Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Callicarpa americana


Introductory

SPECIES: Callicarpa americana
Robert H. Mohlenbrock [28] AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Callicarpa americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [].

ABBREVIATION : CALAME SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : CAAM2 COMMON NAMES : American beautyberry Spanish-mulberry French-mulberry Bermuda-mulberry sour-berry sow-berry TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for American beautyberry is Callicarpa americana L. [9]. There are two recognized varieties: var. americana and var. lactea F.J. Mull. [12]. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Callicarpa americana
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : American beautyberry is widely distributed throughout the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains, from Virginia to Florida and west to Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. It also occurs in the West Indies [9,30]. It is cultivated in Hawaii [37]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress STATES : AL FL GA HI LA MS NC SC TX VA BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K090 Live oak - sea oats K091 Cypress savanna K100 Oak - hickory forest K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest K113 Southern floodplain forest K114 Pocosin SAF COVER TYPES : 70 Longleaf pine 75 Shortleaf pine 76 Shortleaf pine -oak 78 Virginia pine - oak 79 Virginia pine 80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine 81 Loblolly pine 82 Loblolly pine - hardwood 83 Longleaf pine - slash pine 85 Slash pine - hardwood 87 Sweetgum - yellow poplar 91 Swamp chestnut oak - cherrybark oak 98 Pond pine 100 Pond cypress 101 Baldcypress 102 Baldcypress - tupelo 103 Water tupelo - swamp tupelo 104 Sweetbay - swamp tupelo - redbay SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Common overstory associates of American beautyberry include sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), sweetbay (Persea borbonia), flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora), hickory (Carya spp.), and oak (Quercus spp.). Understory associates include sweet pepperbush (Clethra alnifolia), southern bayberry (Myrica cerifera), hurrahbush (Lyonia lucida), greenbrier (Smilax spp.), and fetterbush (Leucothoe racemosa) [18,24,33,34].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Callicarpa americana
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : The seeds of American beautyberry are an important food source for birds and small mammals. At least 10 species of birds feed on the fruit, especially northern bobwhite. The fruit is also eaten by raccoon, opossum, and gray fox [30]. American beautyberry is considered one of the most desirable spring and summer browse of white-tailed deer [1,10]. Cattle occasionally browse on the leaves of American beautyberry [17]. PALATABILITY : American beautyberry is highly palatable to white-tailed deer [26]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Seasonal percent nutrient values for American beautyberry is as follows [26]: April September November protein leaves twigs leaves twigs leaves twigs 21.21 15.36 9.68 4.52 - 4.29 calcium leaves twigs leaves twigs leaves twigs 0.534 0.598 1.287 0.703 - 0.582 phosphorus leaves twigs leaves twigs leaves twigs 0.24 0.26 0.09 0.05 - 0.07 COVER VALUE : American beautyberry provides environmental protection for a variety of birds and small mammals along the coastal plains of the southeastern United States [5,22]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : American beautyberry is one of the most prevalent woody competitors of pines in southeastern United States [2]. A combination of tebuthiuron application and burning is an effective management practice for controlling American beautyberry [21].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Callicarpa americana
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : American beautyberry is a large deciduous, bushy shrub. It is prostrate to erect and reaches heights of 3 to 12 feet (1.0-3.5 m). The slender stems are arched and the large leaves are opposite, with the smaller leaves at the end of the twigs. The short tubular flowers are borne along the twigs at the base of the leaf axils. The fruit is a berrylike drupe containing four small nutlets [6,19,29]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : American beautyberry is a prolific seed producer, and the literature suggests that regeneration from seed is its primary mode of reproduction [22,23]. The seed is dispersed by birds [25,29]. It also regenerates vegetatively by sprouting, although details have not been described. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : American beautyberry grows on a variety of sites in the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains of the southeastern United States. It is mostly restricted to climates with mild winters and long, hot, humid summers. It grows best in clay or loamy soil but will also grow on sandy sites [6,27,29,32]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : American beautyberry is a moderately shade intolerant, early- to mid-seral species [3,38]. In the longleaf pine/bluestem (Pinus palustris/Andropogon spp.) range in the Big Thicket region of eastern Texas, American beautyberry was an early invader of openings created by disturbance [31]. It was the only understory shrub present 19 years after timber harvest in a southern Arkansas pine-oak forest (density=546 plants/ha). Its density declined with succession, lowering to 28 plants/ha at postharvest year 75 [38]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : American beautyberry flowers between June and July; the fruit ripens from August to November [30].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Callicarpa americana
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : American beautyberry probably survives fire by sprouting from the root collar. However, its primary mode of regeneration after fire is through a seedbank [4,15]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community) Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Callicarpa americana
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Severe fires can kill American beautyberry by completely removing soil organic layers and charring the roots [11]. Low-severity fires only top-kill plants. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : American beautyberry increases the first growing season following fire [14]. However, density will decline as the faster growing trees and shrubs overtop it [15]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Twelve years of annual burning eliminated American beautyberry on a Louisiana longleaf pine site [11].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Callicarpa americana
