers are borne along the twigs at the base of the leaf axils. The fruit is a juicy yellow drupe containing two seeds [2,7,22]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Rosemary is a prolific seed producer; the literature suggests that regeneration from seed is its only mode of reproduction. Seed production begins at 15 to 20 years, peaks at 25 to 30 years, and then declines. The seed is dispersed by several species of birds; it passes through their digestive tracts unharmed. Many seeds are lost to mice and insect predation [21,22,28]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Rosemary commonly occurs in scrub oak woods, dry open pinelands, and stable dunes in the southeastern United States. It grows on well-drained to excessively drained, infertile, acid to strongly acid sandy soils of the order Entisols. The soils are made of quartz sands, white to grayish with very little clay, silt of humus mixture, and no horizon development. Rosemary often forms pure stands on the slightly higher elevations which are surrounded by scrubby flatwoods [3,6,24]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Obligate Initial Community Species Rosemary is a pioneer species. When there is a disturbance from a tree falling, a road, or a fire, rosemary seedlings appear. As the site matures, the oaks and palmettos begin to shade out rosemary [3,14]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Rosemary flowers from early spring to early summer. The fruit ripens in the late summer and the seed is dispersed in the late fall [8,28].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Ceratiola ericoides
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Fire-stimulated germination of seed is rosemary's only known fire survival mechanism, since it does not reproduce vegetatively. It is adapted to a fire cycle of not less than 10 years and no more than 40 years. Fire intervals of less than 10 years would deplete the seed bank. Fire intervals of longer than 40 years would selectively favor plants that produce large seed crops when past the age of 40 years [14,18,20]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Shrub without adventitious-bud root crown Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Ceratiola ericoides
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Rosemary is readily killed by fire [13,14]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Rosemary seeds germinate in response to fire [1,26]. Johnson [15] reported that rosemary biomass increases slowly from postfire years 2 to 4, rapidly from postfire years 4 to 10, and less rapidly from postfire years 10 to 34. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Burning dune scrub at intervals shorter than 15 to 20 years prevents rosemary shrub from reaching reproductive maturity [16].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Ceratiola ericoides
REFERENCES : 1. Abrahamson, Warren G. 1984. Species response to fire on the Florida Lake Wales Ridge. American Journal of Botany. 71(1): 35-43. [9608] 2. Austin, Daniel F. 1976. Florida scrub. Florida Naturalist. 49(4): 2-5. [2900] 3. Austin, Daniel F.; Posin, Freda R.; Burch, James N. 1987. Scrub species patterns on the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, Florida. Journal of Coastal Research. 3(4): 491-498. [9340] 4. Breininger, D. R.; Schmalzer, P. A. 1990. Effects of fire and disturbance on plants and birds in Florida oak/ palmetto scrub community. American Midland Naturalist. 123(1): 64-74. [9875] 5. Brendemuehl, R. H. 1990. Pinus clausa (Chapm. ex Engelm.) Vasey ex Sarg. sand pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 294-301. [13392] 6. Craighead, Frank C., Sr. 1971. The trees of south Florida. Vol. 1. The natural environments and their succession. Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press. 212 p. [17802] 7. Davis, John H., Jr. 1943. The natural features of southern Florida especially the vegetation, and the Everglades. Geological Bull. No. 25. Tallahassee, FL: State of Florida, Department of Conservation, Florida Geological Survey. 311 p. [17747] 8. Zobel, Donald B. 1990. Effects of low temperature, seed source, and seed age on germination of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research. 20: 1053-1059. [12096] 9. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 10. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 11. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239] 12. Harlow, Richard F. 1961. Characteristics and status of Florida black bear. Transactions, 26th North American Wildlife Conference. 26: 481-495. [15402] 13. Hartnett, David C.; Richardson, Donald R. 1989. Population biology of Bonamia grandiflora (Convolvulaceae): Effects of fire on plant and seed bank dynamics. American Journal of Botany. 76(3): 361-369. [9647] 14. Johnson, Ann F. 1982. Some demographic characterisitcs of the Florida rosemary Ceratiola ericoides Michx. American Midland Naturalist. 108(1): 170-174. [19142] 15. Johnson, Ann F.; Abrahamson, Warren G.; McCrea, Kenneth D. 1986. Compar. of biomass recovery after fire of a seeder (Ceratiola ericoides) and a sprouter (Quercus inopina) species from south-central Florida. American Midland Naturalist. 116(2): 423-428. [10217] 16. Johnson, Ann F.; Barbour, Michael G. 1990. Dunes and maritime forests. In: Myers, Ronald L.; Ewel, John J., eds. Ecosystems of Florida. Orlando, FL: University of Central Florida Press: 430-480. [17394] 17. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 18. Laessle, Albert M. 1958. The origin and successional relationship of sandhill vegetation and sand-pine scrub. Ecological Monographs. 28(4): 361-387. [9780] 19. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 20. Mulvania, M. 1931. Ecological survey of a Florida scrub. Ecology. 12(3): 528-540. [9992] 21. Myers, Ronald L. 1985. Fire and the dynamic relationship between Florida sandhill and sand pine scrub vegetation. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 112(3): 241-252. [11606] 22. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606] 23. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 24. Richardson, Donald Robert. 1977. Vegetation of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge of Palm Beach County, Florida. Florida Scientist. 40(4): 281-330. [9644] 25. Richardson, D. R.; Williamson, G. B. 1988. Allelopathic effects of shrubs of the sand pine scrub on pines and grasses of the Sandhills. Forest Science. 34(3): 592-605. [5427] 26. Cress, William A. 1982. The effect of varied watering regimes on proline production in Atriplex canescens, Hilaria jamesii, and Agropyron smithii. In: Aldon, Earl F.; Oaks, Wendall R., eds. Reclamation of mined lands in the Southwest: a symposium; 1982 October 20-22; Albuquerque, NM. Albuquerque, NM: Soil Conservation Society of America--New Mexico Chapter: 165-169. [711] 27. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 28. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240] 29. Woolfenden, Glen E. 1973. Nesting and survival in a population of Florida scrub jays. Living Bird. 12: 25-49. [16723]


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