REFERENCES : 1. Blair, Robert M. 1960. Deer forage increased by thinnings in a Louisiana loblolly pine plantation. Journal of Wildlife Management. 24(4): 401-405. [16891] 2. Cain, Michael D.; Barnett, James P. 1991. Three-year field comparison of natural loblolly pine regeneration with improved container stock. In: Coleman, Sandra S.; Neary, Daniel G., compilers. Proceedings, 6th biennial southern silvicultural research conference: Volume 1; 1990 October 30 - November 1; Memphis, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-70.. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 38-46. [17460] 3. Daubenmire, Rexford. 1990. The Magnolia grandiflora-Quercus virginiana forest of Florida. American Midland Naturalist. 123: 331-347. [10871] 4. Dickson, James G. 1981. Effects of forest burning on songbirds. In: Wood, Gene W., ed. Prescribed fire and wildlife in southern forests: Proceedings of a symposium; 1981 April 6-8; Myrtle Beach, SC. Georgetown, SC: Clemson University, Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute: 67-72. [14811] 5. Dickson, James G.; Williamson, J. Howard. 1988. Small mammals in streamside management zones in pine plantations. In: Szaro, Robert C.; Severson, Kieth E.; Patton, David R., technical coordinators. Management of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals in North America: Proceedings of the symposium; 1988 July 19-21; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-166. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 375-378. [7125] 6. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 409 p. [12906] 7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 8. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 9. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239] 10. Goodrum, Phil D.; Reid, Vincent H. 1958. Deer browsing in the longleaf pine belt. In: Proceedings, 58th annual meeting of the Society of American Foresters; [Date of meeting unknown]; [Place of meeeting unknown]. Washington, DC: [Society of American Foresters]: 139-143. [17023] 11. Grelen, Harold E. 1975. Vegetative response to twelve years of seasonal burning on a Louisiana longleaf pine site. Res. Note SO-192. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 4 p. [13842] 12. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954] 13. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 14. Landers, J. Larry. 1987. Prescribed burning for managing wildlife in southeastern pine forests. In: Dickson, James G.; Maughan, O. Eugene, eds. Managing southern forests for wildlife and fish: a proceedings; [Date of conference unknown]; [Location of conference unknown]. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-65. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 19-27. [11562] 15. Magee, Dennis W. 1981. Freshwater wetlands: A guide to common indicator plants of the Northeast. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. 245 p. [14824] 16. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 17. Pearson, H. A.; Whitaker, L. B. 1974. Yearlong grazing of slash pine ranges: effects on herbage and browse. Journal of Range Management. 27(3): 195-197. [16232] 18. Quarterman, Elsie; Keever, Catherine. 1962. Southern mixed hardwood forest: climax in the southeastern coastal plain, U.S.A. Ecological Monographs. 32: 167-185. [10801] 19. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606] 20. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 21. Scifres, Charles J. 1987. Economic assessment of tebuthiuron-fire systems for brush management. Weed Technology. 1: 22-28. [3911] 22. Shrauder, Paul A.; Miller, Howard A. 1969. On deer food and cover. In: White-tailed deer in the southern forest habitat: Proceedings of a symposium; [Date unknown]; [Location unknown]. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: 1-16. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, ForestService, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [17173] 23. Silker, T. H. 1961. Prescribed burning to control undesirable hardwoods in southern pine stands. Bulletin No. 51. Kirbyville, TX: Texas Forest Service. 44 p. [16898] 24. Smeins, Fred E., Hinton, Johnny Z. 1987. Vegetation of the loblolly-shortleaf pine-hardwood type, Angelina National Forest, Texas. In: Pearson, Henry A.; Smeins, Fred E.; Thill, Ronald E, compilers. Ecological, physical, and socioeconomic relationships within southern National Forests; 1987 May 26 - May 27; Long Beach, MS. General Technical Report SO-68. New Orleans, LA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 31-38. [10174] 25. Stransky, J. J.; Halls, L. K.; Nixon, E. S. 1976. Plants following timber harvest: importance to songbirds. Texas Forestry Pap. No. 28. Nacogdoches, TX: Stephen F. Austin State University, School of Forestry. 13 p. [15292] 26. Stransky, John J.; Halls, Lowell R. 1978. Browse quality affected by pine site preparation in east Texas. Proceedings, Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. 30: 507-512. [14647] 27. Streng, D. R.; Harcombe, P. A. 1982. Why don't east Texas savannas grow up to forest?. American Midland Naturalist. 108(2): 278-294. [10120] 28. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 29. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240] 30. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707] 31. Watson, Geraldine E. 1986. Influence of fire on the longleaf pine - bluestem range in the Big Thicket region. In: Kulhavy, D. L.; Conner, R. N., eds. Wilderness and natural areas in the eastern United States: a management challenge. Nacogdoches, TX: Stephen F. Austin University: 181-185. [10334] 32. Wigley, T. Bently; Willett, R. Larry; Garner, Michael E.; Baker, James B. 1989. Wildlife habitat quality in varying mixtures of pine and hardwood. In: Waldrop, Thomas A., ed. Proceedings of pine-hardwood mixtures: a symposium on management and ecology of the type; 1989 April 18-19; Atlanta, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-58. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeast Forest Experiment Station: 131-136. [10269] 33. Wilson, Robert E. 1989. The vegetation of a pine-oak forest in Franklin County, Texas, and its comparison with a similar forest in Lamar County, Texas. Texas Journal of Science. 41(2): 167-176. [8771] 34. Wright, A. H.; Wright, A. A. 1932. The habitats and composition of the vegetation of Okefinokee Swamp, Georgia. Ecological Monographs. 2(2): 109-232. [17130] 35. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 36. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 37. St. John, Harold. 1973. List and summary of the flowering plants in the Hawaiian islands. Hong Kong: Cathay Press Limited. 519 p. [25354] 38.  Cain, Michael D.; Shelton Michael G. 1995. Thirty-eight years of autogenic, woody understory dynamics in a mature temperate pine-oak forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 25: 1997-2009. [26164]


FEIS Home Page